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World History

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Title: World History


1
World History
  • Chapter 4
  • The Rise of Ancient Greece

2
Chapter 4, Section 1, Beginnings

Overview
  • The Aegean Area
  • Aegean Civilizations
  • Poets and Heroes
  • A Family of Deities

3
Objectives
  • Understand how being close to the sea made the
    Greeks seafarers
  • Know where and how the early civilizations of
    Greece developed

4
Terms to Know
  • Labyrinth A maze e.g. passages or hallways
    twisting and turning in all directions
  • Bard A singing storyteller. Bards were used in
    the dark age to keep traditions alive.

5
People to Meet
  • Sir Arthur Evans
  • The Minoans
  • The Mycenaeans
  • Homer
  • Heinrich Schliemann

6
Places to Locate
  • Crete
  • Mycenae

7
Did You Know?
  • One of the adventures in Homers Odyssey
    involved a one-eyed giantcalled a Cyclopswho
    shut Odysseus in his cave and blocked the
    entrance with a huge rock. Odysseus made the
    Cyclops drunk, blinded him by driving a burning
    stake into his eye while he slept, and escaped by
    clinging to the belly of a sheep let out to
    pasture.

8
The Aegean Area
  • Greece is made up largely of low-lying rugged
    mountains and a long, indented coastline the
    mountains both protected and isolated Ancient
    Greeks on the mainland, who never united under
    one government.
  • The Greeks did speak one language and had the
    same religion
  • Many Greeks earned their livings on the sea the
    mild climate allowed Greeks to spend much of
    their time outdoors

9
The Aegean Area
  • Greeks turned to become fishers, traders and
    pirates.
  • The climate allowed people to spend time
    outdoors, assembling for meetings and performing
    plays.

10
Aegean Civilizations The Minoans
  • Greek myth referred to the existence of an early
    civilization on the island of Crete
    archaeologists have since unearthed remains of
    this Minoan civilization, which flourished from
    about 2500 to 1450 B.C. The Minoans were the
    first in the Aegean Region.
  • British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans who
    discovered Minoan remains about 1900 A.D.

11
The Minoans (cont)
  • The Minoan civilization, which earned its living
    from sea trade, reached its peak around 1600
    B.C. it collapsed about 250 years later.
  • Both men and women curled their hair, bedecked
    themselves with gold jewelry, set off narrow
    waists with wide metal belts.
  • Minoan woman enjoyed a higher status than many
    other civilizations.
  • Minoan ships help keep the seas free from pirates

12
The Minoans (cont)
  • Minoan ships dominated the Mediterranean
  • Ships protected coastno need for walls
  • The destruction or collapse of the Minoan
    civilization believed by a tidal wave after an
    earthquake or from attack from Mycenaeans

13
Aegean Civilizations The
Mycenaeans
  • The Mycenaeans, from Indo-European peoples of
    central Asia, began moving from their homeland
    around 2000 B.C.
  • When they entered the Balkan Peninsula, the
    Mycenaeans intermarried with local people, known
    as the Hellenes, and set up a group of kingdoms.

14
The Mycenaeans (cont)
  • The palaces in the center of Mycenae served as
    government offices
  • The Mycenaeans adopted many Minoan cultural
    elements metalworking, shipbuilding, and
    navagation
  • Each kingdom created centered around a hilltop.
    Stone walls circled the fortress.

15
The Mycenaeans (cont)
  • Made swords of bronze
  • Kept good records and collected taxes based on
    wealth
  • Wheat
  • Livestock
  • Honey

16
The Mycenaeans and the Dorians
  • By the mid-1400s B.C.,the Mycenaeans had
    conquered the Minoans and controlled the Aegean
    area
  • Soon after 1100 B.C., however, the Greek-speaking
    Dorians conquered Greece from the North
  • Myceneaen walls weakened by civil war
  • Dorians had iron weapons

17
The Mycenaeans, Dorians, and Ionians
  • Historians call the next 300 years of Greek
    history a dark age because overseas trade
    stopped, people lost skills, and poverty
    increased.
  • Large numbers of Greeks flee the Dorian influence
    and go to Aegean islands and across the Aegean
    Sea to Asian Minor and a place called Ionia.

