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Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5th Edition Chapter 13 Fire

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Title: Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5th Edition Chapter 13 Fire


1
  • Essentials of Fire Fighting,
  • 5th Edition

Chapter 13 Fire Hose Firefighter I
2
Chapter 13 Lesson Goal
  • After completing this lesson, the student shall
    be able to use, care for, and perform maintenance
    on fire hose, couplings, hose appliances, and
    tools and perform various hose loads and finishes
    according to the authority having jurisdiction
    (AHJ).

3
Specific Objectives
  • 1. Discuss fire hose sizes.
  • 2. Describe types of fire hose damage and
    practices to prevent such damage.
  • 3. Discuss general care and maintenance of fire
    hose.

(Continued)
4
Specific Objectives
  • 4. Distinguish between characteristics of
    threaded couplings and nonthreaded couplings.
  • 5. Discuss care of fire hose couplings.
  • 6. Describe the characteristics of hose
    appliances and tools.

(Continued)
5
Specific Objectives
  • 7. Describe common hose rolls.
  • 8. List general hose loading guidelines.
  • 9. Describe common hose loads.
  • 10. Describe hose load finishes.
  • 11. Discuss preconnected hose loads for attack
    lines.

(Continued)
6
Specific Objectives
  • 12. List guidelines when laying hose.
  • 13. Describe the basic hose lays for supply
    hose.
  • 14. Describe procedures for handling
    preconnected and other hose.

(Continued)
7
Specific Objectives
  • 15. List general safety guidelines that should
    be followed when advancing a hoseline into a
    burning structure.
  • 16. Discuss procedures for advancing hose.
  • 17. Describe techniques for operating hoselines.

(Continued)
8
Specific Objectives
  • 18. Inspect and maintain hose. (Skill Sheet
    13-I-1)
  • 19. Make a straight hose roll. (Skill Sheet
    13-I-2)
  • 20. Make a donut hose roll. (Skill Sheet 13-I-3)

(Continued)
9
Specific Objectives
  • 21. Couple a hose. (Skill Sheet 13-I-4)
  • 22. Uncouple a hose. (Skill Sheet 13-I-5)
  • 23. Make the accordion hose load. (Skill Sheet
    13-I-6)
  • 24. Make the horseshoe hose load. (Skill Sheet
    13-I-7)

(Continued)
10
Specific Objectives
  • 25. Make the flat hose load. (Skill Sheet
    13-I-8)
  • 26. Make the preconnected flat hose load. (Skill
    Sheet 13-I-9)
  • 27. Make the triple layer hose load. (Skill
    Sheet 13-I-10)

(Continued)
11
Specific Objectives
  • 28. Make the minuteman hose load. (Skill Sheet
    13-I-11)
  • 29. Connect to a hydrant using a forward lay.
    (Skill Sheet 13-I-12)
  • 30. Make the reverse hose lay. (Skill Sheet
    13-I-13)

(Continued)
12
Specific Objectives
  • 31. Advance the preconnected flat hose load.
    (Skill Sheet 13-I-14)
  • 32. Advance the minuteman hose load. (Skill
    Sheet 13-I-15)
  • 33. Advance the triple layer hose load. (Skill
    Sheet 13-I-16)

(Continued)
13
Specific Objectives
  • 34. Advance hose Shoulder-load method. (Skill
    Sheet 13-I-17)
  • 35. Advance hose Working line drag method.
    (Skill Sheet 13-I-18)
  • 36. Advance a line into a structure. (Skill
    Sheet 13-I-19)

(Continued)
14
Specific Objectives
  • 37. Advance a line up and down an interior
    stairway. (Skill Sheet 13-I-20)
  • 38. Advance an uncharged line up a ladder into a
    window. (Skill Sheet 13-I-21)

(Continued)
15
Specific Objectives
  • 39. Advance a charged line up a ladder into a
    window. (Skill Sheet 13-I-22)
  • 40. Extend a hoseline. (Skill Sheet 13-I-23)
  • 41. Simulate the procedure for controlling a
    loose hoseline. (Skill Sheet 13-I-24)

(Continued)
16
Specific Objectives
  • 42. Replace a burst hoseline. (Skill Sheet
    13-I-25)
  • 43. Operate a charged attack line from a ladder.
    (Skill Sheet 13-I-26)

