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Scientific and Ethical Aspects of Beauty and Modifying Appearance

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Scientific and Ethical Aspects of Beauty and Modifying Appearance Bernadette Moreno, Sundeep Srivastava and Sarah Wolf Introduction Cosmetic surgery or procedure ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scientific and Ethical Aspects of Beauty and Modifying Appearance


1
Scientific and Ethical Aspects of Beauty and
Modifying Appearance
  • Bernadette Moreno, Sundeep Srivastava and Sarah
    Wolf

2
Introduction
  • Cosmetic surgery or procedure including dental
  • Diet pills or other supplements
  • Hair products or make-up
  • Reasons why?

3
Science and Technology
4
Plastic Surgery
  • Rhinoplasty
  • Breast Augmentation
  • Liposuction
  • Chin and Cheek Implants
  • Blepharoplasty
  • Brow Lift
  • Abdominoplasty
  • Etc.

5
Rhinoplasty
  • One of the most common cosmetic surgery
    procedures
  • Reduce or increase nose size, change shape of tip
    or bridge, nostril size, angle between nose and
    lip, or correct breathing problems
  • Cost 5,700

Modern Rhinoplasty Techniques and Facial Plastic
Surgery lthttp//ent.pote.hu/course12.htmgt 22
March 2006.
6
Breast Augmentation
  • Enhances the size of the breasts using inflatable
    saline or silicone implants
  • Implants placed behind breast or pectoral muscle
    tissue
  • Cost 5,850 (saline) 7,050 (silicone)

Breast Augmentation Surgery in Los Angeles
Personal Image Center lthttp//www.plasticsurgeryso
urce.com/plastic-surgery/breast-enlargement.cfmgt
22 March 2006.
7
Breast Augmentation
  • Side Effects
  • Temporary soreness, swelling, change in nipple
    sensation, bruising, breast sensitivity to
    stimulation lasting up to a few weeks
  • Scarring lasts from several months to a year or
    more
  • Risks
  • Implants may need removal or replacement for
    problems such as deflation or the formation of
    scar tissue around the implant

8
Liposuction
  • Sculpts the body by removing unwanted fat
  • Typically removed from abdomen, hips, buttocks,
    thighs, knees, upper arms, chin, cheeks and neck
  • Narrow tube inserted through tiny incision and
    suctioning out fat cells
  • Cost 9,900

Lipoplasty/Liposuction American Society of
Plastic Surgeons lthttp//www.plasticsurgery.org/pu
blic_education/procedures/Lipoplasty.cfmgt 22
March 2006.
9
Facial Implants
  • Used to improve facial contours
  • Implants made from different materials including
    silicone
  • Implant inserted into small incision often
    performed in conjunction with other facial
    surgery, i.e. face lift
  • Incision taped to reduce swelling and discomfort
  • Cost 3,000-5,000

Facial Implants American Society of Plastic
Surgeons lthttp//www.plasticsurgery.org/public_edu
cation/procedures/FacialImplants.cfmgt 22 March
2006.
10
Blepharoplasty and The Brow Lift
  • Blepharoplasty the removal of fat, excess skin
    and muscle from upper and lower eyelids
  • Does not remove crows feet, wrinkles or dark
    circles
  • Brow/Forehead Lift corrects drooping brows and
    smoothes forehead
  • Cost 5,000

Left Blepharoplasty and Right Brow Lift
American Society of Plastic Surgeons
lthttp//www.plasticsurgery.org/public_education/pr
ocedures/Browlift.cfmgt 22 March 2006.
11
Abdominoplasty
  • Removes excess skin and fat from middle and lower
    abdomen
  • Long incision from hipbone to hipbone above pubic
    area
  • Skin separated from abdominal wall and muscles
    stitched into new position
  • Extra skin removed and new hole cut for navel
  • Cost 6,500

Abdominoplasty American Society of Plastic
Surgeons lthttp//www.plasticsurgery.org/public_edu
cation/procedures/Abdominoplasty.cfmgt 22 March
2006.
12
Plastic Surgery and Recovery
  • Scars may be pink for up to six months after
    surgery
  • Risk of post-operative infections and blood clots
  • Fluid loss
  • Nerve damage

13
Microdermabrasion
  • Sandblaster-like device used to spray high
    pressure stream of aluminum oxide or salt
    crystals across face and suction used to remove
    dead outer layer of skin.
  • Stimulates skin cell and collagen production.

