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Embedding Transformational Leadership In Practice

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Title: Embedding Transformational Leadership In Practice


1
Embedding Transformational Leadership In Practice
  • Caroline Patterson
  • Special Adviser, Organisational Development,
  • Gateshead Council

2
Purpose
  • Talk about Transformational Leadership (TF)
  • What it is, what it really means
  • Why its so important
  • Practical things weve done to embed it and 360
    degree appraisal in various organisations
  • Some of the lessons learned along the way
  • Also here to learn from your experience

3
Style
  • Need to briefly recap the theory, but well do
    that quickly
  • Debunk some of the myths
  • Challenge what you believe to be true
  • Build in some activities around factors to
    consider when embedding TF/using 360
  • Handouts and questionnaires to take away

4
Why Im Here
  • Met Professor Beverly Alimo-Metcalfe
  • in 1999
  • Programme Director IDeA Modern Managers Programme
  • She conducted the biggest study ever on
    leadership in the public sector
  • Worked together since then developing and
    embedding leadership cultures in various
    organisations
  • National research- MBA Hull, Members 360

5
Why Do We Need Leadership?
Quick Recap.
6
Importance of Leadership
  • Vision, direction and focus real skill is
    aligning people to it
  • Clear goals, dont know where you are going you
    are unlikely to get there
  • Team spirit.
  • Managers managing is important
  • Transformational Leadership has the biggest
    impact on morale, motivation, stress, job
    satisfaction, productivity and performance

7
Importance of Leadership
  • Poor leadership costs in terms of
    stress related absence, and has enormous cost in
    terms of individual health and psychological well
    being
  • Increased focus on leadership development and
    assessment in our Corporate Performance
    Assessment
  • Leadership is the single biggest factor that
    drives change and organisational improvement LG
    White Paper

8
Direct Relationship Between Leadership,
Motivation, Stress and Performance
9
3 Variables That Affect Performance
  • Performance
  • A Ability and competence
  • M Motivation
  • R Resources

10
Motivation Over Time
PERF
motivation
competence
40-50 effective
TIME
11
Leadership is about saying How can I interact
with people to improve their performance, give
them just enough stretch to keep them motivated
and help them realise their potential?
12
Whats The Biggest Cause Of Stress In The
Workplace?
13
Climate Studies 50s to 90s
  • 60-75 of people said that in any organisation,
    the most stressful aspect of their work was their
    immediate boss!

14
Controlling Styles
Managers with controlling styles who fail to
clarify roles and responsibilities, who exert
undue pressure have working groups with higher
levels of stress and tension
15
Climate Studies- Main Causes Of Stress
  • Unclear roles and responsibilities
  • Lack of autonomy
  • Lack of social support

16
Levels Of Arousal
Unacceptable level
Perf.
Acceptable level of stress
17
Stress is Infectious!
We leak!!!!
  • Average correlation within the same working
    groups
  • .92

18
Leadership Development
  • is both a financial and moral imperative.
  • Stress is increasing in
  • organisations at a phenomenal
  • rate
  • Cost of stress is also increasing
  • (in terms of absence as well as performance)

19
The Search for the Holy Grail
  • What makes a good leader?

20
Leadership Research The Old Paradigm
  • 1930s-50s Great Man Approach
  • Traits Approach
  • 1960s The Behavioural Approach
  • 1970s Situational/Contingency
    Approach

21
1960s Behaviour/Style Approaches
one best style
Levels of Freedom
Levels of Control
Tannenbaum Schmidt
22
Blanchard-Situational Leadership
PARTICIPATE
SELL
DELEGATE
TELL
FOLLOWER MATURITY HIGH LOW
23
The New Paradigms of Leadership
24
Changing Paradigms of Leadership
  • Seismic shift in thinking in the 70s
  • Old models only suitable for stable environments
  • Research conducted with first line supervisors
  • Need to engage with CExs with experience of
    managing strategic and complex change
  • Existing research not particularly valid- all
    self rating

25
The Myths of Leadership
  • Its rare
  • Its found mainly at the top
  • Its about being super-human
  • You can only do it if you are male!
  • (Well save that one for another time)

