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Resolving Conflicts With Others

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Chapter 8 Resolving Conflicts With Others THE MEANING OF CONFLICT A conflict is a situation in which two or more goals, or events are incompatible or mutually exclusive. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Resolving Conflicts With Others


1
Chapter 8
  • Resolving Conflicts With Others

2
THE MEANING OF CONFLICT
  • A conflict is a situation in which two or more
    goals, or events are incompatible or mutually
    exclusive. (You are forced to make a choice.)
  • A conflict is also a strife, quarrel, or battle.
  • Being able to resolve conflict constructively is
    a major life skill.

3
SOURCES OF INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS
  • Competition for limited resources.
  • Role conflict (competing demands and
    expectations)
  • Competing work and family demands
  • Personality clashes
  • Aggressive personalities, including bullies
  • Incivility and rudeness

4
WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT
  • Balancing the demands of career and family life
    is a major role conflict.
  • A persons work can interfere with family
    responsibilities, creating stress.
  • A persons family responsibilities can interfere
    with work, creating stress.
  • Equitable time-off policies can minimize
    work-family conflict.

5
CONFLICT-MANAGEMENT STYLES
  • Competitive Style Win at expense of other party,
    or dominate.
  • Accommodative Style Satisfying others concern
    rather than ones own.
  • Sharing Style Moderate, incomplete satisfaction
    for both (compromise)
  • Collaborative Style Fully satisfy desire of both
    sides (win-win).
  • Avoidant Style Indifference to both sides.

6
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7
COLLABORATIVE (WIN-WIN) CONFLICT RESOLUTION
  • Both sides should gain something of value, so
    mutual gain is achieved.
  • Relationships between the parties are built on
    and improved.
  • Collaboration is key when both sides must be
    committed to the solution.
  • Finding win-win solutions is a major
    conflict-resolution skill.

8
GUIDELINES AND TECHNIQUES FOR RESOLVING CONFLICTS
  • Confrontation and problem solving (confront the
    real issue, then solve the problem)
  • Constructive handling of criticism
  • Reframing through cognitive restructuring and
    asking questions
  • Use negotiating and bargaining (make a deal with
    the other side)

9
CONFRONTATION AND PROBLEM SOLVING FOR RESOLVING
CONFLICT
  • Takes a problem-solving approach and identifies
    reasons for the conflict.
  • Helps people feel responsible for soundest
    answer.
  • Confrontation can proceed gently to preserve
    relationship.
  • Bring closure by shaking hands and saying Thank
    you.

10
CONSTRUCTIVE HANDLING OF CRITICISM AND CONFLICT
RESOLUTION
  • See yourself at a distance (be a detached
    observer).
  • Ask for clarification and specifics.
  • Decide on a response.
  • Look for a pattern in terms of other criticism.
  • Disarm the opposition (agree with criticizer).

11
REFRAMING FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION
  • Reframing means looking at the criticism in a
    different light.
  • Reframe through cognitive restructuring by
    viewing negative elements more positively. (I
    sure learned from the F.)
  • Reframe by asking questions, such as Have I
    missed something important?)

12
SEVEN INDICATORS OF NEGOTIATING SKILL
  • Enjoys settling differences of opinion.
  • Generally willing to compromise.
  • Thinks well under pressure.
  • Tactful and diplomatic.
  • Believes most things are negotiable.
  • Prepares in advance for negotiation.
  • Believes in satisfying both sides.

13
NEGOTIATING AND BARGAINING TECHNIQUES
  • Understand the other partys perspective.
  • Focus on interests, not positions. (Heres what
    I really need.)
  • Compromise. (Lets meet halfway.)
  • Begin with a plausible demand or offer, yet allow
    room for negotiation. (How about 15 below your
    asking price?)

14
NEGOTIATING AND BARGAINING TECHNIQUES, continued
  • Make small concessions gradually. (If you buy
    today, you get free delivery.)
  • Know your best alternative to a negotiated
    agreement (BATNA).
  • Use anger to your advantage.
  • Anger can energize you.
  • Other side might submit rather than receive more
    of your anger.

15
SEXUAL HARASSMENT A SPECIAL TYPE OF CONFLICT
  • The two types of sexual harassment are quid pro
    quo (person loses out because of refusal to grant
    sexual favor) and hostile environment harassment
    (e.g. sexually suggestive comments).
  • Sexual harassment is also seen as power abuse.
  • Studies indicate that 24 of women have
    experienced sexual harassment.

16
STUDIES OF CONSEQUENCES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT
  • Decreases in (a) satisfaction with coworkers,
    supervisor, work, overall satisfaction, (b)
    commitment to company, (c) productivity, (d)
    mental health, and (e) physical health.
  • Increases in job withdrawal, work withdrawal, and
    post traumatic stress disorder.

17
EXAMPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL HARASSMENT
  • Inappropriate remarks and sexual implications.
  • Terms of endearment.
  • Suggestive compliments.
  • Physical touching.
  • Work-related kissing, with cross-cultural
    exceptions.

18
GUIDELINES FOR PREVENTING AND DEALING WITH SEXUAL
HARASSMENT
  • Avoid inappropriate remarks and sexual
    implications.
  • Avoid terms of endearment like sweetie.
  • Avoid suggestive compliments, and know the
    difference between harassment and flirting.
  • Restrict physical touching to handshakes, and
    maybe a sideways hug.
  • Avoid work-related kissing.
  • Keep a running diary of incidents against you.

19
COMPANY ROLE IN DEALING WITH SEXUAL HARASSMENT
  • Create and disseminate policy about sexual
    harassment.
  • Company should have zero tolerance for such
    behavior.
  • Open-door policy is helpful for receiving
    complaints about harassment.
  • Training programs are useful, followed by
    periodic discussions.

20
  • Case Study
  • Rebecca had been working for the past five years
    at a timber mill in the Eastern Oregon town where
    she grew up. It was the highest paying job in
    town, and it seemed that everybody either worked
    at the mill or left town after high school. She
    was in tears one Friday afternoon and about to
    quit her job, though, as she stumbled through the
    parking lot toward her car. Her supervisor,
    Fred, saw her and stopped her.
  • Fred Whats wrong, Rebecca? You look like you
    just lost your best friend.
  • Rebecca I cant stand it anymore here, Fred.
    The guys tease me all day long, tell dirty jokes,
    and today before I left, Clint threw a bucket of
    water on me and said he was having a wet T-shirt
    contest. All the guys laughed! No one even
    tried to stop him! They treat me like dirt!
  • Fred I dont think they mean anything by it,
    Rebecca, I think theyre just having a little
    fun.
  • Rebecca Well, its not fun to me. Its sexual
    harassment, and somebodys going to answer for
    it!
  • Does this qualify as sexual harassment, or is
    Clint just having a little fun?
  • What is Freds responsibility in this situation
    as Rebeccas supervisor?
  • What other steps can Rebecca take in this
    situation to stop Clint and the other mill
    workers from doing things she doesnt like?

21
What Management Can Do to Handle and Prevent
Sexual Harassment
  • Disseminate a policy
  • Create a zero-tolerance environment
  • Have an open-door policy frequent discussion is
    helpful
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