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Thursday Lecture – Legumes

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Reading: Textbook, Chapter 6 Thursday Lecture Legumes * On Thursday we examine how stems and leaves are formed, and look at some crops that are variously derived ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thursday Lecture – Legumes


1
Thursday Lecture Legumes
Reading Textbook, Chapter 6
2
Optional Assignment - Due Tuesday March 1 Where
do baby carrots come from? - How are they
produced? is there such a thing as a pregnant
mama-carrot?!
3
Quiz
4
  • Quiz
  • What is a legume?
  • List two crop plants that are members of the
    legume family

5
Fabaceae
6
Fabaceae Leguminosae Legume family (also called
bean family or pea family)
7
Fabaceae Leguminosae Legume family (also called
bean family or pea family) legere Latin for
too gather
8
Fabaceae Leguminosae Legume family (also called
bean family or pea family) legere Latin for
too gather 19,000 species 3d largest
9
Fabaceae Leguminosae Legume family (also called
bean family or pea family) legere Latin for
too gather 19,000 species 3d largest 41 crop
species most of any family
10
Fabaceae Leguminosae Legume family (also called
bean family or pea family) legere Latin for
too gather 19,000 species 3d largest 41 crop
species most of any family Cereal Legume ?
complete protein
11
Legume Papilionoid flower
See Fig. 6.1, 6.2, page 138
12
Legume Papilionoid flower
See Fig. 6.1, 6.2, page 138
Banner petal
13
Legume Papilionoid flower
See Fig. 6.1, 6.2, page 138
Banner petal
wing
14
Legume Papilionoid flower
See Fig. 6.1, 6.2, page 138
Banner petal
wing
keel
15
Legume Papilionoid flower
See Fig. 6.1, 6.2, page 138
Banner petal
wing
keel
Stamens 9 1
16
Papilionoid legumes
17
Papilionoid legumes
18
Other Legumes
See Fig. 6.1, page 137
Acacia - Mimosoideae
19
Other Legumes
See Fig. 6.1, page 137
Acacia - Mimosoideae
Senna - Caesalpinoideae
20
Nitrogen Fixation
Paradox atmosphere is 80 nitrogen (N) yet N is
a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all
ecosystems
21
Nitrogen Fixation
Paradox atmosphere is 80 nitrogen (N) yet N is
a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all
ecosystems Resolution atmospheric nitrogen is
in a form (N2) that is not available for chemical
reactions in biological organisms
22
Nitrogen Fixation
Paradox atmosphere is 80 nitrogen (N) yet N is
a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all
ecosystems Resolution atmospheric nitrogen is
in a form (N2) that is not available for chemical
reactions in biological organisms How does
nitrogen become available to living organisms?
23
Nitrogen Fixation
  • Paradox atmosphere is 80 nitrogen (N) yet N is
    a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all
    ecosystems
  • Resolution atmospheric nitrogen is in a form
    (N2) that is not available for chemical reactions
    in biological organisms
  • How does nitrogen become available to living
    organisms?
  • reaction is called fixation

24
Nitrogen Fixation
  • Paradox atmosphere is 80 nitrogen (N) yet N is
    a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all
    ecosystems
  • Resolution atmospheric nitrogen is in a form
    (N2) that is not available for chemical reactions
    in biological organisms
  • How does nitrogen become available to living
    organisms?
  • reaction is called fixation
  • can occur with input of energy (lightning
    strike)

25
Nitrogen Fixation
  • Paradox atmosphere is 80 nitrogen (N) yet N is
    a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all
    ecosystems
  • Resolution atmospheric nitrogen is in a form
    (N2) that is not available for chemical reactions
    in biological organisms
  • How does nitrogen become available to living
    organisms?
  • reaction is called fixation
  • can occur with input of energy (lightning
    strike)
  • some microorganisms can carry out this reaction

26
Nitrogen Fixation
  • Paradox atmosphere is 80 nitrogen (N) yet N is
    a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all
    ecosystems
  • Resolution atmospheric nitrogen is in a form
    (N2) that is not available for chemical reactions
    in biological organisms
  • How does nitrogen become available to living
    organisms?
  • reaction is called fixation
  • can occur with input of energy (lightning
    strike)
  • some microorganisms can carry out this reaction
  • mutualism between bacteria (Rhizobium etc.) and
    members of Fabaceae

27
N2 Fixing Nodules
Nitrogen-fixing Root Nodules
28
N2 Fixing Nodules
Nitrogen-fixing Root Nodules
Bacteria in cells
29
Can we transfer N-fixation to other crops?
See Box 6.1, page 141
30
Can we transfer N-fixation to other crops?
  • See Box 6.1, page 141
  • Morphological changes development of nodule

31
Can we transfer N-fixation to other crops?
  • See Box 6.1, page 141
  • Morphological changes development of nodule
  • - critically important because need to exclude O2

32
Can we transfer N-fixation to other crops?
  • See Box 6.1, page 141
  • Morphological changes development of nodule
  • - critically important because need to exclude
    O2
  • Host/symbiont recognition

