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A BRIEF HISTORY & OVERVIEW OF FICTION

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Title: A BRIEF HISTORY & OVERVIEW OF FICTION


1
A BRIEF HISTORY OVERVIEW OF FICTION
2
FICTION DEFINED
  • FICTION lt A LATIN WORD MEAN-ING TO FORM OR TO
    MAKE.

3
FICTION DEFINED (cont.)
  • A FICTION IS A MADE STORY, AN IMAGINED
    INVENTED LITERARY COMPOSITION DESIGNED TO
    ENTER-TAIN (AND SOMETIMES INSTRUCT), TO MAKE
    READERS FEEL AND THINK.

4
FICTION DEFINED (cont.)
  • TODAY THE TERM FICTION IS USUALLY APPLIED ONLY
    TO SHORT STORIES, NOVELS, NOVELLAS, BUT OTHER
    LITERARY FORMS (E.G., PLAYS) ALSO HAVE FICTIONAL
    ELEMENTS.

5
HISTORY OF FICTION
  • THE HISTORY OF FICTION IS A LONG COMPLEX ONE.

6
ANTIQUITY OF STORIES
  • STORIES ARE A VERY ANCIENT HUMAN PRODUCT,
    PRECEDING THE INVENTION OF WRITING, AND THERE IS
    NO IDENTI-FIABLE FIRST STORYTELLER OR WORK OF
    FICTION.

7
EARLY FORMS OF FICTION
  • THE MODERN NOVEL SHORT STORY WERE PRECEDED BY
    MANY EARLIER FORMS OF FICTION, SUCH AS MYTHS,
    LEGENDS, FABLES, FAIRY TALES, PAR-ABLES, AND
    ALLEGORIES.

8
MYTHS
  • TELL STORIES OF THE ORIGINS EXPLOITS OF GODS
    GODDESSES FROM VARIOUS ANCIENT CULTURES, SUCH AS
    GREECE, ROME, SCANDI-NAVIA.

9
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10
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11
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12
MYTHS (cont.)
  • OTHER MYTHS DEAL W/ THE MYS-TERIES OF NATURE,
    INCLUDING THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE ITS
    INHABITANTS.

13
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14
MYTHS (cont.)
  • THE PURPOSE OF MYTHS IS TO HELP PEOPLE MAKE SENSE
    OF THE WORLD. THE GODS ARE DESCRIBED AS
    EX-PERIENCING HUMAN EMOTIONS FACING HUMAN
    CONFLICTS.

15
LEGENDS
  • RECOUNT THE AMAZING ACHIEVE-MENTS OF FICTIONAL
    CHARACTERS OR EXAGGERATE THE EXPLOITS OF ACTUAL
    PEOPLE (E.G., PAUL BUNYAN).

16
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17
LEGENDS (cont.)
  • LEGENDS OFTEN PRAISE CHARACTER TRAITS THAT ARE
    VALUED BY A PAR-TICULAR SOCIETY.

18
LEGENDS (cont.)
  • EX. PAUL BUNYAN WAS A RESOURCE-FUL LUMBERJACK
    WHO WORKED HARD, NEVER BACKED DOWN FROM A FIGHT,
    ENJOYED A GOOD PARTY ALL QUALITIES ADMIRED BY
    EARLY AMERICAN PIONEERS.

19
FABLES
  • USUALLY FEATURE ANIMALS WITH HUMAN TRAITS STATE
    AN EXPLICIT LESSON (E.G., SLOW BUT STEADY WINS
    THE RACE, APPEARANCES ARE DECEP-TIVE, ONE GOOD
    TURN DESERVES ANOTHER).

20
FABLES (cont.)
  • THE BEST-KNOWN FABLES WERE WRIT-TEN BY A GREEK
    SLAVE NAMED AESOP (600 B.C.E.), AND INCLUDE
    STORIES SUCH AS ANDROCLES THE LION, THE
    TORTOISE THE HARE, AND THE WOLF IN SHEEPS
    CLOTHING.

21
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22
FAIRY TALES
  • THIS FICTIONAL FORM OFTEN FEATURES SUPERNATURAL
    BEINGS LIKE GIANTS, TROLLS, FAIRY GOD-MOTHERS.

23
FAIRY TALES (cont.)
  • THEY ALSO FOCUS ON THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN GOOD
    EVIL, WITH GOOD ALWAYS TRIUMPHING, THOUGH
    SOMETIMES IN GROTESQUE, VIOLENT WAYS.

24
FAIRY TALES (cont.)
  • THE BEST-KNOWN COLLECTION OF THESE STORIES IS
    GRIMMS FAIRY TALES, WHICH INCLUDES CINDER-ELLA,
    LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD, HANSEL GRETEL,
    RAPUNZEL, AND OTHER WELL-KNOWN FAVORITES.

25
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26
PARABLES
  • STORIES THAT TEACH A LESSON OR EXPLAIN A COMPLEX
    SPIRITUAL CONCEPT THROUGH THE USE OF ANALOGY.

27
PARABLES (cont.)
  • THE NEW TESTAMENT CONTAINS MANY PARABLES ABOUT
    PROPER HUMAN CONDUCT (E.G., THE GOOD SAMARITAN,
    LUKE 1025-37) THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOD
    HUMANS (E.G., THE SEED GROWING SECRETLY, MARK
    426-29).