17
Fire Hose
  • Produced in different diameters, each for
    specific purposes
  • Size refers to outside diameter
  • Most commonly cut, coupled into pieces of 50 or
    100 feet (15 or 30 m)

(Continued)
18
Fire Hose
19
Intake Hose
  • Used to connect fire department pumper or
    portable pump to water source
  • Two groups
  • Soft intake hose
  • Hard intake hose

20
NFPA Standards
  • NFPA 1961, Standard on Fire Hose, lists
    specifications for fire hose
  • NFPA 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections,
    lists specifications for fire hose couplings and
    screw threads

(Continued)
21
NFPA Standards
  • NFPA 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire
    Apparatus, requires pumpers to carry varying
    sizes/amounts of hose

22
Fire Hose Damage Mechanical
  • Slices, rips, abrasions on coverings
  • Crushed/damaged couplings
  • Cracked inner linings
  • Certain practices prevent damage

23
Fire Hose Damage Thermal
  • Excessive heat/direct flame contact can char,
    melt, weaken outer jacket and dehydrate rubber
    lining
  • Inner linings can be dehydrated when hose hangs
    to dry too long
  • Certain practices prevent damage

24
Fire Hose Damage Organic
  • Rubber-jacket hose not subject to damage caused
    by living organism, but this is a problem on hose
    with woven jacket of natural fiber if stored wet
  • Mildew, mold rot fibers of hose jacket, causing
    hose to rupture under pressure

(Continued)
25
Fire Hose Damage Organic
  • If outer jacket made of synthetic fibers, will
    resist organic damage
  • Outer jacket of some natural-fiber hose has been
    chemically treated to resist mildew, mold not
    always 100 percent effective
  • Certain practices prevent damage

26
Fire Hose Damage Chemical
  • Chemicals, chemical vapors can damage outer
    jacket on hose or cause rubber lining to separate
    from inner jacket
  • When hose exposed to petroleum products, paints,
    acids, alkalis, may be weakened

(Continued)
27
Fire Hose Damage Chemical
  • Runoff water from fire may carry foreign
    materials that can damage hose
  • Certain practices prevent damage

28
Washing Hose
  • Method depends on type of hose
  • Hard rubber booster hose, hard intake hose,
    rubber-jacket collapsible hose
  • Woven-jacket fire hose

(Continued)
29
Washing Hose
  • When jacket exposed to oil
  • Wash with mild soap/detergent using common scrub
    brush
  • Make sure oil completely removed
  • Thoroughly rinse with clear water

(Continued)
30
Washing Hose
  • Hose washing machines
  • Can make care, maintenance easier
  • Wash almost any size fire hose up to 3 inches (77
    mm)
  • Flow of water into device can be adjusted as
    desired

(Continued)
31
Washing Hose
  • Hose washing machines
  • Movement of water assists in propelling hose
    through device
  • Hoseline that supplies washer with water can be
    connected to pumper or used directly from hydrant
  • Higher water pressure Better results
  • Cabinet-type machine

32
Drying Hose
  • Woven-jacket must be thoroughly dried before
    being reloaded on apparatus
  • Methods depend on type of hose
  • Should be in accordance with SOP, manufacturers
    recommendations
  • Some may be placed on apparatus wet with no ill
    effects

33
Storing Hose
  • After hose has been brushed, washed, dried,
    should be rolled and stored in suitable racks
    unless it is to be placed back on apparatus

(Continued)
34
Storing Hose
  • Hose racks
  • Located in clean, well-ventilated room or close
    to apparatus
  • Can be freestanding on floor or mounted
    permanently on wall
  • If mobile, can be used to store and move hose

35
Threaded Fire Hose Couplings
  • Consist of two major components
  • Male External threads
  • Female Internal threads

(Continued)
36
Threaded Fire Hose Couplings
  • Disadvantage One male, one female necessary to
    make connection unless double-male or
    double-female adapter used

(Continued)
37
Threaded Fire Hose Couplings
  • Intake hose
  • Sometimes equipped with two-piece female hose
    couplings on each end
  • Threaded hose couplings on large intake hose
    equipped with extended lugs providing handles for
    attaching to hydrant outlet/pump intake