18
The Mycenaeans, Dorians, and Ionians
  • By 750 B.C. the Ionians reintroduced culture,
    crafts and skills to Greecemostly Mycenaean.
  • New Greek culture called Hellenic flourished from
    700s until 336 B.C.
  • Ionians introduce Phoenician alphabet and other
    cultural elements in Ionia and their former
    homeland.

19
The Mycenaeans, Dorians, and Ionians
  • The Phoenician alphabet limits Greek reading and
    writing to just 24 letters and made learning
    simpler.
  • The Dorian Dark Ages went away and a new Greek
    civilization formed from mostly Mycenaean
    elements.

20
Poets and Heroes
  • During Dark Ages, bardssinging story
    tellerskept Mycenaean traditions alive
  • Now able to write, Greeks began to record bard
    stories

21
The Iliad and the Odyssey
  • According to tradition, an eighth-century B.C.
    blind poet named Homer composed the two most
    famous Greek epics
  • Iliad and the Odyssey
  • Set during and after the legendary Trojan War in
    the mid-1200s B.C.
  • Mycenaeans fought Trojans mid 1200s A.D.

22
The Iliad and the Odyssey
  • Iliad begins with Trojan prince falling in love
    with Helen, wife of Mycenaean king
  • He takes her with him to Troy
  • Avenging Helens kidnapping, Mycenaeans lay siege
    to Troy for 10 years
  • Unable to capture the city, Mycenaeans resort to
    trickery, using a wooden horse to gain entry

23
The Iliad and the Odyssey
  • According to Illiad
  • Trojan War lasted 10 years
  • Troy in present day Turkey
  • Greeks built large wooden horse
  • Soldiers hid in belly
  • Gave to Troy as gift and pretended to sail away
  • Once inside gates, Greek soldiers leapt out and
    conquered Troy

24
The Iliad and the Odyssey
  • The Iliad and the Odyssey are epic poems, not
    reliable historic accounts of the Trojan War

25
The Iliad and the Odyssey
  • The Odyssey describes the wonderings of the
    Mycenaean king, Odysseus, and his return to his
    faithful wife
  • His 10-year journey resulted in people referring
    to any long, adventure-filled journey as a
    odyssey

26
The Illiad and the Odyssey
  • Schools in ancient Greece used Homers epics to
    teach values.
  • His epics talked about values such as courage and
    honor.

27
Teaching Greek Values
  • The Iliad and Odyssey also represented of the
    things
  • Love of nature
  • Husband and wife relationships
  • Tender feelings
  • Loyalty between friends
  • Strive for excellence
  • Meet life with dignity

28
A Family of Deities
  • Explained why people behaved like that
  • Why their lives took a certain direction.
  • More than other civilizations, the Greeks
    humanized their deities
  • The Greeks didnt fear their gods, they
    approached their gods with dignity
  • They humanized their gods
  • Their gods took human form
  • Their gods possessed super-human powers
  • Tried to be like themstriving for excellence

29
Gods and Goddesses
  • Greeks took features of both Minoan and Mycenaean
    gods
  • Each community took a particular god or goddess
    as its patron and protector
  • Greeks believed 12 most important deities lived
    on Mount Olympus
  • Believed that each controlled a specific part of
    the natural world, e.g. Zeus, the chief god ruled
    the sky, weather and thunderstorms

30
Gods and Goddesses
  • Apollo, god of light, drove the sun across the
    sky every day in his chariot
  • Apollo considered god of prophecy
  • Brought gifts to oracle at Delphi honoring him
  • Asked for hidden knowledge to be revealed
  • Priests and priestesses would interpret Apollos
    answers to questions

31
Gods and Goddesses
  • As Hellenic civilization developed, certain
    religious festivals became part of Greek
    lifeincluding the Olympic Games
  • Held in city of Olympia
  • For the greater glory of Zeus
  • Drama (a celebration of Dionysus, the god of wine
    and fertility).

