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Fire Safety I

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Fire Safety I INSY 3020/7970/7976/ENH 670 Occupational Safety & Ergonomics Outline Introduction to Fire Safety Exit Routes Fire Protection Emergency Action Plan Fire ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fire Safety I


1
Fire Safety I
  • INSY 3020/7970/7976/ENH 670
  • Occupational Safety Ergonomics

2
Outline
  • Introduction to Fire Safety
  • Exit Routes
  • Fire Protection
  • Emergency Action Plan
  • Fire Prevention Plan
  • OSHA Subpart E L
  • Evacuation Modeling

3
Introduction to Fire Safety
  • Statistics Findings
  • 10 deadliest public assembly fires in U.S.
    history
  • Fire and its Chemistry
  • NFPA 704 Diamond

4
Statistics
  • According to the U.S. Fire Administration, an
    average of 4,266 Americans lost their lives
    between 1992 and 2001 and another 24,913 were
    injured annually as the result of 1.9 million
    reported fires yearly.

5
Findings
  • Risk by age Children under the age of 5 and the
    population over the age of 54 are at the highest
    risk of death in fires. The risk of fire injury
    is greatest (over 1.0) in the 2044 and the 85
    age ranges.
  • Risk by gender Men are 1.6 times more likely to
    die in a fire than women.
  • Risk by region The risk of dying in a fire in
    the South is higher than other areas of the
    United States.
  • Source U.S. Fire Administration/National Fire
    Data Center, Fire Risk-Topical Fire Research
    Series, Volume 4 Issue 7, December 2004.

6
10 deadliest public assembly fires in U.S. history
  • Iroquois Theater, Chicago, IL, December 30, 1903
    , 602 killed.
  • Cocoanut Grove nightclub, Boston, MA, November
    28, 1942 , 492 killed.
  • Conways Theater, Brooklyn, NY, December 5, 1876
    , 285 killed.
  • Rhythm Club dance hall, Natchez, MS, April 23,
    1940 , 207 killed.
  • Rhodes Opera House, Boyertown, PA, January 12,
    1908 , 170 killed.
  • Ringling Brothers and Barnum Bailey circus
    tent, Hartford, CT, July 6, 1944 , 168 killed.
  • Beverly Hills Supper Club, Southgate, KY, May 28,
    1977 , 165 killed.
  • Richmond Theater, Richmond, VA, December 26, 1811
    , 160 killed (including the governor and a former
    US Senator from the state)
  • The Station nightclub, West Warwick , RI,
    February 20, 2003 , 100 killed.
  • Happy Land Social club, Bronx, NY, March 25, 1990
    , 87 killed.
  • Source  NFPA files on major fire incidents.
    February 2003

7
Fire
  • Fire a chemical chain reaction in which a
    combustible material is rapidly oxidized and heat
    is produced.
  • In less than 30 seconds a small flame can get
    completely out of control and turn into a major
    fire.

8
Fire
  • A fire's heat alone can kill. Room temperatures
    in a fire can be 100 degrees at floor level and
    rise to 600 degrees at eye level. Inhaling this
    super hot air will scorch your lungs. This heat
    can melt clothes to your skin. In five minutes a
    room can get so hot that everything in it ignites
    at once this is called flashover.

9
Fire Chemistry
  • The Fire Tetrahedron.
  • The removal of any one element extinguishes the
    fire.

HEAT
OXYGEN
FUEL
CHEMICAL CHAIN REACTION
10
NFPA 704 Diamond
FIRE HAZARD
HEALTH HAZARD
REACTIVITY
SPECIFIC HAZARD
11
Health Hazard
  • 4 Deadly
  • 3 Extreme Danger
  • 2 Hazardous
  • 1 Slightly Hazardous
  • 0 Normal Material

12
Flash Point
  • Flash Points the temperature at which a liquid
    produces sufficient vapors that, if a heat source
    is presented, they will ignite momentarily.
  • 4 Below 73 F
  • 3 Below 100 F
  • 2 Below 200 F
  • 1 Above 200 F
  • 0 Will Not Burn

13
Reactivity
  • 4 May Detonate
  • 3 Shock and Heat may Detonate
  • 2 Violent Chemical Change
  • 1 Unstable if Heated
  • 0 Stable

