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Permanent Wave

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Permanent Wave History of permanent waving History People have attempted permanent waving since Egyptians & Romans, but were not successful. It was not until the 20th ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Permanent Wave


1
Permanent Wave
  • History of permanent waving

2
History
  • People have attempted permanent waving since
    Egyptians Romans, but were not successful.
  • It was not until the 20th century, in 1905, that
    three professional permanent wave methods
    introduced a new art science in cosmetology
  • Cold waving has almost become a specialty service
    because of the technical knowledge practice it
    demands

3
History
  • 1905 first perm machine designed by
  • Charles Nessler
  • 1906 introduced in London
  • Machine permanent required electricity
  • to heat large metal clamps that were placed
  • over clients hair
  • Not efficient, too much equipment
  • Oblong heating devices hung suspended
  • by cords wires from a chandelier-like
  • structure

4
History
  • Women sitting underneath these contraptions had
    their hair covered with a chemical paste and
    wound around metal rods, starting from the scalp
    and working downward
  • These units were heated during the perm process
  • They were kept from touching the scalp by a
    complex system of counterbalancing weights,
    suspended from an overhead chandelier mounted on
    a stand

5
History
  • The tubes of the machine were then fitted over
    the rod, and the curl was electronically baked
    in
  • 1920s the technique was modified
  • Hair was now wrapped from the ends up to the
    scalp in a method called croquignole waving
  • Created by Robert Bishinger, a beautician from
    Pittsburgh, PA

6
History
  • 1930s came the cold wave and a new era in
    permanent waving
  • Chemicals instead of heat were used to process
    the hair
  • First cold waves took 6 8 hours for completion
    at room temperature
  • Term overnight wave became popular
  • 1932 first machineless permanent wave
  • Originally designed by a hairdresser in
    Pennsylvania
  • This design removed the risk of electrical burn
    or shock, and didnt require the use of a bulky
    piece of machinery
  • External heat was generated through a chemical
    process preheated clamps

7
History
  • Soft, small pads containing an exothermic (heat
    producing) mixture were wound around hair strands
  • Hot clamps kept the pad in place while the curl
    was processed
  • 1934-1st attempt w/out heat
  • Original test chemical used was palmolive shaving
    soap
  • Strand of hair was cut from scalp
  • Saturated w/ shaving soap
  • Wound around nail
  • Placed in aluminum foil to keep from drying out
  • 3 days later- unrolled showed definite curl
  • Curl retained even after shampoo

8
History
  • Next attempt
  • Waving lotion for heat waving,w/out heating the
    lotion
  • Chemicals in the waving lotion softened the hair
  • Lasted 6-8 hours instead of 3 days
  • 1938, Arnold F.Willat birth of cold waving
  • Chemical lotion was sprayed directly onto set
    hair
  • 10 minutes time a client had a full head of curls

9
History
  • Willat found that during the treatment hair was
    hydrolyzed the protein of the hair was
    chemically made to combine with water instead of
    simply getting wet.
  • This process often caused many hair cells to
    break down as a result the hair would break off
    when unrolled from the rod
  • Cold wave lotion, because of its low temperature,
    was not nearly as damaging as the heated
    alternative

10
History
  • Women could undergo repeated cold wave perms with
    little or no damage to their hair
  • The secret was not in the application of heat,
    but in the chemicals themselves
  • 1940 first commercial perm
  • 1941 a woman undergoing a perm died
  • Her death was attributed to absorption of
    ammonium sulfide
  • FDA immediately took the sulfide lotion off the
    market

11
History
  • 1941 a substitute was needed quickly
  • Thioglycolate appeared in the salons and worked
    just as well as its sulfide predecessor
  • 1948 FDA ruled that the new lotion was safe, and
    permanent waving enjoyed an even bigger surge of
    popularity
  • 1946 salon owners became concerned
  • Store shelves of home permanents appeared
  • Campaigns were launched on the advantages of a
    professional perm

12
History
  • Early 1950s different strength per solutions
    appeared
  • Additives became popular
  • Placenta
  • Mink oil
  • Wheat germ
  • 1952 on rod method in neutralizing verses
    splash on method

13
History
  • 1956 finally more salon perms were administered
  • Slogans appeared everywhere
  • Professional care is best for the hair
  • TONI the famous slogan Which twin has the
    Toni? ad landed the Toni Home Permanent Company
    in court when it was discovered that both twins
    had had their hair done in a salon, which charged
    15 per treatment, as opposed to the 2 cost of a
    home perm
  • Toni was ordered to refrain from further false
    advertising

14
History
  • 1960s perms and alkaline perms
  • Natural styles were emphasized straight hair
    became the big look
  • By the 1960s, scientific hair analysis had made
    us more aware of pH
  • Potential hydrogen
  • 1965 reverse perm
  • Removal of undesired curl, later classified as
    chemical hair straighteners

15
History
  • Early attempts to use chemicals to reform the
    hair quickly gave way to the alkaline cold waving
    method that is still in use today
  • This method utilizes a waving solution that is
    formulated with
  • Thioglycolic acid or its derivatives
  • Gentler curl
  • Ammonium hydroxide
  • Firmer curl

16
History
  • 1970s acid wave was developed which help
    reverse the negative attitude with perming
  • Today
  • Although thioglycolic acid or a derivative is
    still the basic ingredient, the free ammonia or
    excess alkali is eliminated from the formula
  • This does not end the history of permanent waving
    because of continual exploration for the perfect
    curl

17
Summary
  • Charles Nessler invented the perm machine capable
    of producing permanent curl in hair
  • 1st perms were called heat waves because heat and
    strong alkali produced the curl
  • 1930 cold wave introduced
  • Today acid waves popular because they have a
    lower pH than the cold waves and produce a more
    natural looking curl
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