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Operating System Overview


... OSs: MITS, IMSAI, Apple, Tandy, Heath develop simple OSs (loaders, Basic' ... First widely available version outside Bell Labs was Version 6, in 1976 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Operating System Overview

Operating System Overview
  • CS-550 Comparative Operating Systems

Operating System
  • A program that controls the execution of
    application programs
  • An interface between applications and hardware

Operating System Objectives
  • Convenience
  • Makes the computer more convenient to use
  • Efficiency
  • Allows computer system resources to be used in an
    efficient manner
  • Ability to evolve
  • Permit effective development, testing, and
    introduction of new system functions without
    interfering with service

Layers of Computer System
Services Provided by the Operating System
  • Program development
  • Editors and debuggers
  • Program execution
  • Access to I/O devices
  • Controlled access to files
  • System access
  • Error detection and response
  • Accounting

Operating System as Resource Manager
  • Responsible for managing all computer resources
  • Functions same way as ordinary computer software
  • It is program that is executed
  • Operating system relinquishes control of the
    processor to execute other programs

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  • Portion of operating system that is in main
  • Contains most-frequently used functions
  • Also called the nucleus

Operating Systems History
  • Early 1950s
  • Systems Univac I, II IBM 701, 704 large, very
  • Serial Processing
  • No operating system
  • Machines run from a console with display lights
    and toggle switches, input device, and printer
  • Common concerns
  • Idle time between jobs
  • Setup running a job included loading the
    compiler, source program, saving compiled
    program, and loading and linking
  • Every programmer writes routines to control I/O

First Generation Simple Batch Systems
  • Eastern Joint Computer Conference in 1953
    informal discussion of IBM users
  • GM develops input/output system for IBM 701
  • Common set of procedures for access to I/O
  • Monitor concept Resides in main memory and
    controls the running programs Batches jobs
    together Program branches back to monitor when
    finished Monitor starts next job
  • GM and North American Aviation jointly develop
    supervisor program for IBM 704
  • Share Operating System (SOS) developed by IBM
    on 709 for Share user group
  • Supervisory control, buffered I/O, symbolic
    assembly language

First Generation Simple Batch Systems (Cont.)
  • Fortran Monitor System (FMS) on IBM 709
  • Based on GM/NAA OS, first OS to support
    high-level language programming
  • Real-Time and Transaction processing Systems
  • SAGE real-time control system (IBM AN/FSQ7
    military system)
  • SABRE airline reservation system (IBM for
    American Airlines)
  • Tape Operating Systems
  • Card input and output temporarily stored on tape
  • Commonly used procedures (compilers) kept on tape
  • Examples TOS/360 for first S/360, TOS for RCA
    Spectra 70

First Generation Simple Batch Systems (Cont.)
  • Disk Operating Systems
  • Direct access to large amounts of data
  • Operating systems provided by computer
  • Components resident loader, Job Control Language
    (JCL), Input/Output Control System (IOCS)
  • Examples Admiral for Honeywell 1800, EXEC I for
    Univac 1107, Scope for Control Data 6000, Master
    Control Program for Burroughs 5000, IBSYS for IBM
    709 and 7090
  • Developed by Manchester Univ. and Ferranti
  • First use of interrupts, extracode (precursor of
    system call instruction), and one-level store
    (precursor of virtual memory)

First Generation Batch Multiprogramming
  • Batch processing each job submitted as a batch
    of cards
  • Batch serial jobs processed one at a time, each
    one finishing before new one accepted
  • Batch multiprogramming several programs execute
    in interleaved manner and share CPU, memory, I./O
    devices when a program waits for I/O
    completion, CPU given to other program
  • SPOOLing (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation
  • Spooler program reads jobs from cards and tapes
    onto disk and copies output from disk to printer

First Generation Batch Multiprogramming
  • Master Control Program (MCP) for Burroughs 5000
    pioneered multiprogramming
  • Virtual memory
  • Priorities
  • High-level languages (Algol, Cobol) supported
    using compilers
  • IBM System/360 family (1964)
  • Evolvable same program runs on entire family
  • DOS/360 interim disk OS
  • PCP early version of OS/360
  • OS/MFT batch multiprogramming for small S/360s
  • OS/MVT batch multiprogramming for large S/360s
  • JCL Large and powerful Job Control Language

Time-Sharing Systems
  • Disadvantages of batch systems
  • No direct user-program interaction
  • Long turnaround time
  • Interactive computing
  • User and system programs on disk
  • JCL commands entered by user directly on terminal
  • Time-sharing systems
  • Multiple users simultaneously access the system
    through terminals
  • Processors time is shared among the multiple
  • Time slice (time quantum) limits the amount of
    time (CPU) received by each job