14
Specific Hazard
  • OXY Oxidizer
  • ACID Acid
  • ALK Alkali
  • COR Corrosive
  • W Water Reactive
  • Radiation Hazard

15
Exit Routes
  • What is an exit route?
  • How many exit routes must a workplace have?
  • What are some other design and construction
    requirements for exits?
  • What are some maintenance, safeguarding, and
    operational features for exit routes?
  • Source OSHA FACT Sheet, 2003

16
What is an exit route?
  • An exit route is a continuous and unobstructed
    path of exit travel from any point within a
    workplace to a place of safety.
  • An exit route consists of three parts
  • Exit access
  • Exit
  • Exit discharge

17
Exit access
  • portion of an exit route that leads to an exit.

Life Safety Code Handbook, 2003
18
Exit
  • Portion of an exit route that is generally
    separated from other areas to provide a protected
    way of travel to the exit discharge.

Life Safety Code Handbook, 2003
19
Exit Discharge
  • Part of the exit route that lead directly outside
    or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way,
    or open space with access to the outside.

Life Safety Code Handbook, 2003
20
How many exit routes must aworkplace have?
  • a workplace must have at least two exit routes to
    permit prompt evacuation of employees and other
    building occupants during an emergency.
  • Exit routes must be located as far away as
    practical from each other in case one is blocked
    by fire or smoke.

21
How many exit routes must aworkplace have?
  • More than two exits
  • the number of employees, or
  • The size of the building, or
  • The arrangement of the workplace

22
Other design and construction requirements for
exits.
  • Exits must be separated by fire resistant
    materialsthat is, one-hour fire-resistance
    rating if the exit connects three or fewer
    stories and two-hour fire-resistance rating if
    the exit connects more than three floors.

23
Other design and construction requirements for
exits.
Life Safety Code Handbook, 2003
24
Other design and construction requirements for
exits.
  • Exits are permitted to have only those openings
    necessary to allow access to the exit from
    occupied areas of the workplace or to the exit
    discharge. Openings must be protected by a
    self-closing, approved fire door that remains
    closed or automatically closes in an emergency.

25
Other design and construction requirements for
exits.
Life Safety Code Handbook, 2003
26
What are some maintenance, safeguarding, and
operational features for exit routes?
  • OSHA standards require employers to do the
    following
  • Keep exit routes free of explosive or highly
    flammable furnishings and other decorations.
  • Arrange exit routes so employees will not have to
    travel toward a high-hazard area unless the path
    of travel is effectively shielded from the
    high-hazard area.
  • Ensure that exit routes are unobstructed such as
    by materials, equipment, locked doors, or
    dead-end corridors.
  • Ensure that safeguards designed to protect
    employees during an emergency remain in good
    working order.

27
What are some maintenance, safeguarding, and
operational features for exit routes?
28
What are some maintenance, safeguarding, and
operational features for exits?
29
What are some maintenance, safeguarding, and
operational features for exits?
Do Not Open This Door Unless Manager Or Floor
Supervisor Is Present.
30
What are some maintenance, safeguarding, and
operational features for exit routes?
  • Provide lighting for exit routes adequate for
    employees with normal vision.
  • Keep exit route doors free of decorations or
    signs that obscure the visibility of exit route
    doors.
  • Post signs along the exit access indicating the
    direction of travel to the nearest exit and exit
    discharge if that direction is not immediately
    apparent. Also, the line-of-sight to an exit sign
    must be clearly visible at all times.
  • Mark doors or passages along an exit access that
    could be mistaken for an exit Not an Exit or
    with a sign identifying its use (such as
    Closet).

31
What are some maintenance, safeguarding, and
operational features for exits?
32
What are some maintenance, safeguarding, and
operational features for exits?
33
What are some maintenance, safeguarding, and
operational features for exit routes?
  • Install EXIT signs in plainly legible letters.
  • Renew fire-retardant paints or solutions often
    enough to maintain their fire-retardant
    properties.
  • Maintain exit routes during construction,
    repairs, or alterations.
  • Provide an emergency alarm system to alert
    employees, unless employees can promptly see or
    smell a fire or other hazard in time to provide
    adequate warning to them.