32
Gods and Goddesses
  • Originted the play
  • Celebrated of Dionysus
  • Audience around on hillside
  • Told stories and danced to the flute
  • Permanent amphitheaters appeared

33
Chapter 4, Section 2, The Polis
  • Greek Colonies and Trade
  • The Typical Polis
  • Political and Social Change

34
Objectives
  • Know how economic prosperity brought significant
    political and social changes to the Greek
    city-states
  • Understand that the Greeks founded colonies
    throughout the area of the Mediterranean and
    Black Seas

35
Terms to Know
  • Polis a city-state the basic political unit of
    the Hellenic civilization
  • Citizen those who take part in government
  • Aristocrat nobles members of the upper class
  • Phalanx rows of soldiers using their shields to
    form a wall
  • Tyrant a person seizing power of a city-state
    and controlling it
  • Oligarchy where a few wealthy people hold power
  • Democracy a government by the people where power
    lies in the hands of the people

36
Places to Locate
  • Athens
  • Sparta

37
The Typical Polis
  • A typical polis included a city and the
    surrounding villages, fields, and orchards on
    the top of the acropolis in the center of the
    city stood the temple of the local deity, and at
    the foot of the acropolis citizens gathered to
    carry out public affairsthe agora.

38
The Typical Polis
  • The citizens of a polis had both rights and
    responsibilities.
  • The could vote, hold public office, speak for
    themselves, and own property.
  • They were expected to serve in government and
    defend the polis in war.
  • Citizens, however, made up only a minority of the
    residents of the polis slaves, foreign-born
    residents, and women had no political or legal
    rights.
  • Before 500 B.C., men not owning land were
    excluded
  • The agora served as the polis political center

39
Greek Colonies and Trade
  • By 700 B.C. Greek farmers no longer grew enough
    grain to feed everyone, so each polis sent out
    groups of people to establish colonies in coastal
    areas.
  • Each colony kept close ties with its mainland
    metropolis, supplying grain and exporting the
    mainlands excess wine, olive oil, and other cash
    crops.

40
Greek Colonies and Trade
  • Soon, the Greeks replaced their barter system
    with a money economy, and expanded overseas
    trade.
  • Merchants started issuing coins
  • Cities soon over this responsibility
  • The cities of Ionia in Asia Minor assumed
    leadership in a growing textile industry pottery
    made in Ionia was the earliest Greek pottery to
    be exported.

41
Political and Social Change
  • Economic growth changed Greek political life
    where once kings had ruled, landholding
    aristocrats took power.
  • Aristocrats would supply military forces for
    kings ventures
  • Farmers became indebted to landowners and had
    difficulty repaying loans, often selling
    themselves into slavery
  • Disputes arose between the aristocrats and
    farmers, who demanded political reforms.

42
Political and Social Change
  • As Greek armies came to rely on foot soldiers
    (generally farmers) more than cavalry (generally
    aristocrats), aristocrats began to lose
    influence.
  • Farmers provide the core of the phalanxclosely
    arrayed rows of soldiers with solid row of
    shields
  • Merchants and artisans began demanding
    changewanted polis to advance business interests

43
Political and Social Change
  • As a result of the unrest, tyrannies arose, in
    which one man seized power and ruled the polis
    single-handedly.
  • Most tyrants ruled fairly, but a few gave the
    term tyrant a bad name
  • Tyrants ruled until 500 B.C.

44
Political and Social Change
  • After the reign of tyrants, most city-states
    become either oligarchies or democracies
  • The most famous democracy in Greece was Athens,
    and the most famous oligarchy was Sparta

45
Chapter 4, Section 3, Rivals
  • Sparta
  • Athens
  • Athenian Democracy

46
Objectives
  • Know the difference between the values, cultures,
    and achievements represented by Sparta and those
    represented by Athens

47
Terms to Define
  • Constitution The plan of government
  • Rhetoric The art of public speaking

48
People to Know
  • Draco
  • Solon
  • Peisistratus
  • Cleisthenes

49
Places to Locate
  • Peloponnesus
  • Attica

50
Sparta
  • The descendents of the Dorian invaders of the
    dark age founded Sparta, located in Peloponnesus,
    a peninsula of southern Greece.
  • Instead of founding overseas colonies, the
    Spartans invaded neighboring city-states and
    enslaved the local people.

51
Sparta
  • The Spartans owned many slaves known as helots.
    They farmed Spartan estates.
  • A group of Free individuals called perioeci
    were artisans and merchants from conquered
    territories who worked for the Spartans.
  • Together, these two groups outnumbered the
    Spartans 200,000 to 10,000.