26
Research on Charisma
  • Early research- charismatic leaders were the star
    performers
  • Utter rubbish -completely discredited
  • You were perceived to be charismatic if you were
    evangelistic, expressive, waived your arms about,
    had blue eyes, were extrovert rather than
    introvert
  • Leadership is about being quietly effective

27
Unrealistic Job Ads
Knight in shining armour required to charge in on
their white horse and save the organisation from
ruin- Mere mortals need not apply!
28
Whats the Difference Between Leadership and
Management?
Another paradigm shift-leadership no longer
viewed as a subset of management.
29
Kotters Comparison of Management Leadership
  • Transactional Leadership
  • (Management)
  • Creating Planning
    Budgeting
  • Agendas
  • Developing HR

  • Organising Staffing
  • Execution Controlling
    Problem- solving
  • Outcomes Produces a degree of
    predictability order
  • Transformational Leadership
  • (Leadership)
  • Establishing Direction
  • Aligning People
  • Motivating Inspiring
  • Produces change - often to a
    dramatic degree

30
Leadership Versus Management
Management is about coping with complexity,
provides stability, order and consistency - Is
transactional - Promotes the status quo
31
Leadership Versus Management
Leadership is having vision, a clear sense of
direction and aligning people to it, helping
people cope with change -Promotes
transformation and drives change
32
Leadership Versus Management
  • Management is about doing things right
  • Leadership is about doing the right thing
  • We need to develop both
  • But where did the terms transactional
  • and transformational come from?..

33
Transactional versus Transformational
  • Transactional - negotiation exchange or
    bargaining
  • Transformational - a vision that things would be
    different or better

George McGregor Burns
34
1980s Basss Model of Transformational
Leadership
  • Idealised Influence (Vision)
  • Inspirational Motivation (Charisma)
  • Intellectual Stimulation
  • Individualised Consideration

35
Vision
  • Vision is the dream that invents the future
  • Developing a shared vision
  • Direction, aligning people
  • Painting pictures
  • Make people believe its achievable

36
Be a Good Conductor
The task is to get the orchestra working to
deliver the music in your head. Its a three
stage operation- hear the music, get it over to
the orchestra get them to give it to the
audience Leonard Bernstein
37
Redefining Charisma
  • Quietly effective
  • Positive role models others look up to and want
    to follow
  • Encourage people to give more of themselves, go
    the extra mile
  • Can be positive or negative
  • Beware the pseudo-charismatics

38
Pseudo- Charismatics
  • Often do well at interview
  • All gloss and no substance
  • Highly visible
  • Good at self promotion/taking credit for the work
    of others
  • Dont deliver results
  • Can generate compliance cultures

39
Zero correlation between charisma and
performance, strong correlation between charisma
and pay!
Potentially Worrying !!
40
Intellectual Stimulation
  • Encourage people to question the way things are
    done and are not defensive
  • Take a collaborative approach to problem solving
  • Intelligent and use a range of behaviours-adjust
    pitch and style according to whom they are
    dealing with, gain credibility quickly

41
Individualised Consideration
  • Genuine concern for others and their welfare
  • Communicate positive expectations of people
  • Treat them with dignity and respect
  • Not interested in status and hierarchy- treat
    everyone as equals
  • Value diversity and difference
  • Are you ok?

42
Does The Soft and Fluffy Stuff Really Work?
  • Research has shown that
  • Transformational Leadership has a significantly
    greater impact than Transactional Leadership on a
    variety of subjective and objective outcome
    measures, including
  • job satisfaction, motivation, and performance of
    followers
  • lower levels of stress burnout amongst staff
  • more collaborative, innovative, harmonious teams
  • financial performance of organisations
  • performance in public sector organisations
  • Source Bass, B.M. Avolio, B.J., (1996)
    Postscripts Recent Developments for Improving
    Organisational Effectiveness, Sage