33
Can we transfer N-fixation to other crops?
  • See Box 6.1, page 141
  • Morphological changes development of nodule
  • - critically important because need to exclude
    O2
  • Host/symbiont recognition
  • Chemical reactions to carry out N2 fixation

34
Can we transfer N-fixation to other crops?
  • See Box 6.1, page 141
  • Morphological changes development of nodule
  • - critically important because need to exclude
    O2
  • Host/symbiont recognition
  • Chemical reactions to carry out N2 fixation
  • ? Multiple genes, multiple chromosome locations,
    not trivial

35
Nitrogen Cycle
See Fig. 6.4, page 140
1. nitrogen fixation
2. ammonification
3. nitrification
atmospheric fixation
4. denitrification
ammonification
nitrogen fixing bacteria
nitrification
denitrifying bacteria
36
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes
See Box 6.2, page 142
  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)

37
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes
See Box 6.2, page 142
  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
  • - poisons (alkaloids, cyanogens)

38
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes
See Box 6.2, page 142
  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
  • - poisons (alkaloids, cyanogens)
  • Amino acid content of proteins complements
    grains

39
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes
See Box 6.2, page 142
  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
  • - poisons (alkaloids, cyanogens)
  • Amino acid content of proteins complements
    grains
  • High fiber levels

40
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes
See Box 6.2, page 142
  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
  • - poisons (alkaloids, cyanogens)
  • Amino acid content of proteins complements
    grains
  • High fiber levels
  • Isoflavones appear to lower cholesterol levels

41
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes
See Box 6.2, page 142
  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
  • - poisons (alkaloids, cyanogens)
  • Amino acid content of proteins complements
    grains
  • High fiber levels
  • Isoflavones appear to lower cholesterol levels
  • Phytoestrogens ? may help relieve menopause
    symptoms

42
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes
See Box 6.2, page 142
  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
  • - poisons (alkaloids, cyanogens)
  • Amino acid content of proteins complements
    grains
  • High fiber levels
  • Isoflavones appear to lower cholesterol levels
  • Phytoestrogens ? may help relieve menopause
    symptoms
  • Oligosaccharides (beans, beans, the musical fruit
    - see Box 6.3, page 150)

43
A Poisonous Legume
Abrus precatorius Precatory Bean
Abrin toxin, one of most toxic substances
known 1 crushed seed can be fatal if ingested
44
Legumes Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system

45
Legumes Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
  • Less seed scattering

46
Legumes Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
  • Less seed scattering
  • Greater seed size

47
Legumes Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
  • Less seed scattering
  • Greater seed size
  • Synchronous fruiting

48
Legumes Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
  • Less seed scattering
  • Greater seed size
  • Synchronous fruiting
  • Loss of dormancy

49
Legumes Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
  • Less seed scattering
  • Greater seed size
  • Synchronous fruiting
  • Loss of dormancy
  • - question which came first, domestication or
    loss of dormancy?

50
Legumes Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
  • Less seed scattering
  • Greater seed size
  • Synchronous fruiting
  • Loss of dormancy
  • - question which came first, domestication or
    loss of dormancy?
  • Recent studies no common set of domesticated
    genes

51
Major Legume Food Crops - Pulses
Pulses dried legume seeds used for food
52
Major Legume Food Crops - Pulses
Pulses dried legume seeds used for food
Near East lentils, peas, chick-peas, broad
beans Far East soybean, pigeon pea Africa
cowpeas Mexico common bean, lima bean South
America common bean, lima bean, peanut
53
Major Legume Food Crops - Pulses
Pulses dried legume seeds used for food
Near East lentils, peas, chick-peas, broad
beans Far East soybean, pigeon pea Africa
cowpeas Mexico common bean, lima bean South
America common bean, lima bean, peanut
Commonality Legumes food of the poor
54
Near Eastern Pulses 1. Lentils
Lens culinaris genus name refers to shape of
seeds
55
Near Eastern Pulses 1. Lentils
Lens culinaris genus name refers to shape of
seeds
56
Near Eastern Pulses 2. Peas
Pisum sativum used as food since ancient times
(8-9,000 yrs ago) and domesticated by about 5,800
yrs ago.
57
Peas porridge or green
Pease porridge hot Pease porridge cold Pease
porridge in the pot Nine days old
1600s first use as fresh green vegetable
(Holland) Specialized peas snow peas, sugar
snap peas bred so that pods are edible in
entirely, have high sugar levels
58
Near Eastern Pulses 3. Broad Beans
Vicia faba from Mediterranean region,
cultivated 8800 yrs ago. Favism type of anemia,
aggravated in susceptible individual by Vicia
alkaloids
59
Near Eastern Pulses 4. Chick-Peas
60
cow-without-bones - soybean
Glycine max domesticated in China gt3000 yrs
ago.
61
The Cinderella Crop
U.S. introduced as crop in 1765
62
The Cinderella Crop
U.S. introduced as crop in 1765 1920s used
for fruit rather than just forage
63
The Cinderella Crop
U.S. introduced as crop in 1765 1920s used
for fruit rather than just forage Soybeans
contain a trypsin inhibitor, destroyed by heating
64
Soybean Products
Oriental Foodstuffs Miso, Tofu, Tempeh, Soy
Milk, Soy Sauce Soybean Oil widely used Soy
proteins used in many products Soy lecithin
widely used in chocolate products Non-food uses
inks, plastics, cleaners
65
Other Old World Pulses
Pigeon peas, Cajanus cajan from
India Black-eyed peas (Cowpeas), Vigna
unguiculata from Africa, in U.S. considered to
be southern regional specialty
66
Soybean Products
Oriental Foodstuffs Miso, Tofu, Tempeh, Soy
Milk, Soy Sauce Soybean Oil widely used Soy
proteins used in many products Soy lecithin
widely used in chocolate products Non-food uses
inks, plastics, cleaners
67
Roundup - Glyphosate
Herbicide chemical structure
68
Roundup - Glyphosate
Herbicide chemical structure
Mode of action blocks synthesis of certain
amino acids (aromatic amino acids produced by the
shikimic acid pathway)
69
Roundup - Glyphosate
Herbicide chemical structure
Mode of action blocks synthesis of certain
amino acids (aromatic amino acids produced by the
shikimic acid pathway)
? Toxic to most plants, but not to animals
70
Roundup - Glyphosate
Herbicide chemical structure
Mode of action blocks synthesis of certain
amino acids (aromatic amino acids produced by the
shikimic acid pathway)
  • Toxic to most plants, but not to animals
  • Note can still be toxic to animals, not just
    the active chemical but other components of the
    formulation