52
Sparta
  • Around 650 B.C. the slaves revolted against their
    Spartan masters
  • Took 30 years to quell the revolt
  • The Spartans decided to maintain power by
    establishing a military society

53
A Military Society
  • All life in Sparta revolved around the army.
  • Men strove to be first-rate soldiers
  • Women worked to be good mothers of soldiers
  • Spartans didnt like other Greeks who chose to
    live behind walls for protection
  • Spartan men provided the best protection.

54
A Military Society
  • Spartan women given more freedom than other Greek
    women and were brought up to be healthy like
    Spartan men.
  • Women could not take part in government.
  • Newborn infants were examined by the government
    to determine health.
  • Unhealthy babies were placed on a hillside at
    night to die.

55
A Military Society
  • At age 7, Boys placed in military training
  • Taken from home and placed in barracks
  • Reading, writing, and use of weapons
  • At 20, they were soldiers
  • Sent to frontier areas
  • At 30, they were expected to marry
  • But did not maintain households of their own
  • Lived in barracks until 60, then retired

56
Role of Women
  • Raised to be healthy
  • Given as much food as men, unlike rest of Greece
  • Girls trained
  • Wrestling
  • Gymnastics
  • Boxing

57
Role of Women
  • Married at age 19, not 14 (Greece)
  • Increased likelihood of healthy baby
  • More rights accorded Spartan women
  • Could shop marketplace
  • Attend dinners with non-family members
  • Own property in their names
  • Express opinions in public
  • Could not participate in polis government

58
Spartas Government
  • There were two Spartan kingsan oligarchy
  • Didnt have much power
  • Primarily religious and military leadership

59
Spartas Government
  • The Assembly was made up of all males over 20 and
    passed laws and made decisions on war and peace.
  • Each year, the Assembly elected five ephors who
    could veto laws and performed certain
    administration functions.
  • A Council of Elders, 28 men over 60, proposed
    laws to Assembly and served as a supreme court.

60
Result of Militarism
  • Succeeded in holding power over perioeci and
    helots for 250 years
  • Suspicious of new ideas and lagged behind other
    cities in business
  • Much poorer
  • Lagged in intellectual development
  • Exceptional athletes and best protector of Greece

61
Athens
  • On a peninsula of central Greece named Attica,
    Mycenaean descendants established the city-state
    of Athens. The polis was named after the
    goddess, Athena

62
Athens
  • Initially, non-landowning citizens could not
    participate in Athenss Assembly.
  • Unlike Sparta, Athens gradually expanded its
    definition of citizenship to include more people
  • Eventually, all free men could be members of the
    Assembly regardless of what class they belonged
    to, even the meticsforeign-born citizens

63
Athens
  • The political change that permitted more people
    to participate in government reduced much of the
    friction between social classes.
  • Four successive leaders brought changes

64
Dracos Law Code
  • Draco issued an improved code of written laws
  • Aristocrats could no longer dictate what was
    legal.
  • Some of his laws were harsh e.g.,death for
    stealing cabbage.
  • Over time, the term draconian has come to mean
    something cruel and severe.
  • Positive sidethe laws were written down and
    aristocrats could no langer take advantage

65
Solons Reforms
  • Leader of Athens 594 B.C.
  • Cancelled all debts and freed debtors from
    slavery
  • Solon improved economic conditions, promoted
    trade, fostered industry, and introduced
    political reforms that moved Athens toward
    democracy
  • Ordered fathers to teach sons a trade
  • Established 2-house government for political
    equality

66
Radical Reformers
  • Peistratus (pihSIHStruhtuhs)
  • divided large estates among landless farmers
  • extended citizenship to men who did not own land
  • offered the poor loans and jobs.

67
Radical Reformers
  • Cleisthenes came to power in 508 B.C.
  • Introduced laws that established democracy
  • Sought to
  • End local rivalries
  • Break power of aristocracy
  • Extend guarantees to more citizens
  • Reorganize central government

68
Athenian Democracy
  • Cleisthenes, the fourth leader to help reform
    Athens, established democracy for Athens under
    Cleisthenes constitution, the Assembly won
    increased powers and fully emerged as the major
    political body.

