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9: An Agrarian Republic, 17901824


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Title: 9: An Agrarian Republic, 17901824

9 An Agrarian Republic, 17901824
"Other historians relate facts to inform us of
facts.  You relate them to excite in our hearts
an intense hatred of lying, ignorance, hypocrisy,
superstition, tyranny and the anger remains even
after the memory of the facts has disappeared." 
Diderot, writing of Voltaire
  •  Men, by their constitutions, are naturally
    divided into two parties (1) Those who fear and
    distrust the people, and wish to draw all powers
    from them into the hands of the higher classes
    (2) Those who identify themselves with the
    people, have confidence in them, cherish and
    consider them as the most honest and safe,
    although not the most wise, depository of the
    public interests. . . . The appellation of
    Aristocrats and Democrats is the true one,
    expressing the essence of all.
  • Thomas Jefferson

  • What to the American slave is your Fourth of
    July? I answer, a day that reveals to him more
    than all other days of the year, the gross
    injustice and cruelty to which he is the constant
    victim. To him your celebration is a sham your
    boasted liberty an unholy license your national
    greatness, swelling vanity your sounds of
    rejoicing are empty and heartless your
    denunciation of tyrants, brass-fronted impudence
    your shouts of liberty and equality, hollow
    mockery your prayers and hymns, your sermons and
    thanksgivings, with all your religious parade and
    solemnity, are to him mere bombast, fraud,
    deception, impiety, and hypocrisy -- a thin veil
    to cover up crimes which would disgrace a nation
    of savages. There is not a nation of the earth
    guilty of practices more shocking and bloody than
    are the people of these United States at this
    very hour. . . . Go where you may, search where
    you will, roam through all the monarchies and
    despotisms of the Old World, travel through South
    America, search out every abuse and when you have
    found the last, lay your facts by the side of the
    everyday practices of this nation, and you will
    say with me that, for revolting barbarity and
    shameless hypocrisy, America reigns without a
    rival. Frederick Douglass, July 4, 1852

How Democratic Is America?
  • By Howard Zinn
  • I propose a set of criteria for the description
    "democratic" which goes beyond formal political
    institutions, to the quality of life in the
    society (economic, social, psychological), beyond
    majority rule to a concern for minorities, and
    beyond national boundaries to a global view of
    what is meant by "the people," in that rough, but
    essential correct view of democracy as
    "government of, by, and for the people."
  • Let me list these criteria quickly, because I
    will go on to discuss them in some detail later
  • 1. To what extent can various people in the
    society participate in those decisions which
    affect their lives decisions in the political
    process and decisions in the economic structure?
  • 2. As a corollary of the above do people have
    equal access to the information which they need
    to make important decisions?
  • 3. Are the members of the society equally
    protected on matters of life and death - in the
    most literal sense of that phrase?

  • 4. Is there equality before the law police,
    courts, the judicial process - as well as
    equality with the law enforcing institutions, so
    as to safeguard equally everyone's person, and
    his freedom from interference by others, and by
    the government?
  • 5. Is there equality in the distribution of
    available resources those economic goods
    necessary for health, life, recreation, leisure,
  • 6. Is there equal access to education, to
    knowledge and training, so as to enable persons
    in the society to live their lives as fully as
    possible, to enlarge their range of
  • 7. Is there freedom of expression on all matters,
    and equally for all to communicate with other
    members of the society?
  • 8. Is there freedom for individuality in private
    life, in sexual relations, family relations, the
    right of privacy?
  • 9. Do education and the culture in general foster
    a spirit of cooperation and amity to sustain the
    above conditions?
  • 10. As a final safety feature is there
    opportunity to protest, to disobey the laws, when
    the foregoing objectives are being lost - as a
    way of restoring them?

Chapter Review Questions
  • The US faced economic and political problems as a
    new nation in a world dominated by war between
    Britain and France. How successful were the
    efforts by the Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe
    administrations to solve these problems?
  • The anti-European cast of Jefferson's republican
    agrarianism made it appealing to many Americans
    who wished to believe in their nation's
    uniqueness, but how realistic was it in the real
    world of politics during Jefferson's
  • Some Federalists opposed the Louisiana Purchase,
    warning of the dangers of westward expansion.
    What are arguments for and against expansion?
  • The confrontations between Tecumseh's alliance
    and soldiers and settlers in the Old Northwest
    reveal the contradictions in American Indian
    policy. What were these contradictions? Can you
    suggest solutions to them?
  • What did the War of 1812 accomplish?

