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The Human Factors

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Photos and Movie Courtesy of the Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue, ... Jim Hoffman. Joel Warm. Kyle Cave. Lisa Fournier. Lloyd Kaufman. Mark Becker ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Human Factors


1
The Human Factors Response to Terrorism
Peter Hancock University of Central Florida
On Behalf of the Presenters and Participants at
the Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and
Ergonomics Society, Minneapolis, MN, October, 2001
2
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
Event
Post-Event
Pre-Event
Anti Terrorist
Counter Terrorist
3
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
Event
Post-Event
Pre-Event
Anti Terrorist
4
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
Event
Post-Event
Advanced Security
Signal Detection
Pattern Recognition
5
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
Event
Post-Event
Pre-Event
Situation Management
Emergency Egress
Emergency Response
6
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
Event
Post-Event
Pre-Event
Event Evaluation
General Recovery
Symptom vs. Cause
7
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
  • Security Concerns
  • Vigilance/Sustained Attention
  • Signal Detection Theory
  • Fatigue and Workload
  • Training and Team Performance

8
The Problem of Vigilance/Sustained Attention
Vigilance is a Long-Standing Problem. Sources of
Performance Influence Include Event Rate
Signal Salience Stress/Workload/Fatigue
Glare, Noise, Temperature, Vibration, TOD, Drug
Effects etc Memory Load Successive vs.
Simultaneous Comparisons Feedback Hit
vs. Miss vs. FA KR/KP Individual Differences
Introversion/Extraversion, Age, Sex,
Expertise
Warm, J.S. (Ed.). (1984). Sustained attention in
human performance. New York Wiley.
9
The Problem of Vigilance/Sustained Attention
Davies, D.R., Parasuraman, R. (1982). The
psychology of vigilance. Academic Press London.
10
The Utility of Signal Detection
Swets, J.A. (1996). Signal detection. Erlbaum
Mahwah, NJ.
11
Fuzzy Signal Detection
Parasuraman, R., Masalonis, A.J., Hancock, P.A.
(2000). Fuzzy signal detection Basic postulates
and formulas for analyzing human and machine
performance. Human Factors, 42 (4), 636-659.
12
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
  • Military Response
  • Human Performance Modeling and Simulation
  • Performance Under Stress/High Workload

13
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
  • Technological Test and Development
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Template Matching Procedures
  • Iris scanning and/or face matching

14
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
  • Technological Test and Development
  • Behavior Recognition

15
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
Envelopes of Protection (Field of Safe
Travel) Highways/No Go Areas in the
Sky Cabin-to-Cockpit to Ground Video Link
Hancock, P.A. (2001). The tale of a two-face
tiger. Manuscript in Progress.
16
Human Factors Interfaces to Search and Rescue
Robots
  • Control Issues
  • Gain
  • Physical Ergonomics (e.g.,
    Gloves)
  • Interaction with Semi-Automated
  • System.
  • - etc
  • Perceptual Issues Orientation
  • Scaling
  • Displays
  • Visual Workload
  • - HUD Disorientation

Movie Showing Robotic Exploration of Collapsed
WTC Floors.
Mouloua, M., Gilson, R., Hancock, P.A. (2001).
Designing controls for future unmanned aerial
vehicles. in press.
Photos and Movie Courtesy of the Center for
Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue, University of
South Florida.
17
Emergency Egress
  • Behavioral Insights into Evacuation Procedures
    (Courtesy of Jake Pauls).
  • Movement of People. The SFPE Handbook of Fire
    Protection Engineering Second Edition, Society of
    Fire Protection Engineers and National Fire
    Protection Association, Section 3, Chapter 13,
    1995, 3-263 - 3-285.
  • Building Evacuation Research Methods and Case
    Studies. Fires and Human Behaviour, (Edited by
    D. Canter) Wiley , 1980, 227-250, (Coauthored
    with B. K. Jones).
  • Building Evacuation Research Findings and
    Recommendations. Fires and Human Behaviour,
    (Edited by D. Canter) Wiley, 1980, 251-275.

Pauls, J. (1994). Vertical Evacuation in Large
Buildings Missed Opportunities for Research.
Disaster Management, 6 (3), 128-132.
18
Emergency Egress
  • Non-ambulatory individuals
  • Evacuation routes
  • Signage
  • Lighting
  • Crowd Control
  • Rescue operations
  • Non-interfering movement streams
  • Situational Awareness

19
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
Physical Ergonomics Combined Physical and
Cognitive Demands - Emergency Personnel -
Military Activities in an Asymmetric Warfare
Scenario Physical Activities in Confined Spaces
20
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
Multiple HF/E Problems of NBC and Emergency
Equipped Personnel. - Physical Demand - Heat
Stress - Interface Problems - Restricted
Vision - etc
21
Human Factors Solutions For Antecedent Conditions
  • Addressing The Poverty and Hopelessness that
    Generates Individuals who believe they have
    nothing to lose.
  • HF/E Solutions For Food/Water Supplies
  • HF/E Solutions to Infrastructure Re-Building

Nickerson, R. (1992). Looking ahead Human
Factors challenges in a changing world. Erlbaum
Hillsdale, NJ. Moray, N. (1994). Ergonomics and
the global problems of the 21st Century. Keynote
Address, International Ergonomics Society,
Toronto.
22
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
Action Items Identify Major Problem
Areas Identify Funding Sources Identify Leading
Scientists
Problem Areas
Leading Researchers
Funding Sources
23
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
Human Factors/Ergonomics Society Meeting
Organizers
Presenters
  • Ken Laughery
  • Brian Peacock
  • Sandra Hart
  • Parimal Kopardekar
  • Jake Pauls
  • Dan Johnson
  • Mica Endsley
  • Colin Drury
  • Peter Hancock
  • Walter Makous
  • William Knecht
  • Neal Ganey
  • Tom Smith
  • Rene de Pontbriand

24
Human Factors Contributions to Countering
Terrorism
Psychonomics Meeting
Attendees and Expressers of Interest
Johua Rubenstein, FAA Security, Speaker
  • Adrian Schwaninger
  • Andy Leber
  • Art Kramer
  • Cathleen Moore
  • Christine Beam
  • Dan Simons
  • David Smith
  • David Washburn
  • David Weiss
  • Dawn Morales
  • Donald Schumsky
  • Elizabeth Davis
  • Frank Marchak
  • George Sperling
  • Haim Levkowitz
  • Howard Bernstein
  • J. Vernon Odom
  • Jan Theeuwes
  • Jason McCarley
  • Jeremy Wolfe
  • Jim Hoffman
  • Joel Warm
  • Kyle Cave
  • Lisa Fournier
  • Lloyd Kaufman
  • Mark Becker
  • Mary Potter
  • Mary Peterson
  • Mike Proulx
  • Oliver Wilhelm
  • Peter Hancock
  • Robyn Porterfield
  • Todd Horowitz
  • Tony Ro
  • Walter Makous
  • Wendy Shields
  • Will Hayward
  • Zili Liu
  • Anne Hillman

25
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26
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