69
Athenian Democracy
  • All citizens could become a member of the
    Assembly.
  • The Assembly served as a supreme court and
    appointed generals to run the military.

70
Athenian Democracy
  • Each year in a lottery, Athenian citizens chose
    members of the Council of 500, who carried out
    daily government business.
  • Citizens favored a lottery believing all citizens
    were capable of holding office.
  • Elections, in their view, would unfavorably favor
    the rich who had the advantage fame and training
    in public speaking.

71
Athenian Democracy
  • Although only 20 percent of Athenians were
    citizens, ancient Athens laid the foundation for
    the Western concept of democratic government.
  • Because Athens expected every citizen to hold
    public office at some time in his life, it
    required Athenian citizens to educate their sons
    girls rarely received a formal education.

72
Athenian Democracy
  • Jury system decided court cases
  • From 201 to 1001 members
  • The more jurors, the less likelihood that they
    would be bribed, threatened, or show prejudice
  • Cleisthenes reforms lasted 200 years
  • Foundation for Western concept of democracy

73
Athenian Education
  • Athenian men educated because they were expected
    to hold public office
  • Women rarely educated
  • Household dutiesbaking, weaving, etc.
  • Private tutors educated wealthy boys
  • Agora was location for much education
  • Boys entered school at 7, graduate at 18

74
Athenian Education
  • Main textbooks were Iliad and Odyssey
  • Knew them by heart
  • Arithmetic, drawing, geometry, art, music

75
Discussion Sparta vs Athens
  • Sparta represented
  • The military
  • Monarchy
  • Severe, simple style of living
  • Athens represented
  • The arts
  • Democracy
  • Which values do you appreciate most? Given the
    times, which values would provide for more
    security, foreign and domestic, for the given
    city-states.

76
Chapter 4, section 4War, Glory, and Decline
  • The Persian Wars
  • The Golden Age of Athens
  • The Peloponnesian Wars

77
Objectives and Vocabulary
  • How did the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars effect
    democracy in the Greek City States
  • Terms
  • - Symposium A meeting and social session
    about politics and other affairs.
  • - Mercenary Hired soldiers

78
People to Meet
  • Darius I
  • Xerxes
  • Themistocles
  • Leonidas
  • Pericles
  • Aspasia

79
Places to Locate
  • Ionia
  • Marathon
  • Thermopylae
  • Salamis
  • Delos

80
The Persian Wars
  • In 546 B.C., Persia, led by Cyrus II, conquered
    the Greek city-states in Ionia
  • Ionians disliked them
  • Considered them to be barbarians
  • Ionians revolted against the Persians
  • Athens and others helped, but Darius and his
    Persians defeated them
  • Darius decided to punish the Greeks

81
Marathon
  • Darius sent his fleet directly across the Aegean
    Sea north of Athens.
  • The Athenians were outnumbered 20,000 to 10,000.
  • The Persians decided to pack up and attack Athens
    directly, but at the moment of loading their
    ships back up, the Athenians attacked.
  • As the Persian army was standing in knee deep
    water waiting to board the ships, the Athenians
    attacked downhill and it was a routPersians lost
    6,400 men Athenians lost 192 men.

82
Salamis
  • The Persians returned 10 years later and leading
    the army was Xerxes, son of Darius with 200,000
    soldiers. Off shore supply ships accompanied
    them.
  • The Greeks faced the Persians again, this time
    under Spartan leadership
  • The Oracle at Delphi, a few years earlier, had
    said Greece would be shielded by a wooden wall
  • Athenian general Themistocles believed that meant
    ships

83
Salamis
  • To challenge the Persians at sea, a delaying
    action had to be established
  • The Greek army set up a delaying action on land,
    led by King Leonidas of Sparta knowing that a
    traitor had showed the Persians a way to attack
    the Greeks and realizing that he would soon be
    surrounded, Leonidas neverthelsss stayed to face
    his death.
  • The Athenians, led by Leonidas, held off the
    Persians for three days with his 7,000 Athenian
    soldiers.
  • Leonidas sent most of the soldiers to escape to
    fight another day but put in a delaying action
    using 300 Spartans