Microdermabrasion Skinet. lthttp//www.lasercare-
clinics.co.uk/Treatments/Display.asp?ID17gt 22
March 2006.
14
Microdermabrasion
  • Affects only outer layer of skin
  • Used to reduce fine lines, crows feet, age
    spots, acne scars
  • Effective for all skin types
  • Lunch hour procedure
  • Multiple treatments required for visible results
  • 5 to 12 treatments 2 to 3 weeks apart

15
Microdermabrasion
  • Few complications
  • Treatment extends only to outermost layer of skin
    and so scarring is unlikely and recovery is
    rapid.
  • Use of eye protection during procedure prevents
    ocular complications such as redness, sensitivity
    to light, and crystals adhering to the cornea
    typical of early microdermabrasion treatments.

16
Chemical Peel
  • Uses a solution of phenol (deep peel),
    trichloroacetic acid (medium depth peel) and
    alphahydroxy acids (light peel) to remove damaged
    outer layers of skin
  • Wrinkles, blemishes, uneven pigmentation or sun
    damage

Chemical Peels BGPMA Department of Aesthetic
Medicine lthttp//www.bgpma.com/html/aesthetics/pee
ls_main.htmgt 22 March 2006.
17
Chemical Peel
  • Side Effects
  • Temporary throbbing, tingling, swelling, redness,
    sensitivity to sun, whiteheads
  • With Phenol peel permanent lightening of skin
    and loss of ability to tan
  • Risks
  • Infection, scarring, flare-up of skin allergies,
    fever blisters, cold sores
  • In rare cases, heart irregularities with phenol
    peel
  • New wrinkles may form as skin ages

18
Collagen Injections
  • Plump creased, furrowed or sunken facial skin
  • Add fullness to lips and backs of hands
  • Risks and Side effects
  • Stinging, throbbing, burning sensation, redness,
    swelling, excess fullness, allergic reaction,
    rash, hives, flu-like symptoms, infection,
    connective tissue or autoimmune diseases

19
Botox
  • Botulinum toxin is a product of the bacteria
    Clostridium Botulinum
  • Wrinkles caused when a muscle tightens.
  • Botox is injected through the skin into the
    muscle and keeps the muscle from tightening when
    the muscle can't tighten, the wrinkle is less
    prominent
  • Effective for about 4 months, after which
    wrinkles may reappear

20
Botox
  • Side effects
  • Droopy eyelids, flu-like symptoms, headache,
    upset stomach, risk of botulism (a potentially
    fatal disease which often results in difficulty
    moving the arms and legs and difficulty breathing
    risk is low if Botox is used properly)

21
Obesity Review
  • 300,000 to 400,000 obesity/overweight related
    deaths per year and climbing

22
Gastric Bypass
  • Performed when patient has BMI gt40 or a
    life-threatening, weight-related condition and
    other weight loss treatments are unsuccessful
  • Makes stomach smaller and allows food to bypass
    part of the small intestine
  • Fewer calories are absorbed resulting in weight
    loss

23
Gastric Bypass
  • Regular Digestion
  • Gastric Bypass

24
Laser Eye Surgery
  • LASIK Laser Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis
  • Reduce or eliminate dependency on contacts or
    glasses
  • Not strictly considered cosmetic, but still an
    elective procedure

25
LASIK Procedure
  • Anesthetic eye drops to numb eye
  • Suction ring applied to hold eye steady
  • Corneal flap-outermost 20 of cornea-raised and
    lifted to side
  • UV light and high-energy pulses reshape internal
    cornea
  • Flap returned to original position and observed
    for 3-5 minutes to ensure cornea bonds correctly