(Continued)
38
Threaded Fire Hose Couplings
  • Shank
  • Portion of coupling that serves as point of
    attachment to hose
  • Lugs
  • Aid in tightening, loosening couplings
  • Aid in grasping coupling when making, breaking
    coupling connections
  • Types

(Continued)
39
Threaded Fire Hose Couplings
  • Higbee cut
  • Special type of thread design
  • Tends to eliminate cross-threading
  • One rocker lug on each half of coupling has small
    indentation to mark where Higbee cut begins

40
Storz Couplings
  • Referred to as sexless couplings
  • No distinct male/female components
  • Identical to, may be connected to other Storz
    couplings of same size
  • Designed to be connected/disconnected with
    quarter turn

(Continued)
41
Storz Couplings
  • Have lugs, slots built into swivel rings of each
    coupling for locking
  • Must have locking devices if attached to
    large-diameter hose

42
Rules for Care of Fire Hose Couplings
  • Avoid dropping/dragging
  • Do not permit vehicles to run over hose
  • Inspect couplings when hose washed/dried
  • Remove gasket, twist swivel in warm, soapy water

(Continued)
43
Rules for Care of Fire Hose Couplings
  • Clean threads to remove tar, dirt, gravel, oil
  • Inspect gasket, replace if cracked/creased

44
Cleaning Fire Hose Couplings
  • Hose-washing machines will not clean sufficiently
  • Swivel part should be submerged in warm, soapy
    water and worked forward and backward

(Continued)
45
Cleaning Fire Hose Couplings
  • Male threads should be cleaned with stiff brush
  • Wire brush may be necessary
  • Swivel gasket
  • Expansion-ring gasket

46
Hose Appliances
  • Any piece of hardware used with fire hose to
    deliver water

(Continued)
47
Hose Appliances
  • Valves
  • Control flow of water in hoselines, at hydrants,
    at pumpers
  • Ball valves
  • Gate valves
  • Butterfly valves
  • Clapper valves

(Continued)
48
Hose Appliances
  • Valve devices
  • Allow number of hoselines operating on fire
    ground to be increased/decreased
  • Wye appliances
  • Siamese appliances
  • Water thief appliances
  • Large-diameter hose appliances
  • Hydrant valves

(Continued)
49
Hose Appliances
  • Fittings
  • Connect hose of different diameters, thread types
  • Adapter
  • Reducers
  • Elbows
  • Hose caps
  • Hose plugs

(Continued)
50
Hose Appliances
  • Intake strainers
  • Devices attached to drafting end of hard intake
    to keep debris from entering fire pump
  • Guidelines for use

51
Hose Tools
  • Hose roller
  • Prevents damage to hose that can occur when
    dragged over sharp corners
  • Consists of metal frame with two or more rollers
  • Can be used for protecting rope from similar edges

(Continued)
52
Hose Tools
  • Hose jacket
  • Can be installed on ruptured section of hoseline
    to temporarily close rupture
  • Consists of hinged two-piece metal cylinder
  • Made in two sizes
  • Encloses hose so can operate at full power
  • Can be used to connect hose with mismatched
    couplings

(Continued)
53
Hose Tools
  • Hose clamp
  • Can be used to stop flow of water in hoseline
  • Three types Screw-down, press-down, hydraulic
    press
  • Can injure firefighters/damage hose if applied
    incorrectly
  • Several general rules for use

(Continued)
54
Hose Tools
  • Spanner
  • Used to tighten/loosen couplings
  • May have other built-in features

(Continued)
55
Hose Tools
  • Hydrant wrench
  • Used to remove caps from hydrant outlets, open
    hydrant valves
  • Equipped with pentagonal opening fitting most
    standard hydrant operating nuts
  • May be equipped with spanner

(Continued)
56
Hose Tools
  • Rubber mallet Strike lugs to tighten/loosen
    couplings
  • Hose bridge/ramp
  • Helps prevent damage to hose
  • Should be used where hose laid across street
  • Can be positioned over small spills
  • Can be used as chafing blocks