Time-Sharing Systems (Cont.)
  • Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) developed
    in early 60s by Project MAC at MIT on IBM 709,
    then 7094
  • Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS)
  • Dartmouth College with General Electric
  • Basic language developed for use on DTSS
  • TOPS-10 developed by DEC for PDP-10
  • TSS/360 developed by IBM for 360/67
  • Virtual memory

Time-Sharing Systems (Cont.)
  • MULTICS developed by project MAC (MIT, Bell Labs,
    GE) as successor of CTSS (1964)
  • Hardware modified GE635 (called GE645) with
    virtual memory and protection support
  • Computing Utility concept
  • Segmented virtual memory, linking and loading
    segments on demand, files and segments treated
    the same
  • Rings of protection
  • Hierarchical file system
  • Device independence
  • I/O redirection
  • Powerful user interface
  • Written in a high-level language (PL/1)

Abstract and Virtual Machines
  • T.H.E. developed by Dijkstra at the Technological
    Univ. in Eindhoven, Holland in late 1960s
  • Major contributions to OS structuring and process
  • Structuring
  • Hierarchical structure made of layers
  • Each layer, an abstract machine, i.e. apparent
    extension of real machine
  • Interacting processes (sharing common resources)
  • Semaphores for process synchronization
  • Deadlock solutions

Abstract and Virtual Machines (Cont.)
  • TENEX developed by Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN)
    for the PDP-10 in early 1970s
  • Time-sharing system with an abstract machine
  • CP/CMS (Control Program/Conversational Monitor
    System) developed by IBM Research in Cambridge,
  • Virtual machine concept apparent access to all
    machine features (virtual memory, CPU, I/O
  • Hardware shared by several OSs (some being
  • Hardware
  • Modified S/360 model 40 (CP/40)
  • Modified S/360 model 67 (CP/67)
  • Product VM/370 on S/370

Minicomputer Operating Systems
  • Mid-1950s Burroughs E-101, Bendix G-15,
    Librascope LGP-30
  • Machine language, no OS
  • Early 1960s CDC-160, IBM-1620
  • Early 1970s DEC OS-8 and TSS-8 for PDP-8
  • Interrupts, DMA
  • Disk Operating System for IBM 1800
  • Oss named keyboard monitor and real-time
  • Interactive interface for single user
  • Run one program at a time
  • Typical application real-time control of lab.
  • DEC PDP-11 series
  • OS (RT-11) simple single user
  • RSTS time-sharing system
  • RSX-11 real-time executive (multiprogramming,
    memory management, file system, powerful command

  • Early 1970s Bell Labs winds down MULTICS
    participation, Ken Thompson and Dennis Richie
    design a new OS
  • Hardware PDP-7 then PDP-11
  • Key features
  • Hierachical file system
  • I/O devices, special cases of files
  • Powerful command language Shell
  • Redirection input/output from/to any
    sourse/destination in a Shell command
  • Concurrent processes with inter-process
  • Languages
  • Assembly language initially (PL/I not available
    for PDP)
  • Richie developed C (BCPL ? B ? C)
  • C compiler for PDP-11 developed
  • UNIX re-written in C

Large Systems Super-Minis and Main Frame Systems
  • VAX/VMS for the VAX family from DEC
  • Special instructions for OS support
  • Extensive system services
  • File management techniques
  • UNIX implemented on the VAX
  • OS/MVS (Multiple Virtual Storage)
  • Upgrade of OS/MVT for time-sharing (S/370) based
    on the Time-Sharing Option (TSO) developed for MVT

Operating Systems for Micros
  • Early OSs MITS, IMSAI, Apple, Tandy, Heath
    develop simple OSs (loaders, Basic language)
    running on Intel 8080, Zilogs Z-80, Motorolas
  • CP/M (Control Program for Microprocessors)
  • Developed by Gary Killdall at Intel on 8008, then
  • Single user OS
  • Simple interactive command interface
  • Basic I/O device management
  • Floppy disk based file system
  • Programming language for microprocessors (PL/M)
  • Killdall obtains rights to distribute CP/M, forms
    Digital Research
  • CP/M becomes dominant OS for micros

Operating Systems for Micros (Cont.)
  • CP/M limitations
  • Limited user interface, file, and device
  • No memory management, no multiprogramming
  • SCP-DOS from Seattle Computer Products
  • Running on Intel 8086 (16-bit)
  • New features memory management, timer
    management, interrupt support, sophisticated file
  • MS-DOS Upgraded SCP-DOS to run on several
    processors (SCP-DOS acquired by Microsoft)
  • PC-DOS Version of MS-DOS selected by IBM to run
    on their PC
  • UNIX influence
  • MS-DOS Version 2.0 Command interface like
    Shell, hierarchical file system
  • Later versions of MS-DOS Multiple users,
    multiple processes

