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Turkey and The Ottoman Empire

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Title: Turkey and The Ottoman Empire


1
Turkey and The Ottoman Empire
  • by
  • Susan Daly

2
The area known as the Ottoman Empire lasted from
the early 1200s until its fall in 1923 during a
rebellion led by the Young Turks. This group was
led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and was made up of
army officers who wanted a more democratic
government. Ataturk established modern Turkey as
a republic.
3
The history of Turkey goes from Neolithic times
to the present day. When visiting any area in
Turkey you are visiting history, seeing Neolithic
remains, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk Turk,
Ottoman Turk sites as well as important places
for Jews, Christians and Muslims.
4
Modern Turkey has also been known as
Anatolia,Phrygia,Troy,part of the Assyrian
empire, Galatia, Asia Minor, and Cappadocia. In
Christian times it became the Diocese of Pontus
and of Asia. It was part of the Byzantine and
Seljuk Empires and finally the Ottoman lands
5
Neolithic Turkey and Catal Huyuk
6
For approximately 1600 years , starting in 8,000
BCE, a large Neolithic settlement existed in
central Turkey. It is one of the largest
Neolithic sites in the Middle East and had a
population of 2,000-8,000 people during its
occupation. Rebecca Daly, a 1994 graduate of
Arcadia is doing her PhD research as an
archaeologist here.
7
Part of the dig site covered by a tent.
8
This huyuk or mound is very tall and the dig goes
down many stories.
9
Burials were commonly done inside the homes in
their floors.
10
Catal residents lived in mud brick homes built
close together. They entered their homes from
holes in the roof.
11
An artists drawing of Catal Huyuk
12
Although Catal Huyuk was abandoned about 6,500
BCE, the area became very important again with
the rise of Mesopotamia. Southeastern Turkey was
the bread basket for the cities of Sumer and Ur.
It had fertile soil and abundant water from the
Euphrates river.
13
Northern Mesopotamia and the Euphrates river is
today the city of Birecik
14
This food was shipped using the Euphrates river
down south to Sumer. The modern city of Birecik
is where the Euphrates river becomes navigable
and was one of the busiest ports on the
Euphrates. The river widens here and flows very
fast in deep water.
15
All across Turkey, there are many sites from the
Bible. In the city of Sanliurfa, in a cave, the
prophet Abraham was born. This site is sacred to
Jews, Christians and Muslims since Abraham is a
prophet for all three faiths. The cave is a place
of pilgrimage and is part of a mosque today.
16
Where the prophet Abraham was born
17
When Abraham left for the promised land, he left
from the city of Harran
18
People in Harran have lived in these mud brick
beehive homes for over 6,000 years. It is only
within the last 25 years that people here moved
in ordinary homes. This is the type of home that
Abraham would have lived in while he was in
Harran.
19
A typical living room
20
Mud brick construction
21
The main source of fuel is dried animal dung
22
Pergamum This spectacular city high on a cliff
was built by a general of Alexander the Great. It
was later added to by the Romans.
23
Modern Bergama below with the ruins of Pergamum.
24
A theater that seated 20,000 people.
25
A temple in ruins
26
When the Egyptians refused to export papyrus to
them, the people of Pergamum invented a new type
of writing surface made from beaten animal skins.
This became known as vellum. They had a huge
library until it was burned by the Byzantines
because the authors were pagans.
27
Egg and Dart detail on a column
28
One Roman city which is well known by most
Christians is Ephesus. This is the city that St.
Paul was writing to in his Letter to the
Ephesians. It was a prosperous Roman trading city.
29
The main street in Ephesus
30
The library at Ephesus
31
The library at Ephesus is one of the most
beautiful buildings in the ancient world. It was
also one of the largest collections of scrolls.
This library contained over 125,000 scrolls
making it a huge collection for its time. This
city really showed off its wealth!
32
A very large public bathroom
33
A Roman arch
34
An early Christian symbol
35
This sculpture is on the Turkish money today.
36
A Roman backgammon board
37
Turkey has had waves of occupations throughout
history. After the fall of the western Roman
empire, the Byzantine empire ruled here until
1453. There are many Byzantine churches across
Turkey which show their style of religious art.
38
Goreme Rock Churches.
39
In Cappodocia, in central Turkey, 3 volcanoes
left a soft layer of tufa covered by a harder
layer of basalt. The tufa layer was easier to
carve into and many Christian hermits came here
to live and carved rock churches.
40
Christ and some Apostles
41
Christ and the rest of the Apostles
42
A cross from the Iconoclastic period.
43
A typical dining room from this monastery.
44
St George slaying the dragon
45
Byzantine Emperor Constantine
46
Emperor Constantine is very important in
Byzantine history because he accepted
Christianity as the state religion. His mother
returned from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem with
pieces of the true cross. Her interest in
Christianity influenced Constantine. In 312, he
issued the Edict of Milan granting equal rights
to all religions.
47
The Empress Helena- mother of Constantine
48
Under the great Byzantine Emperor Justinian, the
great Church of St. Sophia was built in
Constantinople. It was an architectural marvel
with its huge dome built between 532-537.The
name ,Haia Sophia ,means holy wisdom. After 1453,
it was converted into a mosque by Mehmet II.
49
Haia Sophia
50
Entrance
51
Central dome under repair
52
The mimbar used to be the pulpit.
53
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54
Byzantine Empress Eugenie done in mosaic.
55
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56
In 1453, the Ottoman Turks captured the city and
renamed in Istanbul. The churches were converted
into mosques by adding the 4 minarets and
covering the Christian mosaics. These were