71
Roundup - Glyphosate
Herbicide chemical structure
Mode of action blocks synthesis of certain
amino acids (aromatic amino acids produced by the
shikimic acid pathway)
  • Toxic to most plants, but not to animals
  • Note can still be toxic to animals, not just
    the active chemical but other components of the
    formulation
  • Monsanto Chemical Company major moneymaker
    while under patent protection

72
Monsanto - post-Roundup
Next stage ? produce genetically modified crops
that are resistant to glyphosate
73
Monsanto - post-Roundup
Next stage ? produce genetically modified crops
that are resistant to glyphosate Source of
resistance (1) microorganisms, have enzyme that
is resistant to glyphosate
74
Monsanto - post-Roundup
  • Next stage ? produce genetically modified crops
    that are resistant to glyphosate
  • Source of resistance
  • microorganisms, have enzyme that is resistant to
    glyphosate
  • Microorganisms or plants, find enzymes that alter
    glyphosate structure to make it harmless

75
Monsanto - post-Roundup
  • Next stage ? produce genetically modified crops
    that are resistant to glyphosate
  • Source of resistance
  • microorganisms, have enzyme that is resistant to
    glyphosate
  • Microorganisms or plants, find enzymes that alter
    glyphosate structure to make it harmless
  • Using (1) Monsanto has created crops that are
    resistant to glyphosate Roundup Ready

76
Monsanto - post-Roundup
  • Next stage ? produce genetically modified crops
    that are resistant to glyphosate
  • Source of resistance
  • microorganisms, have enzyme that is resistant to
    glyphosate
  • Microorganisms or plants, find enzymes that alter
    glyphosate structure to make it harmless
  • Using (1) Monsanto has created crops that are
    resistant to glyphosate Roundup Ready
  • First Major Target Soybeans, very successful

77
Monsanto - post-Roundup
  • Next stage ? produce genetically modified crops
    that are resistant to glyphosate
  • Source of resistance
  • microorganisms, have enzyme that is resistant to
    glyphosate
  • Microorganisms or plants, find enzymes that alter
    glyphosate structure to make it harmless
  • Using (1) Monsanto has created crops that are
    resistant to glyphosate Roundup Ready
  • First Major Target Soybeans, very successful
  • Can spray crop after germination, kill weeds but
    crop little affected

78
Roundup Ready Wheat
  • The Latest Battlefield in the Biotech Wars
  • Roundup Ready Crops corn, soybeans, cotton
  • None of these have major use in human consumption
  • Roundup Ready Wheat produced and marketed by
    Monsanto
  • major use of wheat human food
  • major export crop (? Japan, Europe)
  • Worry if any farmers grown GM Wheat, some
    importers (Japan) will ban all wheat from U.S. ?
    all farmers will lose this market

79
New World Beans 1. Lima Beans
Phaeolus lunata Mexico to Peru, independently
domesticated in the two areas. Mostly used dry.
Wild plants and some cultivars contain cyanogenic
glycosides release toxic cyanide (cooking
destroys compounds)
80
New World Beans 2. Common Beans
Phaseolus vulgaris source of many types Another
independent domesticate in Mexico and South
America
81
Beans, Beans, Beans
Selection for the variations in the seed in color
and size have produced a bewildering number of
variants, several of which have widespread use in
our country.
Kidney bean
Black bean
Pinto bean
82
Another New World Legume - Peanut
Arachis hypogaea peanut, ground nut, goober
central South America
83
The Underground Crop
84
Forage Legumes Sitting in the Clover
Alfalfa Medicago sativa - king of forage crops
associated with horse husbandry Clovers
Trifolium Lespedeza Sweet Clovers - Melilotus
85
Thursday Lecture Leaf, Stem and Root Crops
Reading Textbook, Chapter 7
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