34
What are some maintenance, safeguarding, and
operational features for exits?
35
Fire Protection (FP)
  • Fire protection is the science and engineering
    principles to protect people and their
    environment from destructive fire.
  • FP includes
  • analysis of fire hazards
  • mitigation of fire damage by proper design,
    construction , arrangement, and use of buildings,
    materials, structures, industrial processes, and
    transportation systems
  • the design, installation and maintenance of fire
    detection and suppression and communication
    systems and post/fire investigation and
    analysis.

36
Fire Protection Engineer
  • A fire protection engineer (FPE) by education,
    training, and experience
  • (1) is familiar with the nature and
    characteristics of fire and the associated
    products of combustion
  • (2) understands how fires originate, spread
    within and outside of buildings/structures, and
    can be detected, controlled, and/or extinguished
    and
  • (3) is able to anticipate the behavior of
    materials, structures, machines, apparatus, and
    processes as related to the protection of life
    and property from fire.

37
Emergency Action Plan (EAP)
  • An emergency action plan (EAP) is a written
    document required by particular OSHA standards.
  • The purpose of an EAP is to facilitate and
    organize employer and employee actions during
    workplace emergencies.

38
Are employers required to have emergency action
plans?
  • If you have 10 or fewer employees, you may
    communicate your plan orally.
  • If you have more than 10 employees, however, your
    plan must be written, kept in the workplace, and
    available for employee review.
  • Here are the OSHA standards that require EAPs
  • Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous
    Chemicals- 1910.119
  • Fixed Extinguishing Systems, General -
    1910.160
  • Fire Detection Systems, 1910.164
  • Grain Handling - 1910.272
  • Ethylene Oxide - 1910.1047
  • Methylenedianiline - 1910.1050
  • 1,3-Butadiene - 1910.1051

39
What are the minimum elements of an emergency
action plan?
  • Procedures for reporting fires and other
    emergencies.
  • Procedures for emergency evacuation, including
    the type of evacuation and exit route
    assignments.
  • Procedures for employees who stay behind to
    continue critical plant operations.
  • Procedures to account for all employees after
    evacuation.
  • Procedures for employees performing rescue or
    medical duties.
  • Name or job title of employees to contact for
    detailed plan information.
  • Alarm system to alert workers.

40
Review the EAP
  • You must also review the emergency action plan
    with each employee covered when the following
    occur
  • Plan is developed or an employee is assigned
    initially to a job.
  • Employees responsibilities under the plan
    change.
  • Plan is changed.

41
Fire Prevention Plan (FPP)
  • The purpose of the fire prevention plan is to
    prevent a fire from occurring in a workplace.
  • FPP describes the fuel sources (hazardous or
    other materials) on site that could initiate or
    contribute both to the spread of a fire, as well
    as the building systems, such as fixed fire
    extinguishing systems and alarm systems, in place
    to control the ignition or spread of a fire.

42
Fire Prevention Plan (FPP)
  • A fire prevention plan must be in writing, be
    kept in the workplace, and be made available to
    employees for review. However, an employer with
    10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan
    orally to employees.

43
The minimum provisions of a fire prevention plan
  • List of all major fire hazards,
  • proper handling and storage procedures for
    hazardous materials,
  • potential ignition sources and their control,
  • the type of fire protection equipment necessary
    to control each major hazard,
  • Procedures to control accumulations of flammable
    and combustible waste materials,

44
The minimum provisions of a fire prevention plan
  • Procedures for regular maintenance of safeguards
    installed on heat-producing equipment to prevent
    the accidental ignition of combustible materials,
  • Name or job title of employees responsible for
    maintaining equipment to prevent or control
    sources of ignition or fires,

45
The minimum provisions of a fire prevention plan
  • Name or job title of employees responsible for
    the control of fuel source hazards,
  • When you assign employees to a job, you must
    inform them of any fire hazards they may be
    exposed to, and
  • Review with each employee those parts of the fire
    prevention plan necessary for self-protection.

46
Handling and storage procedures for hazardous
materials
47
potential ignition sources and their control
procedure
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