(Continued)
57
Hose Tools
  • Chafing blocks
  • Used to protect fire hose where subjected to
    rubbing from vibrations
  • Useful where intake hose comes in contact with
    pavement
  • May be wood, leather, old truck tires

(Continued)
58
Hose Tools
  • Hose strap, hose rope, hose chain
  • Used to carry, pull fire hose
  • Provide more secure means to handle pressurized
    hose when applying water

59
Straight Roll
  • Simplest
  • Starts at one end, usually male coupling to
    complete roll hose toward other end
  • When complete, female end exposed and male
    protected in center of roll

(Continued)
60
Straight Roll
  • Used in situations
  • When loaded back on apparatus at fire
  • When returned to quarters for washing
  • When placed in storage
  • Easy loading of minuteman load
  • Methods to indicate need for repair/test

61
Donut Roll
  • Used in situations where hose is likely to be
    deployed for use directly from roll

(Continued)
62
Donut Roll
  • Advantages over straight roll
  • Better control
  • Hose rolls out easier
  • Facilitates connecting to other couplings
  • Can be performed by 1-2 firefighters

63
Twin Donut Roll
  • Works well on 1½-inch (38 mm) and 1¾-inch (45
    mm) hose
  • Creates compact roll that is easily transported,
    carried
  • If couplings offset about 1 foot (0.3 m), can be
    coupled together after roll tied

64
Self-Locking Twin Donut Roll
  • Twin donut roll with built-in carrying loop
    formed from hose itself
  • Loop locks over couplings to keep intact
  • Length of carrying loop may be adjusted

65
Hose Beds
  • Hose compartments on fire apparatus
  • Vary in size, shape
  • Sometimes built for specific needs
  • Front of hose bed
  • Rear of hose bed
  • Split beds

66
Hose Loading Guidelines
  • Check gaskets, swivel before connecting couplings
  • Keep flat sides of hose in same plane when two
    sections connected
  • Tighten couplings hand-tight
  • Remove kinks, twists when bent to form loop in
    hose bed

(Continued)
67
Hose Loading Guidelines
  • Make short fold/reverse bend in hose during
    loading so couplings not too close to front or
    rear of hose bed and will not flip over when
    pulled out of bed
  • Load large-diameter hose with all couplings near
    front of bed
  • Do not pack too tightly

68
Accordion Load
  • Derives name from manner in which it appears
    after loading
  • Procedure
  • Advantages

69
Horseshoe Load
  • Named for way it appears after loading
  • Procedure
  • Advantage
  • Disadvantages

(Continued)
70
Horseshoe Load
  • In single hose load, may be started on either
    side
  • Steps for split hose bed

71
Flat Load
  • Easiest to load
  • Suitable for any size supply hose
  • Best way for large-diameter hose
  • Advantage
  • Disadvantage

(Continued)
72
Flat Load
  • May be started on either side of single hose bed
  • In split hose bed, lay first length against
    partition with coupling hanging appropriate
    distance below hose bed
  • Large-diameter hose

73
Finishes for Forward Lays
  • Designed to facilitate making hydrant connection
  • Not as elaborate as finishes for reverse lays

(Continued)
74
Finishes for Forward Lays
  • Straight finish
  • Last length or two of hose flaked loosely back
    and forth across top of hose load
  • Associated with forward-lay operation
  • Hydrant wrench, gate valve, adapters strapped to
    hose near female coupling

75
Finishes for Reverse Lays
  • Reverse horseshoe finish
  • Similar to horseshoe load
  • One or two 100-foot (30 m) lengths of hose
  • Can be used with any size attack hose
  • Can be used for preconnected line
  • Can be loaded in two or three layers
  • Can be pulled from bed for arm carry

(Continued)
76
Finishes for Reverse Lays
  • Skid load finish
  • Folding last three lengths of hose into compact
    bundle on top of rest of load
  • Begins by forming 3 pull loops extending beyond
    end of hose load
  • Rest of hose accordion-folded across hose used to
    form pull loops

77
Preconnected Hose Loads for Attack Lines
  • Primary lines used for fire attack by most
    departments
  • Connected to discharge valve, placed in area
    other than main hose bed
  • Range from 50-250 feet (15-75 m)
  • Can be carried in several places