redecorated with calligraphy or floral designs.
This preserved the mosaics ,some of which have
been restored in Haia Sophia.
57
The Blue Mosque
58
Where does the name Ottoman come from ? REVIEW
59
The founder of the Ottoman rule was named Osman.
His central Asian tribe came into the area of the
Seljuk Turks and he asked for an area for his
people and was given the region closest to the
Byzantines. This allowed him to get to know the
Byzantine officials.
60
Osman I established the Ottoman
dynasty,1280-1324.He exploited the weakness of
the Byzantine empire which led to conquest of all
of Anatolia by his descendants.
61
In 1402 ,Timur , also known as Tamerlane,
occupied Ottoman lands. His rule was short but
brutal. With his death, the empire grew stronger
until the reign of Sultan Mehmet II. In 1453,
using superior technology, his forces broke
through the huge walls of Constantinople and took
the city.
62
What does the title Sultan mean? What power does
this ruler have in his empire ? How were Ottoman
sultans selected ?
63
Look at the architecture of Topkapi palace. What
does its entrance remind you of ?
64
Topkapi Palace / Yeni Saray
65
One inner courtyard
66
Topkapi palace was completed in 1465 and
showcases Ottoman architecture and decoration. It
covers 700,000 square meters and has 4
courtyards inside as well as extensive gardens.
It was a closed world exclusive to the Sultan and
his immediate family. There was a large staff as
well as guards for the whole complex.
67
A covered walk way
68
A room inside the Harem
69
The Sultans audience room in the harem
70
Notice the beautiful tile work on the walls
71
A fountain in the fourth courtyard
72
The Sultans pavilion
73
This fountain in the window made it harder for
people to over hear conversations.
74
A door inlaid with mother of pearl in the harem.
75
What kind of statement does Topkapi Palace make
about the power of the Ottoman Sultan? What shows
the wealth they had ?
76
Who was the most important Ottoman Sultan ? Why ?
77
During his reign, Sultan Suleyman I, expanded the
territory under Ottoman control. Between
1520-1566, he got control over land in Asia,
Africa, and Europe. He systematized law across
the empire so that he became known as the
Lawgiver.
78
Several problems which will eventually cause the
decline of the Ottomans also emerge during
Suleyman Is reign. Inflation, rural
overpopulation, unemployment, and heavy taxation
develop and lead to local revolts and discontent.
79
Courtyard in the Harem
80
Iznik Tiles
81
Life inside the Imperial harem was very luxurious
but also very confined. You stayed within the
harem and were guarded by specially trained
Eunuchs. Anything you might need was brought into
the harem. Merchants brought in fabric and then
produced the necessary clothing for the harem
women. Jewelers brought in their goods for the
women to look over and order.
82
As a woman in the harem, you would be well
educated and well fed. You had beautiful clothes
and were expected to be able to converse and
entertain the Sultan if he should express an
interest in you. BUT you could never leave. If
you were even suspected of being unfaithful , you
would be sewn into a sack and drowned in the
Bosphorus.
83
Would you be willing to give up your family to
live in such luxury for the rest of your
life? Many women in the harem never even saw the
Sultan.
84
An elaborate fountain with Islamic inscription.
85
Gardens
86
The heir was kept inside this apartment
87
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88
Every area was richly decorated.
89
If you were a woman under the Ottomans , the only
power you could get came from becoming a
concubine in the palace. If you caught the
Sultans eye and bore a son, you became a kadin
with your own apartment. Many young women stayed
several years and were eventually married to
Ottoman officials with a generous wedding gift.
90
Who were the Janissaries? What role/s did they
take in Ottoman rule? How did you become a
Janissary ?
91
Janissaries were male child slaves taken mainly
from Christian communities. They were trained to
become professional soldiers loyal only to the
Sultan. They were converted to Islam and became
a key power within this empire. They could not
marry until they retired from active military
service.
92
What was a millet ?
93
The symbol of Ottoman power.
94
After Suleyman, came a long line of Sultan s who
only wanted to indulge themselves. They did not
really govern well and wasted lots of money on
themselves. By the time of WW1, the Ottoman
Empire was known as the Sick old Man of Europe.
95
A newer Ottoman palace
96
A gate to the palace.
97
As the Sultans became weaker, the power of the
Janissaries grew. Sometimes they even revolted
against the Sultan and removed or assassinated
him.
98
Dolmabahce Palace
99
Ottoman excess led to the fall of this empire in
1923. After the humiliating defeat in WW 1 and
the Mandate system from the Treaty of Versailles,
a group of Turk nationalists organized a peasant
resistance to the final Ottoman sultan. Led by
Mustafa Kemal, these officers helped local
peasants to arm themselves . When the call came
in 1923, locals rose up to overthrow
100
the Ottoman sultan. This rebellion was successful
even though there were many who died in it.
Mustafa Kemal took the last name of Ataturk which
means Father of the Turks and became the
first president of the new nation of Turkey. He
established a secular republic which separated
Islamic influence from public schools.
101
Ataturk is a beloved leader even today in Turkey
with many statues to him in town squares all over
the nation. He set Turkey on its present course
by adopting the Roman alphabet instead of Arabic
. He forced western dress and banned the veil. He
gave women the right to vote and to an equal
education.
102
Today Turkey is working to become a member of the
European Union. It is improving its educational
system and upgrading its roads and economy. The
26 dams being built as part of the G.A.P.project
are designed to bring more jobs to SE Turkey.
This nation is an unique combination of Islamic
society and western ideas.
103
Mt. Nemrud Dagi- a huge head
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