28
ALLEGORIES
  • SYMBOLIC STORIES THAT TEACH A MORAL LESSON AND IN
    WHICH EACH CHARACTER, ACTION, SETTING STANDS
    FOR A SPECIFIC MEANING.

29
ALLEGORIES (cont.)
  • EX. JOHN BUNYANS PILGRIMS PROGRESS (1678), IN
    WHICH A CHARACTER NAMED CHRISTIAN, WHO EMBODIES
    THE VIRTUES OF CHRISTIANITY, JOURNEYS THROUGH A
    WORLD OF TEMPTATIONS DANGERS (CITY OF
    DESTRUCTION, VALLEY OF HUMILIA-TION, ETC.) EN
    ROUTE TO THE CELESTIAL CITY (HEAVEN).

30
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31
EVOLUTION OF FICTION
  • OVER THE COURSE OF CENTURIES, WRITERS IN MANY
    LANGUAGES BE-GAN TO FOCUS MORE ON THE ARTIST-IC
    ENTERTAINMENT POSSIBILITIES OF PROSE, . . .

32
EVOLUTION OF FICTION (cont.)
  • . . .TO EXPLORE HUMAN CHARACTER W/OUT THE NEED TO
    PREACH MORALIZE.

33
MODERN FORMS OF FICTION
  • MANY 19TH-CENTURY WORKS NOW RE-FERRED TO AS
    NOVELS WERE CALLED ROMANCES BY THEIR AUTHORS
    (E.G., THE SCARLET LETTER, MOBY-DICK).

34
SHORT STORY
  • THIS TERM WAS FIRST USED IN THE U.S. IN THE
    1880s, BUT DID NOT APPEAR IN THE OXFORD ENGLISH
    DICTIONARY UNTIL 1933.

35
SHORT STORY (cont.)
  • THE FIRST ANALYSIS OF SHORT STORY STRUCTURE
    TECHNIQUE WAS A REVIEW BY EDGAR ALLAN POE OF
    NATHANIEL HAWTHORNES TWICE-TOLD TALES (1842).

36
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37
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38
POE ON THE SHORT STORY (cont.)
  • POE STRESSED WHAT HE CALLED UNITY OF EFFECT OR
    IMPRESSION ACHIEVED THROUGH SUSTAINED TONE,
    REPETITION, CONTINUITY, MOMENTUM.

39
POE ON THE SHORT STORY (cont.)
  • ACCORDING TO POE, EVERY WORD OF A STORY (AS IN A
    POEM) SHOULD CON-TRIBUTE TO THE OVERALL EFFECT.

40
POE ON THE SHORT STORY (cont.)
  • SHOULD BE READABLE IN ONE SIT-TING (ABOUT 30
    MINS. TO 2 HRS.), BEYOND WHICH EXCITEMENT CAN NOT
    BE SUSTAINED.
  • CALLED HIS STORIES TALES

41
19TH-CENTURY TALES (cont.)
  • CHARACTERS BECAME MORE FULLY DEVELOPED, BEGAN TO
    HAVE SPIRI-TUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPTH.
  • PLOTS BECAME MORE COMPLEX, SETTINGS MORE FULLY
    DESCRIBED.

42
19TH-CENTURY TALES (cont.)
  • OFTEN LED READERS TO WONDER QUESTION RATHER
    THAN TO ACCEPT A DIRECTLY STATED MORAL OR LESS-ON.

43
NONREALISTIC FICTION
  • READING THIS KIND OF LITERATURE REQUIRES THE
    WILLING SUSPENSION OF DISBELIEF (S. T.
    COLERIDGE)I.E., WILLINGNESS TO TAKE SERIOUSLY
    TO ENJOY CHARACTERS, PLOTS, SETTINGS THAT ARE
    STRANGE IMPLAUSIBLE.

44
REALISTIC FICTION
  • FOCUSES ON SCENES EVENTS OF EVERYDAY LIFE.
  • CHARACTERS ARE FULLY DEVELOPED, ORDINARY PEOPLE
    FULL OF COMPLEX-TIES CONTRADICTIONS.

45
REALISTIC FICTION (cont.)
  • SETTINGS ARE USUALLY MORE THAN BRIEFLY SKETCHED
    BACKDROPS.
  • READERS ARE EXPECTED TO FIND MEANING FOR
    THEMSELVES.

46
SHORT STORY CHARACTERISTICS
  • GENERALLY COMPRESSED TIGHTLY CONSTRUCTED.
  • CAREFULLY, CONSCIOUSLY MADE (HOWEVER SIMPLE,
    NATURAL, FORMLESS THEY MAY SEEM).

47
SHORT STORY CHARACTERISTICS (cont.)
  • ESSENTIALLY DRAMATIC, SHOWING RATHER THAN
    TELLING. TEND TO REVEAL CHARACTER IN ACTION OR
    UNDER STRESS.
  • (NOVELS, BY CONTRAST, TEND TO SHOW CHARACTERS
    DEVELOPING OVER TIME.)

48
SHORT STORY CHARACTERISTICS (cont.)
  • FOCUS IS OFTEN ON A SIGNIFICANT MOMENT OF
    PERCEPTION.
  • OPERATE BY SUGGESTIVENESS IN-DIRECTION.
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