  • Chronology
  • 1790s   Second Great Awakening begins
  • 1800   Thomas Jefferson elected president,
    Gabriels conspiracy
  • American ships carry 95 of US-British trade
  • 1801 Cane Ridge Kentucky revival
  • 1802   Russian-American company headquarters at
    Sitka, Alaska
  • 1803   Louisiana Purchase / Marbury v. Madison /
    Ohio admitted to the Union
  • 1804   Lewis and Clark expedition begins / Thomas
    Jefferson reelected president / Russians
    reestablish Sitka following the Tlingit Revolt
  • 1807   Chesapeake-Leopard incident / Embargo Act
  • 1808   James Madison elected president / Int.
    slave trade illegal
  • 1809   Tecumseh forms military alliance among
    northwest confederacy peoples
  • 1811   Battle of Tippecanoe
  • 1812   War of 1812 begins / James Madison
    reelected president / Louisiana admitted to the
  • 1814   Hartford Convention / Treaty of Ghent

  • Chronology
  • 1815   Battle of New Orleans
  • 1816   James Monroe elected president / Congress
    charters Second Bank of the United States /
    Indiana admitted to the Union / American
    Colonization Society founded / African Methodist
    Episcopal Church founded
  • 1817   Mississippi admitted to the Union
  • 1818   Illinois admitted to the Union / Andrew
    Jackson invades FLA
  • 1819   Panic of 1819 / Adams-Onis Treaty
  • 1819-20 Missouri Crisis and Compromise
  • 1820   James Monroe reelected president / Maine
    admitted to Union
  • 1821   Missouri admitted to Union as slave state
  • 1823 Monroe Doctrine

Annotated Bibliography
  • Gary B. Nash, Forging Freedom The Formation of
    Philadelphias Black Community, 1720-1840 (1988).
    This study of the struggles of Philadelphias
    African-American population (both enslaved and
    free) to build a community in the early republic
    includes discussions of work, religion, class,
    and the responses of the African-American
    community to growing white hostility.
  • Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, A Midwifes Tale The
    Life of Martha Ballard, Based of her Diary,
    1785-1812 (1990). A 20-year-long diary provided
    the primary source for this careful examination
    of the work, family events, and daily social
    interactions of a midwife in rural Maine in the
    early Republic.

  • Henry Adams, The United States in 1800
  • Walter LaFeber, John Quincy Adams and the
    American Continental Empire (1965)
  • Carey McWilliams, North From Mexico the
    Spanish-Speaking People of the US (1948)
  • David Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North
    America (1993)
  • Biography VHS Lewis and Clark Expedition

A Mandan Communities
  • Lewis and Clark visited the Mandan villages in
    what is now North Dakota.
  • The Mandan lived by agriculture and hunting and
    lived in matrilineal clans.
  • The male chiefs met with Lewis and Clark who
    offered them a military and economic alliance.
  • Americans established Fort Clark as a trading
  • Americans brought diseases like smallpox that
    wiped out the vast majority of Mandans.

B North American Communities from Coast to Coast
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The Spanish in North America
  • To protect their interests against Russian and
    British expansion, the Spanish had established a
    chain of missions throughout California.
  • The Spanish also controlled New Orleans, though
    in 1800 it was
  • a polyglot, French-dominated society that was
    half black and
  • an international port.
  • Americans were concerned that whomever controlled
    New Orleans could choke off commerce along the
    Mississippi River.
  • East and West Florida dominated the Gulf of
    Mexico, and Spain opened the area to American

The Caribbean
  • The Caribbean posed strong challenges because of
    the sugar industry.
  • The Caribbean slave societies were jolted by the
    successful slave revolt in Haiti.

British North America
  • The heart of British North America was the former
    French colony of Quebec. Loyalists comprised most
    of the other settlers.
  • The American Revolution caused Great Britain to
    create a national legislature under strict
    executive control.

Russian America Sitka
  • Russian settlements in Alaska were an extension
    of its conquest of Siberia.
  • The Russia established Sitka in 1804.
  • Russia established new settlements in California,
    including Fort Ross.