26
After LASIK
  • Burning, itching, discomfort, watery eyes,
    blurred vision, sensitivity to light and
    bloodshot appearance immediately afterward
  • 3 to 6 months for vision to stabilize
  • Glare, haloes, difficulty driving at night
  • Further correction may be necessary

27
Cosmetic Dentistry
  • Whiten teeth
  • Correct gum line
  • Seal gaps
  • Fix chips or cracks
  • Correct rotations
  • Replace worn down or discolored teeth

28
Cosmetic Dentistry
  • blends function with beauty by combining tooth
    reconstruction and plastic surgery procedures on
    the mouth tissues (gums, jawbones, facial
    muscles, lips, and skin) to result in a
    better-looking smile

Before
After
29
Cosmetic Dentistry
  • Crowns artificial coverings for teeth made from
    ceramic/porcelain metal composite, gold, or a
    tin/aluminum mixture
  • Veneers similar to crowns except they cover the
    forward part of the tooth only and are used
    exclusively for aesthetic purposes

30
Cosmetic Dental Costs
  • Orthodontics 5,000 to 8,000
  • Crowns 700 to 1,300
  • Whitening 300 to 520
  • Veneers 250 to 2,500 per tooth

31
Hair Removal
  • Many cultures have an aesthetic "ideal" amount of
    hair for males and females. For some of us,
    unwanted hair that exceeds this arbitrary
    standard can cause real or perceived problems
    with social acceptance.

32
Hair Removal Methods
  • Depilation (removing part of the hair above the
    skin's surface)
  • Shaving or trimming
  • Depilatories (creams or shaving powders which
    chemically dissolve hair)
  • Friction (rough surfaces used to buff away hair)
  • Epilation (removing the entire hair)
  • Tweezing
  • Waxing
  • Sugaring (similar to waxing but with a sticky
    paste)
  • Threading (twisted thread catches hairs as its
    rolled across skin)
  • Rotary Epilators (devices which rapidly grasp
    hairs and pull them out by the root)

33
Permanent Removal Methods
  • Electrolysis permanent for most
  • Laser permanent reduction for some
  • Flashlamp permanent reduction for some
  • Prescription oral or topical medications
    requires continuous use

34
More Extreme Methods
  • X-Ray banned in the United States
  • Photodynamic therapy in the experimental stage
  • Other methods with doubtful promise
  • Electric tweezers, transdermal electrolysis,
    transcutaneous hair removal, photoepilators,
    microwaves, dietary supplements, nonprescription
    topical preparations

35
Pharmaceuticals and Appearance
36
Diet Pills
  • Many Diet Pills and Weight Loss Products are
    Fraudulent
  • According to Fat - Exploding the Myths ( Lisa
    Colles), Americans are reported to spend between
    30-50 billion each year on diet and weight loss
    programs, products and pills 6 billion of this
    is said to be spent on weight loss products and
    pills that are fraudulent.

37
Diet Pills
  • Prescription diet pills regulated by the FDA
  • Meridia (Sibutramine), Xenical (Orlistat),
    Adipex, Bontril, Didrex, Phentermine and Tenuate
  • Over the Counter Pills and Supplements
  • Classified as food supplements instead of
    weight loss drugs and are unregulated (i.e. not
    subject to advertising, dosage or labelling
    requirements)
  • Some supplements have amphetamine-like properties
    or serious side effects including death
  • Others are just plain useless!

38
Side Effects
  • Pills that work on the brain, i.e. reduce
    appetite
  • raised blood pressure, chest pain, fever, hair
    loss, depression, impotence, heart damage
  • Pills that work in the gut, i.e. reduce calorie
    or fat absorption
  • diarrhea, unexpected fecal discharge and oily
    stools
  • Herbal diet pills
  • Herbal or natural do not equal healthier
  • Some associated with major health concerns

39
Cosmetics
  • Enhance beauty of the human body
  • Simulate appearance of health and youth as well
    as sexual arousal (wide eyes, flushed cheeks and
    red lips)
  • Types
  • Lipstick, foundation, powder, rouge, mascara,
    eyeliner, eye shadow, nail polish, concealer, etc.

