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Title: CHINA and ROME

  • Empires of
  • the East and the West

Han China and Imperial Rome
Pre- Empire States
  • Shang Dynasty, c.1750 bce-1100 bce
  • introduction of writing
  • Zhou Dynasty, c.1100 bce- 221 bce
  • establishment of Confucianism and Taoism
  • Qin (Chin) Dynasty, 221 bce-206 bce
  • origin of name of China
  • ROME
  • Etruscan Civilization, c.700 bce-509 bce
  • Legendary Roman kings, 753 bce-509 bce
  • patricians aristocrats and professionals
  • plebians farmers, craftsmen, laborers
  • patronage system
  • pater -- paternalism
  • pietas -- duty
  • Roman Republic, 509 bce -27 bce

Qin (Chin) Dynasty 221-206 bce
  • First unified the country by subjugating the
    Warring States
  • Established central bureaucracy
  • Legalism supplanted Confucianism persecuted
    scholars and burned books
  • Standardized writing, currency, weights and
  • Major building projects
  • Used forced labor of convicts
  • Roads and canals
  • Palaces
  • Connected fortification walls to build 5000
    kilometer Great Wall

Mausoleum of 1st Qin Emperor ShinHuangdi
  • ShiHuangdis Mausoleum was discovered in 1974 by
    farmers digging a well. The 13 year-old emperor
    had ordered 800,000 workers to build his tomb.
  • Terra Cotta Army
  • Rebellions broke out after Emperors death in 210
    bce dynasty overthrown after only 15 years of

Etruscan Civilization, 8th-5th c. bce
  • May have migrated to Italy from Anatolia (Turkey)
  • Thriving cities with paved streets, defensive
    walls and large temples
  • Skillful bronze, iron and gold work
  • Challenged by Greeks from sea and Celts from Gaul
  • Monarchy last king -- Tarquin the Proud deposed
    by Romans

Etruscan Necropolis
  • Underground family tombs with stone vaults
    covered by earth
  • Murals with scenes from everyday life hunting,
    fishing, feasting, dancing, religious ceremonies
  • Joyful scenes in early tombs give way to gloomy
    violent scenes as Etruscans lost power to the
    Romans (4th-2nd Century bc)
  • Etruscan Art

Liberated Etruscan Women
  • Etruscan women take particular care of their
    bodies and exercise often, sometimes along with
    the men, and sometimes by themselves. It is not a
    disgrace for them to be seen naked. They do not
    share their couches with their husbands but with
    the other men who happen to be present, and they
    propose toasts to anyone they choose. They are
    expert drinkers and very attractive. The
    Etruscans raise all the children that are born,
    without knowing who their fathers are.
  • Theopompus of Chios, 4th cent. BCE

Roman Kingdom Regnum Romanum753-510 bce
  • In Roman legend, the Trojan hero Aeneas sailed
    across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy and founded
  • His son Iulus went on to found the city of Alba
  • From Alba Longa's royal family came the twins
    Romulus and Remus, who went on to found the city
    of Rome in 753 BCE.
  • The kingdom ended with the expulsion of Lucius
    Tarquinius Superbus in 510 BCE and the
    establishment of the Roman Republic.

Legendary Kings
The Gauls destroyed all of Rome's historical
records when they sacked the city 390 BC , so no
contemporary records of the kingdom exist, and
all accounts of the kings must be highly
questioned. Archaeological evidence does,
however, support that a settlement was founded in
Rome around the middle of the 8th century BC.
Accomplishments of the Roman Kings
  • Settlement and continual expansion of the city of
    Rome (aided by rape of the Sabine women)
  • Establishment of Senate to serve as kings
  • Establishment of Roman legions
  • Establishment of the Vestal Virgins
  • Reform of the calendar to 360 days, adding the
    months of January and February
  • Introduction of coinage
  • Establishment of a census dividing the population
    into classes according to wealth

The Rape of Lucretia
  • The son of the last king of Rome, Lucius
    Tarquinius Superbus (535 BC to 510 BC), raped a
    Roman noblewoman named Lucretia.
  • Lucretia compelled her family to take action by
    gathering the men, telling them what happened,
    and killing herself.
  • Lucius Junius Brutus incited the people of Rome
    against the royal family by displaying her body
    and led an uprising that drove the Tarquins out
    of Rome
  • The monarchy was replaced with the new Roman