America in 1800
  • In 1800, the United States was surrounded by
    European colonies.

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  • The trans-Appalachia west was the most rapidly
    growing region of the United States.
  • By 1800, 500,000 Americans lived in
  • Cincinnati served as major trading center for the
    Ohio River Valley.
  • River traffic to and from New Orleans increased
    annually, though Westerners were concerned over
    who controlled the city.

Atlantic Ports
  • Only 3 percent of Americans lived in cities
  • Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Boston, and
    New York dominated trade.
  • Each city had its own distinct economy and
  • These cities led the nation socially,
    politically, and economically.
  • Those with the greatest ties to the
    trans-Appalachian West thrived.

C A National Economy
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The Economy of the Young Republic
  • Most Americans lived in rural, agricultural
  • Northerners were generally self-sufficient.
  • The plantation regions of the South were heavily
    involved in marketing crops overseas, but demand
    for tobacco and rice only rose to
    pre-Revolutionary levels.

Shipping and The Economic Boom
  • In 1790, American shipping had been hurt by the
    end of ties with Great Britain.
  • The outbreak of war in Europe and American
    neutrality vast expanded trade, fueling the
    growth of American coastal cities.
  • The economic boom included
  • American entry into the Northwest fur and China
  • an active shipbuilding industry and
  • trade stimulated the rise of insurance companies,
    banks, and brokers catering to the international
  • By 1820, the United States was building a strong,
    diversified national economy.

D The Jefferson Presidency
1800 Federalist hiding place
  • . . . if all Bibles are to be destroyed, what is
    the use of bringing yours to me?
  • It will be perfectly safe with you. Theyll
    never think of looking in the house of a Democrat
    for a Bible.

Republican Agrarianism
  • Thomas Jefferson emerged as a strong president
    with strong party backing.
  • Jefferson's ideal was an agrarian republic of
    roughly equal yeoman farmers. Americas abundant
    land allowed Jefferson to envision a nation of
    small family farms.

The Government the Judiciary
  • Jefferson's promise to reduce the size of the
    federal government was fulfilled by
  • cutting internal taxes and
  • reducing the size of army, navy, and government
  • The unfinished state of the nations capital
    reflected the emphasis on local communities.
  • While removing Federalist officeholders,
    Jefferson provoked a landmark Supreme Court
  • Marbury v. Madison did not restore William
    Marbury to his post, but it established the
    principle of judicial review and an independent

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The Louisiana Purchase
  • The conflict between France and Britain
    threatened American security.
  • Napoleon's acquisition of the Louisiana Territory
    threatened American access to the Mississippi
  • Jefferson attempted to buy New Orleans, but
    accepted the French offer to buy the entire
  • The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the
    United States, fulfilling Jefferson's desire for
    continued expansion.

Incorporating Louisiana
  • The French customs of Louisiana conflicted with
    the English-derived American traditions were
    derived from England.
  • The solution was to maintain aspects of French
    institutions in Louisiana.

Texas the Struggle for Mexican Independence
  • Acquisition of Louisiana put the United States in
    conflict with Spain.
  • Spain's involvement in the Napoleonic Wars caused
    its American empire to slip away.
  • Several populist revolts fueled a strong
    independence movement in Mexico. Alamo of 1830s
    in future chapter.

D Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America
Protecting Neutral Rights
  • In his second term, Jefferson faced problems
    protecting American neutrality.
  • British ships seized American vessels trading in
    the French West Indies and impressed sailors into
    the Royal Navy.
  • Congress first imposed a boycott and then passed
    the Embargo Act on foreign commerce that
  • did not change British policy
  • caused a deep depression and
  • led to widespread smuggling.
  • During the presidency of James Madison, the
    Embargo Act was repealed,
  • Other similar acts passed later also proved

A Contradictory Indian Policy
  • Indian affairs remained among the most difficult
    foreign problems.
  • Western tribes resisted American incursion into
    their territory.
  • Jefferson hoped that Indians would either be
    converted to white civilization or moved across
    the Mississippi River. Neither policy won much
    Indian support.