43
The Importance Of Balance
Its about being transactional in a
transformational way
44
Managers Managing Is Also Important
Appraisal
Clarifying roles and expectations
Competency Framework
Managing poor performance
Constitution
Delegations
Structures
Training on key skills
Decision making
Training on personnel policies and procedures
Reward/sanction
45
Why Conduct Further Research?
  • Most leadership research was from the US
  • Based on commercial military organisations
  • Focus was typically on male white top managers
    who were self rating
  • Gender race bias

46
How Was The Research Conducted?
Interviews with 150 male and female managers, LG
and NHS using Rep Grid
  • Think about leaders you have known
  • 2 outstanding, 2 average, 2 poor
  • Write their initials on a card
  • Shuffle cards and pick out 2
  • To what extent are they similar but different
    from the rest?
  • Elicit and group constructs

47
New Model of Transformational Leadership (1)
  • (1) Leading others
  • Genuine concern for others
  • Enabling
  • Being accessible, available,
  • Encourages change

48
New Model of Transformational Leadership (2)
  • (2) Personal Qualities
  • Honest and consistent
  • Acting With Integrity
  • Being Decisive
  • Inspiring Others
  • Resolving Complex problems

49
New Model of Transformational Leadership (3)
  • (3) Organisational Skills
  • Political sensitivity and skills
  • Networker, promoter, communicator
  • Manages change sensitively and skilfully

50
3 Types of Handout In your Pack
  • How TF am I/Are We?

51
US Versus The UK Model
  • US models focus on charisma and vision, the
    leader as a role model
  • UK public sector model leadership is about
    engaging with partners, developing a shared
    vision and engagement
  • Genuine concern fourth for Bass, top of the LG
    scale
  • Ability to communicate positive expectations and
    develop good networks is really important

52
Transformational Leaders
  • Are outward looking
  • Drive change in organisations and make things
    happen
  • Clear sense of direction and focus
  • Develop a shared vision and bring people along
    with them
  • Communicate positive expectations
  • Accessible, approachable, are honest consistent
    and act with integrity
  • Motivate and empower employees, help them cope
    with change

53
The Relationship Between Leadership and Self
Awareness
Leadership and self awareness are inextricably
linked- to be a leader you first need to know
yourself Robert Greenleaf
54
Leadership is connecting what I do to who I am
to those I serve You are not a leader if no-one
is following you!!!
55
Problems with Traditional Appraisal
BOSS
LINE MANAGER
TEAM LEADER
56
360 Is a Great Tool for Developing SAw
  • Multiple perspectives on your leadership style
  • Encourages a culture of openness and feedback
  • Studies have shown it improves all aspects of TF
    ( if development needs are addressed)
  • Performance improvement is sustained for at least
    two years

57
Particularly As..
  • Direct reports are the best predictors of
    performance
  • Over and above assessment centres for the first
    seven years
  • We all have blind-spots
  • Everybody sees me differently but me!

58
UK Model, Based on a 360 Approach
59
Activity
  • How transformational is your organisation?
  • How do you know?
  • Are you doing enough to develop TF, if not what
    practical things do you need to do?
  • (Think specifically about the implications for
    recruitment, A and D, competency frameworks,
    development/ succession planning etc)?
  • What practical things would you need to consider
    prior to implementing 360?

60
Lessons Learned
  • Embedding Transformational Leadership

61
Embedding Leadership Cultures in Organisations
  • Leadership culture are 2 sides of same
    coin-you cant change one without the other

Schein
62
The Culture Behaviour Cycle
Culture
Influences
Reinforces
Behaviour
63
Focus At An Organisational and An Individual
Level..
64
(No Transcript)
65
Embedding TF-Research
  • Clear statement about which leadership and
    management skills the organisation values
  • Core competency framework which assesses
    management (the what) and TF leadership (the how)
  • Dont run out-dated re-cycled management
    development programmes
  • Assess the right behaviours when you recruit or
    promote (handout refers)
  • Send a clear message-you only get on here if you
    do x!!!