78
Preconnected Flat Load
  • Adaptable for varying widths of hose beds
  • Often used in transverse beds
  • Similar to flat load for large supply hose except
  • Preconnected
  • Loops provided to aid in pulling from bed

79
Triple Layer Load
  • Begins with hose folded in three layers
  • Designed to be pulled by one person
  • Disadvantage
  • Can be used for all sizes attack lines
  • Often preferred for larger lines

80
Minuteman Load
  • Designed to be pulled, advanced by one
  • Advantage
  • Pays off shoulder as firefighter advances toward
    fire
  • Well suited for narrow hose bed
  • Disadvantages

81
Booster Hose Reels
  • Used for booster lines
  • May be mounted in any of several places on
    apparatus
  • May be hand- or power-operated
  • Should be loaded one layer at a time in an even
    manner

82
Guidelines When Laying Hose
  • Do not ride in standing position to lay hose when
    apparatus moving
  • Drive apparatus at speed no greater than one that
    allows couplings to clear tailboard as hose
    leaves bed
  • Lay hose to one side of roadway

83
Forward Lay
  • Hose laid from water source to fire
  • Used when source is a hydrant and pumper must be
    positioned near fire
  • Hose beds should be loaded so first coupling off
    is female
  • Operation

(Continued)
84
Forward Lay
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Information for firefighter at hydrant
  • Making hydrant connection
  • Using four-way hydrant valves

85
Reverse Lay
  • Hose laid from fire to water source
  • Used when pumper must first go to fire location
    so size-up can be made before laying supply line
  • Most expedient way to lay hose if apparatus must
    stay close to water

(Continued)
86
Reverse Lay
  • Hose beds should be loaded so first coupling off
    hose bed is male
  • Has become standard method for setting up relay
    pumping operation when using 2½-inch or 3-inch
    (65 or 77 mm) hose as supply line

(Continued)
87
Reverse Lay
  • Long lays of large hose may require pumper at
    hydrant to increase pressure in supply hose
  • Most direct way to supplement pressure, set up
    drafting operations
  • Disadvantages

(Continued)
88
Reverse Lay
  • Procedures if operation involves two pumpers
  • Does not require four-way hydrant valve
  • Also used when pumper arrives at fire and must
    work alone for extended time

(Continued)
89
Reverse Lay
  • Making hydrant connections with soft intake hose
  • Making hydrant connections with hard intake hose

90
Split Lay
  • Any of a number of ways to lay multiple supply
    hoses with a single engine
  • Various types
  • If equipped with sexless couplings, direction of
    lay is unimportant
  • May other options when hose bed is divided

91
Pulling Preconnected Hoselines
  • Preconnected flat load
  • Minuteman load
  • Triple layer load

92
Other (Not Preconnected) Hoselines
  • Usually 2½-inches (65 mm) or larger
  • Wyed lines
  • Shoulder loads from flat/horseshoe loads
  • Shoulder loads from accordion or flat loads

93
Working Line Drag
  • One of quickest, easiest ways to move fire hose
    at ground level
  • Use limited by available personnel

94
Advancing Hoselines
  • Difficult when deploying up or down stairways,
    from standpipes, up ladders, deep into buildings
  • Easier when uncharged

95
Guidelines When Advancing Hoseline into Burning
Structure
  • Bleed air from charged hoselines before entering
  • Position nozzle operator, all members of hose
    team on same side of hoseline
  • Check doors for heat before opening

(Continued)
96
Guidelines When Advancing Hoseline into Burning
Structure
  • Stay low, avoid blocking ventilation openings
  • Chock self-closing doors open
  • Check for, remove kinks from line

97
Advancing Hose Up Stairway
  • Should be advanced up stairways uncharged when
    conditions allow
  • Lay uncharged hose against outside wall to keep
    stairs clear as possible, avoid sharp bends and
    kinks in hose
  • If possible, position firefighter at every
    turn/point of resistance

98
Advancing Hose Down Stairway
  • Advancing uncharged hoseline easier than charged
  • Advancing uncharged line recommended only when no
    fire, very minor fire

(Continued)
99
Advancing Hose Down Stairway
  • Excess hose should be flaked outside stairwall
  • Firefighters must be positioned at corners, pinch
    points