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Tecumseh, Tenskatawa, Indian Resistance
  • The Shawnee emerged as the leading force of
    Indian resistance in the Ohio Valley. Tecumseh
    led a band that attempted to escape contact with
  • His brother, Tenskwatawa, The Prophet, called for
    a rejection of white ways and built a pan-Indian
    religious movement.
  • Tecumseh formed a pan-Indian confederacy was
    initially defensive but soon advocated military
  • While Tecumseh was in the South, a American army
    defeated Tenskwatawas followers at Tippecanoe.
  • In response, Tecumseh formally allied with the

E The War of 1812
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The War Hawks
  • Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun were leaders of a
    new generation of War Hawks from the South and
    West that supported war as a means of expansion.
  • Madisons declaration of war received no
    Federalist support.

The Campaign Against Canada
  • American efforts to capture Canada failed due to
  • New England opposition
  • the strength of the British-Indian forces and
  • the resistance of Canadians.
  • The Americans won the Battle of the Thames, at
    which Tecumseh was killed.

War the Hartford Convention
  • Continued opposition from New England led to the
    Hartford Convention.
  • Federalists demanded redress of grievances though
    they dropped talk of secession.
  • Andrew Jackson and Indian allies defeated the
    Creek Indians and invaded Florida.
  • The British navy established a strong blockade
    and burned Washington.

Peace and Pride
  • The Treaty of Ghent ended the war without
    addressing the major grievances, but the British
    did agree to evacuate the western forts.
  • Andrew Jacksons victory at New Orleans saved
    American pride.
  • The war also ended lingering feelings of American
    colonial dependency.
  • The Indians were the only clear losers.

F Defining the Boundaries
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Another Westward Surge
  • Peace brought widespread Indian removal that
    opened lands and enabled Americans to resume
    their westward migration.

Migration Routes
  • Northern migrants traveled the Genesee Turnpike.
  • Middle States settlers went west on the
    Philadelphia-Pittsburgh Turnpike and the National
  • The Wilderness and Federal Roads were southern
    migration routes.

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Western Settlement
  • Overpopulated farmland in the east pushed
    Americans to cheap land in the west. Easterners
    brought the culture and values of their home
    regions with them.
  • The Old Northwest shared New England values.
  • The Old Southwest was based on plantation

The Second Great Awakening
  • Revolving around the camp meeting, the Second
    Great Awakening
  • further strengthened east-west relations and
  • helped Westerners create new institutions.

The Era of Good Feelings
  • James Monroe presided over the post-war era of
    good feelings.
  • Monroe brought former Federalists into his
  • Embracing most of Henry Clays American System
    that updated many of Hamiltons ideas, the Monroe
  • established the Second Bank of the United States
  • passed a protective tariff but
  • would not subsidized roads and canals--the third
    part of the American System.

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The Diplomacy of John Quincy Adams
  • Secretary of State John Quincy Adams laid the
    foundation for continued expansion. Two treaties
    with Britain established a demilitarized Canadian
    border and provided for the joint occupation of
  • The Adams-Onis Treaty turned over Florida to the
    United States and relinquished claims to
  • Adams defined the response of the United States
    to emerging nations in the western hemisphere by
    designing the Monroe Doctrine.

The Panic of 1819
  • New problems emerged as Americans moved westward.
  • A land boom was financed by speculative buying
    and easy credit.
  • The Panic of 1819 was triggered by the Second
    Bank of the United States foreclosing on loans
    that led to six years of depression.
  • The Panic of 1819 hurt urban workers suffering
    from the decline in trade and manufacturing
  • Manufacturers pressed for higher protective
    tariffs, angering Southerners.

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The Missouri Compromise
  • Effort to admit Missouri into the Union as a
    slave state created a crisis.
  • Northerners opposed the creation of new slave
    states because it would tip the balance between
    slave and free states.
  • Southerners sought to expand slavery and were
    concerned that Congress would even consider the
  • Henry Clay forged a compromise that maintained
    the balance between free and slave states.
  • Maine was admitted as a free slave state and
    slavery was barred north of Missouris southern

  • Thomas Jefferson on Politics and Government
  • http//etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/
  • Containing over 2,700 quotes from Thomas
    Jefferson, this site contains, in his own words,
    Jeffersons thoughts on the theory and structure
    of Republican government, citizens rights, and
    judicial review. Also, this site offers numerous
    links to other resources that contain additional
    writing of Jefferson.
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