40
Cosmetic Ingredients
  • Pearl essence in lipstick shimmery substance
    in fish scales and is a byproduct of large-scale
    commercial fishing industry
  • More commonly, pearlescent quality comes from
    mica coated with a thin layer of titanium dioxide
  • Red color of lipstick iron oxide (rust) or
    organic pigments
  • Eye shadow carmine dye which comes from crushed
    bodies of cochineal insect (though rarely)

41
Skin Care Products
  • Moisturizers
  • Sunblock
  • Protect skin from UV damage
  • Self-tanners
  • And other lotions
  • Hide imperfections such as acne, wrinkles, dark
    circles, etc.

42
Ethical Considerations
  • Topics for Discussion

43
What is Beautiful?
  • What is beautiful?
  • Why do we find certain attributes beautiful?
  • How has the notion of beauty changed over time
    and what are some of the social implications?

44
Beauty and Morality
  • Certain images or ideas may be considered
    inherently immoral and hence do not create a
    valid aesthetic experience
  • Sexual content?
  • Politically motivated? (That which does not
    encourage adherence to dictates of the state)

45
Religious/Philosophical Views
  • What does it mean to worship your body or to view
    your body as a temple?
  • Taking care of your body, doing what is best for
    it
  • Treating your body with respect, compassion and
    care
  • Not the same as being obsessed with appearance

46
Cultural Considerations
  • What is acceptable fashion/use of cosmetics in
    one culture may be inappropriate or offensive to
    another
  • Implications for a multicultural society?

47
Botox
  • Many cases of botched Botox
  • Four cases of botulism poisoning occurred at a
    Fort Lauderdale Clinic and then expanded to
    California.
  • Doctors received their materials form a
    biological laboratory that supplied the botulinum
    toxin.
  • How can doctors know for sure that what they are
    providing to their patient does not harm them?

48
Plastic Surgery
  • Medical evidence shows no correlation between
    cancer and breast implants
  • Should we be concerned about long term health
    risks that we are not aware of for other
    procedures?

49
Gastric Bypass
  • Surgical and long term health risks associated
    with gastric bypass surgery
  • University of Washington study found that 1 in 50
    people die within one month of having gastric
    bypass surgery

50
Another Question
  • The holiday season brings an increasing number of
    people giving plastic surgery as a gift, i.e.
    15,000 face lifts, 500 Botox treatments, and
    40,000 porcelain tooth veneers
  • Some doctors and social critics have raised
    ethical andpsychological questions about the
    consequences of amending someone else's
    appearance, especially if the gift was not
    requested. Patients may alsooverlook the medical
    risks of the procedures if they receive them as
    gifts.
  • What are your thoughts?

51
Other comments?
52
References
  • American Society of Plastic Surgeons
    lthttp//www.plasticsurgery.orggt 22 March 2006.
  • Balsam, M. S. Cosmetics, Science and Technology
  • Bandy, Way. Designing Your Face
  • Colles, Lisa. Fat - Exploding the Myths
  • Cosmetics. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia
    lthttp//www.wikipedia.org/gt 22 March 2006.
  • Elsner, Peter. Cosmeceuticals Drugs vs.
    Cosmetics
  • Emory, Elliott. Aesthetics in a Multicultural Age
  • Estrin, Norman. The Cosmetic Industry Scientific
    and Regulatory Foundations
  • Hasler, Clare M. Regulation of Functional Foods
    and Nutraceuticals A Global Perspective
  • The United States Agency for Healthcare Research
    and Quality. Pharmacological and Surgical
    Treatment of Obesity
  • http//www.webmd.com/hw/weight_control/hw252819.as
    p
  • http//www.forbes.com/home/feeds/ap/2006/03/08/ap2
    581371.html
  • http//www.infoplasticsurgery.com/costloftus.html
  • http//weightloss.about.com/od/obesityhealth/a/bl_
    gastcost.htm
  • http//www.allaboutvision.com/visionsurgery/cost.h
    tm
  • http//www.nbc6.net/health/3994046/detail.html
  • http//www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/01/21/earlysho
    w/contributors/melindamurphy/main668323.shtml
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