84
ThermopylaeThe Mountain Pass
  • The site where King Leonidas chose to make his
    stand.
  • The pass was narrow allowing the Greeks to have
    the advantage against the large force of the
    Persians.
  • King Leonidas chose to fight to the deathas
    their polis law called for

85
ThemistoclesThe Battle Near the Island of Salamis
  • The delaying action by King Leonidas allowed
    another spartan general, Themistocles, to defeat
    the Persians in the Salamis Strait.
  • He destroyed almost the entire Persian fleet near
    the island of Salamis.
  • Themistocles judged his faster, smaller ships
    could defeat the Persians in the narrow Strait of
    Salamis
  • After the battle of the Island of Salamis, the
    Persians returned to Asia Minor for good, and
    Athens emerged a powerful and self-confident
    city-state.

86
The Golden Age of Athens
  • The period 461 B.C. to 429 B.C. was the period
    most of the Greek achievements in the arts and
    sciences took place in Athens during this time.
  • The Athenian general Pericles rebuilt Athens into
    the most beautiful city in Greece its most
    famous structure, the Parthenon, still stands.

87
Athenian Daily Life
  • Athenian men usually worked in the morning as
    farmers, artisans, and merchants, before
    attending the Assembly or exercising in the
    gymnasium slaves generally did the heavy work in
    craft production and mining, while women worked
    at home or in the market.
  • Athenians kept their homes simple but their
    public buildings were very lavish.

88
Athenian Daily Life
  • Athenian house contained two main rooms with
    several smaller ones around a central courtyard.
  • The dining room for entertaining and frequently
    had couches. Athenian wives would not join their
    husbands unless there were no guests.

89
Work for the Men and Women
  • Usually worked in the morning then went to the
    gymnasium in the afternoon.
  • Slaves did the heavy workone third of the
    population.
  • Women spent making time at home, cooking and
    making wool cloth.
  • Upper class Athenian men spent time in the
    symposiumbasically a drinking session followed
    by a banquet. Women were not allowed. The
    discussed literature, philosophy, and public
    issues.

90
Aspasia
  • As some freedom became allowed for some classes
    of women, she invited women into her home and
    gave them advice on home, education, and how to
    gain more freedom.
  • Her recommendations to women for more
    responsibility in society led to charges against
    her
  • She was charged with impiety (disloyalty to the
    gods) but was acquitted.

91
The Peloponnesian War
  • With the ongoing threat of the Persians, Athens
    formed the Delian league of city-states for
    protectionSparta would not participate.
  • The treasury was kept on the sacred island of
    Delos.
  • The League freed the Ionians from Persian rule,
    cleared the seas of pirates, and fostered
    (promoted and helped) trade.

92
The Athenian Empire
  • Athens transformed the Delian League into an
    Athenian empire.
  • Athens began to dominate other city-states
  • The empire required the use of the same coins and
    made other changes that were for all city-states
    to adopt

93
The Conflict
  • The Peloponnesian War lasted from 431 B.C. to 404
    B.C.
  • Sparta formed an alliance against Athens.
  • They didnt have a navy but used money the
    Persians gave them for giving Ionia back to the
    Persians to buy ships and prep for war.
  • The Spartan-led alliance eventually destroyed the
    Athenian fleet and laid siege to Athens itself.
    The Athenians surrendered in 404 B.C.

94
The Conflict
  • Athens developed many problems
  • A diseaseprobably typhus--killed a third of its
    population
  • Pericles died from the disease
  • Athens couldnt come to a decision about making
    peace with Sparta
  • Athenian allies switched sides and joined the
    Spartans

95
Effects of the War
  • The Peloponnesian War brought disaster to the
    Greek city-states, both victors and vanquished
  • Populations declined, much land was destroyed,
    and unemployment caused many men to become hired
    soldiers in the Persian army
  • The Greeks also lost faith in democracy.
  • The length of the war caused people to think only
    of making money.

96
Effects of the War
  • Feelings between aristocrats and commoners became
    more strained. People began to look down on free
    political discussion.
  • Rulers came and went. City-states were unable to
    join together for ultimate power. Then came the
    Macedoniansand someone called Alexander the Great
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