Botticelli, The Death of Lucretia, c. 1500
The Roman Republic509 bce - 27 bce
  • Senatus populisque Romanorum (The Senate and
    People of Rome)
  • Senate -- patricians
  • Consilium plebis -- tribunes elected by plebians
  • Military Campaigns
  • Italian peninsula
  • Punic Wars 264-146 bc
  • Invasion of Macedonia and Greece 145 bc
  • Gaul 58 - 50 bc
  • Egypt 31 bc
  • Emergence of equites class soldiers and

Civil Wars50 bce-27 bce
  • First Triumvirate Pompey, Crassus and Julius
  • 49 bc Caesar crosses the Rubicon
  • 45 bc assassination of Caesar by Senate
  • Second Triumvirate Octavian, Lepidus and Marc
  • 31 bc Battle of Actium death of Antony and
  • 27 bc Octavian declared Caesar Augustus

CHINA The Han Empire, 206 bce-220 ce
The Han Dynasty206 bce-220 ce
  • Liu Bang restored order and established Han
  • Centralized Imperial rule
  • Emperor Han Wudi, the Martial Emperor 141-87
  • Military Prowess
  • Extended cultural influence over Korea, Vietnam,
    Central Asia, Mongolia

Confucianism Restored
  • State philosophy
  • Honored and employed scholars in government
  • Instituted civil service exam system
  • Imperial University established 124 bce to
    educate bureaucrats
  • Chinas most famous historian Sima Qian (145-87

Han Science and Technology
  • Inventions
  • Paper
  • Porcelain
  • Compass
  • Seismograph
  • Manufacture of Steel

The first compass
Museum of Earthquakes with Biography of
Zhangheng, inventor of Seismograph
Sima Qian (145-87 bce)
  • Chinas most famous historian
  • Shiji (??, "history record"), an overview of the
    history of China covering more than two thousand
    years from from the earliest times to his own day
    during the reign of Emperor Han Wudi
  • Historians regard Sima Qians work as their
    model, which stands as the "official format" of
    the history of China.
  • In writing Shiji, Sima Qian initiated a new
    writing style by presenting history in a series
    of biographies

Emperor Han Wudi the Martial Emperor 141-87
  • Military Prowess
  • Extended cultural influence over Korea, Vietnam,
    Central Asia, Mongolia
  • Built enormous bureaucracy relying upon Legalist
    principles of government
  • Established Imperial University 124 bce to
    educate bureaucrats with Confucianism as the
    curricular basis
  • Established long-distance trade along the Silk
    Road as a result of information brought back by
    the envoy Zhang Qian

The Silk Road
  • China to India, across Central Asia to Antioch,
    Baghdad, Alexandria and Rome
  • Trade
  • East to West silk and spices
  • West to East manufactured goods (glassware,
    jewelry, perfumes) and commodities such as olive
  • Religious movements
  • Buddhism to Central Asia, Southeast Asia and
  • Hinduism to Southeast Asia
  • Christianity to Persia, India and China
  • Epidemics
  • 2nd and 3rd c. ce Han and Roman Empires suffered
    large-scale epidemics small pox, measles,
    bubonic plague
  • Population decline lead to economic and social

ROME The Empire
Pax Romana27 bce - 180 ce
  • Caesar Augustus reign (27 bc-14 ad) considered
    the Golden Age of Rome
  • Establishment of law and civil order throughout
  • Rome became an international city
  • Public works aqueducts, public baths, theatres,
    marketplaces, roads, libraries
  • Economy rested on slavery slaves ranged from
    field laborers to secretaries, teachers, and
    artists -- often earned enough to buy freedom

Roman Culture Literature
Aeneas carrying Father, Laertes, and leading
Son, Ascanius, from Troy
  • Virgils Aeneid
  • Epic poem provided foundation myth for Roman
  • Embodied Roman ideals
  • Pater familias
  • Pius Aeneas
  • Divine intervention in founding of Rome
  • Favorite of Caesar Augustus
  • Ovids Metamorphoses
  • Collection of classical myths from the
    Mediterranean rendered in poetic form
  • Emphasized the continual nature of change
  • Exiled by Caesar Augustus

Roman Culture Philosophy
  • Stoicism
  • Held that emotions like fear or envy either were,
    or arose from, false judgements
  • The sage--a person who had attained moral and
    intellectual perfection--would not undergo
    emotions the sage is utterly immune to
    misfortune and virtue is sufficient for
  • Epicureanism
  • Based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. 340c.
    270 BC),
  • A general attack on superstition and divine
  • The greatest good was to seek modest pleasures to
    attain a state of tranquility and freedom from
    fear as well as absence of bodily pain through
    knowledge of the workings of the world and the
    limits of desires.
  • Neo-Platonism
  • School of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd
    century ce, based on the teachings of Plato and
    earlier Platonists
  • Human perfection and happiness were attainable in
    this world, without awaiting an afterlife.
    Perfection and happiness could be achieved
    through philosophical contemplation