66
Challenge The Unwritten Rules
Explore the contradictions
67
Some Examples
  • We want a high performance culture but reward
    loyalty/length of service
  • We want to reward TF but Job Evaluation rewards
    the task/ we dont look for TF in recruitment
  • We are committed to equalities but few women make
    it to the top
  • We want to focus less on hierarchy and more on
    empowerment- but only senior managers can present
    to members
  • Hull research-no contradictions in excellent
    organisations

68
Other Lessons Learned
  • Never under-estimate the effort it takes to embed
    this down to grass roots-change agents can help
  • Have a clear communications strategy that tackles
    the soggy sponge
  • Then do some mystery shopping to find out whether
    employees at different levels know what TF is,
    what they can expect in terms of their managers
    and leaders?
  • Training is just the beginning-the days of just
    running a conference and expecting it to happen
    are over!!!
  • Focus on tangible results.

69
Other Lessons Learned..
  • Managers at all levels need to work with their
    teams and identify practical things they will do
    to to engender TF in their team/service and
    enhance their own style
  • Publicise quick wins (articles, certificates,
    recognition etc)
  • Its not just about training
  • Recruitment and succession planning are key
    (recruitment fact-sheet refers)

70
Other Lessons Learned
  • Dont forget to bring your policies into line-
    reward, recognition, bullying and harassment,
    managing poor performance
  • This is also about how we do business- the how we
    go about projects is as important as delivering
    to time

71
Dont Forget The Importance Of Balance
Its about being transactional in a
transformational way
72
  • Individual as well as organisational behaviour
    contribute to culture.

73
Embedding a Culture of Transformational Leadership
  • Commitment from CEx and senior managers is vital
  • Studies show there are three major blocks to TF
    in organisations
  • Senior managers
  • Senior managers and
  • Senior managers!!!
  • and they are crucial in terms of role modelling
  • the right behaviours

Bass, B.M. Avolio, B. J. (1993)
Transformational leadership organizational
culture. Public Administration Quarterly, 17,
112-121.
74
Essentially, Culture Management is Message
Management
Culture is created and sustained through the
messages people receive about how to behave.
Carolyn Taylor, Walk the Talk
75
Managers Are Carriers Of Culture
  • Send important messages about what s
    acceptable and what isnt through the way they
    lead,manage and interact with others
  • Whether they are open to feedback and
    suggestions
  • By what they choose to reward, how fair they
    are in this process
  • Whether they deal with inappropriate
    behaviour, and how well they tackle it
  • We must invest in their development

76
Quick Levers to Pull In Terms of Culture Change
77
Can Leadership Really be Developed?
  • It depends..
  • On the attitude of the individual
  • Preparedness to accept others views as valid
  • Whether they are open to feedback
  • Quality of feedback
  • The organisations commitment to reinforcing
  • what is important- supporting development-
    whats the sanction if people dont change?

78
Lessons Learned
  • Embedding 360 Degree Appraisal

79
Critical Success Factors
  • Be clear about why you are using it
  • Is the organisation ready?
  • Ethics/confidentiality agreement- the person owns
    the data
  • 360 should be used primarily for development
    purposes rather than performance assessment (360
    should not be linked to performance pay)

80
Critical Success Factors
  • Supplements rather than replaces A and D
  • Chose a valid, reliable instrument which reflects
    your strategic aims
  • Cost and complexity can be a problem
  • Pilot-light small fires
  • Start at the top
  • Develop feedback skills first

81
Get People To Admit There Is a Problem!!!
  • When was the last time you asked for feedback
    about your personal style?
  • How frank were the conversations?
  • Do you know how your team would describe your
    style, your strengths, what you bring?
  • Do you know what they want you to stop doing/ do
    differently?
  • Is there two way or one way feedback in A and D?

82
Critical Success Factors
  • Clear advice on choosing raters
  • Brief raters on TF- they need to understand what
    they are assessing
  • More detailed briefings may be required for
    instruments which also assess competence
  • Online briefings
  • Credible qualified facilitator
  • Prioritised Personal Development Plans with no
    more than three key objectives
  • Get commitment to resourcing development needs

83
Embedding Transformational Leadership In Practice
  • A Question to close..
  • Can an organisation be transformational or is it
    the people that make it?
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