100
Advancing Hose From Standpipe
  • Getting hose to upper floors of high-rise
    buildings can be challenging
  • One solution is to have hose rolls or packs on
    apparatus ready to carry aloft and then connect
    to standpipe system

(Continued)
101
Advancing Hose From Standpipe
  • Hose must be brought to fire floor over aerial
    ladder or by interior stairway
  • Crews normally stop one floor below fire floor
    and connect to standpipe
  • If standpipe in enclosed stairwell, it is
    acceptable to hook up on fire floor

(Continued)
102
Advancing Hose From Standpipe
  • Steps once at standpipe connection
  • Be alert for pressure-relief devices and follow
    SOPs for removal/connection
  • If using certain sizes of hose, place gated wye
    on standpipe outlet

(Continued)
103
Advancing Hose From Standpipe
  • 2½-inch (65 mm) attack line may be used depending
    on size, nature of fire
  • Extra hose should be flaked up stairs toward
    floor above fire
  • During pickup operations, carefully drain water
    to prevent unnecessary damage

104
Advancing Hose Up Ladder
  • Easier and safer with uncharged line
  • Advancing charged line
  • Operating hoseline from ladder

105
Controlling Loose Hoseline
  • Very dangerous because it may flail about or whip
    back and forth
  • Firefighters, bystanders may be seriously injured
    or killed
  • Methods for controlling

106
Replacing Burst Sections
  • Hose clamp or kink can be used to stop flow of
    water when replacing burst section of hose
  • Two additional sections of hose should be used to
    replace any one bad section

107
Operating Small Handlines One Firefighter Method
  • Only used during overhaul after fire or for very
    small outdoor nuisance fires
  • Requires hoseline to be straight at least 10 feet
    (3 m) behind nozzle
  • Firefighter should hold nozzle with one hand and
    hose with the other

108
Operating Small Handlines Two Firefighter Method
  • Usually needed when nozzle must be advanced
  • Nozzle operator duties
  • Backup firefighter duties

109
Operating Large Handlines One Firefighter Method
  • NOT recommended when nozzle is connected to large
    handline
  • May be used during exposure protection/overhaul
    operations if master stream device unavailable

(Continued)
110
Operating Large Handlines One Firefighter Method
  • Large loop formed that crosses over line behind
    nozzle
  • Firefighter sits on intersection where hose
    crosses and directs stream

(Continued)
111
Operating Large Handlines One Firefighter Method
  • To reduce fatigue, nozzle operator can use hose
    strap or utility strap looped over shoulder or
    reduce nozzle flow if conditions allow
  • Does not permit much maneuvering

112
Operating Large Handlines Two Firefighter
Method 1
  • Uses means of anchoring hose because of nozzle
    reaction
  • Nozzle operator duties
  • Backup firefighter duties

113
Operating Large Handlines Two Firefighter
Method 2
  • Uses hose rope tools or utility straps to assist
    in anchoring hose
  • Nozzle operator duties
  • Backup firefighter duties

114
Operating Large Handlines Three Firefighter
Method
  • In all cases, positioning of nozzle operator same
    as for two-firefighter method

(Continued)
115
Operating Large Handlines Three Firefighter
Method
  • Some departments prefer first backup firefighter
    to stand behind nozzle operator with third
    firefighter kneeling on hose behind second
    firefighter
  • Another method is for all firefighters to use
    hose straps and remain standing

116
Summary
  • To fight fires safely and effectively,
    firefighters must know the capabilities and
    limitations of the various types of fire hose
    used in their departments.

(Continued)
117
Summary
  • Firefighters must know the differences between
    supply hose and attack hose and how to use each
    one.
  • Firefighters must know how to load hose onto
    apparatus and how to make the various hose load
    finishes used in their department.

118
Review Questions
  • 1. List three methods to prevent each of the
    following types of fire hose damage mechanical
    damage, thermal damage, organic damage, and
    chemical damage.

(Continued)
119
Review Questions
  • 2. What is the difference between threaded
    couplings and nonthreaded couplings?
  • 3. List common hose rolls.

(Continued)
120
Review Questions
  • 4. List four general loading guidelines.
  • 5. What are general safety guidelines when
    advancing hose into a burning structure?
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