Roman Culture Theatre
  • Drama flourished under the Republic but declined
    into variety entertainment under the Empire
  • Roman festivals Held in honor of the gods, but
    much less religious than in Greece
  • Entertainment tended to be grandiose,
    sentimental, diversionary
  • Actors / performers were called histriones

  • Chorus was abandoned
  • No act or scene divisions
  • Songs
  • Everyday domestic affairs Boy meets girl,
    complications, boy gets girl marriage
  • Action placed in the street
  • Bawdy
  • Stock characters
  • Only two playwrights' material survives
  • Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254-184 bce)
  • Publius Terenius Afer Terence (195 or 185-159

PLAUTUS (c. 254-184 B.C.E.)
  • 21 extant plays including Pot of Gold, The
    Menaechmi, Braggart Warrior -- probably between
    205-184 B.C.
  • All based on Greek New Comedies
  • Added Roman allusions, Latin dialog, varied
    poetic meters, witty jokes
  • Some techniques
  • Stychomythia dialog with short lines, like a
    tennis match
  • Slapstick
  • Songs

TERENCE Publius Terenius Afer (195 or 185-159
  • Born in Carthage, came to Rome as a boy slave,
    educated and freed
  • The Afer in his name may indicate that he was an
    African, and therefore he may have been the first
    major black playwright in western theater.
  • Six plays, all of which surviveincluding The
    Brothers, Mother-in-Law, etc.
  • More complex plots combined stories from Greek
  • Character and double-plots were his forte
    contrasts in human behavior
  • Less boisterous than Plautus, less episodic,
    more elegant language.
  • Less popular than Plautus.

Roman Tragedy
  • None survive from the early period, and only one
    playwright from the later period Seneca
  • 5 act structure later adopted by Elizabethans
  • Elaborate speeches -- rhetorical influence
  • Interest in morality expressed in sententiae
    (short pithy generalizations about the human

Medea, Herculaneum c. 70 bce
  • Roman philosopher, orator, dramatist and
  • Nine extant tragedies, five adapted from
    EuripidesThe Trojan Women, Medea, Oedipus,
  • Suicide in 65 A.D. at the orders of Nero
  • Seneca had a strong effect on later dramatists
    Elizabethans and French
  • Uncertain whether Seneca's plays were actually
    performed or simply intended for recitation
    before a small private audience closet dramas

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (5 or 4 B.C.E. 65 C.E.)
Roman Culture Spectacle
  • Gladiatorial combats
  • Chariot races
  • Naumachia Naval battles in a flooded Coliseum
  • Real-life theatricals
  • Decadent, violent and immoral
  • All theatrical events banned by Church when Rome
    became Christianized

  • Rome
  • Well organized bureaucracy founded on Roman law
    and classical learning
  • Emphasis on family pater familias
  • Reliance on patricians women gained power and
    property rights within families
  • Engineering roads, aqueducts, amphitheatres,
    domes, sewage systems, central heating
  • Inventions concrete, the arch (probably
    Etruscan), insulae (apartment buildings)
  • Religion Emperor as god, paganism, mystery
    religions, introduction of Christianity
  • China
  • Well organized bureaucracy founded on Confucian
    ideals and education
  • Emphasis on family, ancestors patriarchal
  • Reliance on gentry as support good marriages
    afforded women more rights
  • Engineering roads, canals, the Great Wall
  • Inventions wheelbarrow, gunpowder, printing
    press, compass, paper, paper currency (all before
    1000 ad)
  • Religion Confucianism, Taoism, native gods,
    introduction of Buddhism

Empires in Decline
  • Imperial Rome
  • Internal opposition barracks emperors
  • Difficulties in administering vast empire lead to
    division of authority and rivalry
  • Eastern and Western Empire Constantine moved
    capitol of Empire to Constantinople
  • Germanic invasions by Vandals, Ostrogoths, and
  • 410 ce Visigoths sacked Rome
  • 476 ce Odawacer deposed the last Western Roman
  • 5th c. Eastern Roman Empire became known as
    Byzantine Empire
  • Han China
  • Infighting among ruling elites
  • Inequitable distribution of land -- tax burden
    fell on peasants rather than on large landowners
  • Series of peasant rebellions
  • Usurpation of political authority by generals --
    allied themselves with landlords and became
  • 220 ce generals divided empire into 3 kingdoms
  • Emigration of nomadic peoples into N. China kept
    the country disunited

  • END