Major Achievements
  • Processes
  • Memory Management
  • Information protection and security
  • Scheduling and resource management
  • System structure

  • Definitions for the term process
  • A program in execution
  • An instance of a program running on a computer
  • The entity that can be assigned to and executed
    on a processor
  • A unit of activity characterized by a single
    sequential thread of execution, a current state,
    and an associated set of system resources
  • Process components
  • An executable program
  • Associated data needed by the program
  • Execution context of the program or process state
    (e.g., contents of various processor registers,
    priority of the process)

Memory Management
  • Process isolation
  • Automatic allocation and management
  • Support for modular programming
  • Protection and access control
  • Long-term storage

Information Protection and Security
  • Access control
  • Regulating user access to the total system,
    subsystems, and data
  • Regulating process access to various resources
  • Information flow control
  • Regulating the flow of data within the system and
    its delivery to users
  • Certification
  • Proving that access and flow control perform
    according to specifications and that they enforce
    desired protection and security policies

Scheduling and Resource Management
  • The operating system
  • Manages the various resources main memory space,
    I/O devices, and processors, and
  • Schedules their use by the active processes
  • The resource allocation and scheduling policy
    must consider
  • Fairness
  • Give equal and fair access to all processes
  • Differential responsiveness
  • Discriminate between different classes of jobs
    with different service requirements
  • Efficiency
  • Maximize throughput, minimize response time, and
    accommodate as many users as possible

System Structure
  • The size and complexity of operating systems have
    significantly increased in time to meet the needs
    of new features and complex hardware
  • CTSS 32,000 36-bit words of storage
  • OS/360 1 million machine instructions
  • MULTICS 20 million instructions
  • Windows NT 4.0 16 million lines of code
  • Windows 2000 32 million lines of code
  • Methods for structuring operating system software
  • Modular software
  • Hierarchical structure hierarchical layers and
    information abstraction
  • View the system as a series of levels
  • Each level performs a related subset of functions
  • Each level relies on the next lower level to
    perform more primitive functions

Operating System Design Hierarchy
Level Name Objects Example Operations 13 Shell Use
r programming Statements in shell
language environment 12 User processes User
processes Quit, kill, suspend, resume 11 Directori
es Directories Create, destroy, attach,
detach, search, list 10 Devices External
devices Open, close, read, write printers,
displays and keyboards 9 File
system Files Create, destroy, open,
close read, write 8 Communications Pipes Create
, destroy, open. close, read, write
Operating System Design Hierarchy
  • Level Name Objects Example Operations
  • 7 Virtual Memory Segments, pages Read, write,
  • 6 Local secondary Blocks of data, Read, write,
    allocate, free
  • store device channels
  • 5 Primitive processes Primitive process, Suspend,
    resume, wait, signal
  • semaphores, ready
  • list
  • 4 Interrupts Interrupt-handling Invoke, mask,
    unmask, retry
  • programs
  • Procedures Procedures, call Mark stack, call,
  • stack, display
  • 2 Instruction Set Evaluation stack, Load, store,
    add, subtract
  • microprogram
  • interpreter
  • 1 Electronic circuits Registers, gates, Clear,
    transfer, activate,
  • buses, etc. complement

Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems
  • Microkernel Architecture
  • Only a few essential functions are assigned to
    the kernel (address space, inter-process
    communication, and basic scheduling)
  • Other OS services are provided by processes
    (servers) that run in user mode
  • Symmetric MultiProcessing (SMP)
  • There are multiple processors
  • These processors share same main memory and I/O
    facilities and are interconnected by an internal
    connection scheme
  • All processors can perform the same functions

Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems
  • Multithreading process is divided into threads
    that can run concurrently
  • Thread
  • Dispatchable unit of work
  • Includes processor context
  • executes sequentially and is interruptable
  • Process
  • A collection of one or more threads and
    associated system resources

Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems
  • Distributed operating systems
  • Provide the illusion of a single main memory and
    single secondary memory space
  • State of the art for distributed operating
    systems lags that of uniprocessor and SMP
    operating systems
  • Object-oriented design
  • Facilitates adding modular extensions to a small
  • Enables programmers to customize an operating
    system without disrupting system integrity

Windows 2000 (W2K) Brief History
  • MS-DOS and PC-DOS
  • DOS 1.0 released in 1981 had 4,000 lines of
    assembly source code, ran in 8Kbytes of memory
    on a 8086
  • DOS 2.0 in 1983 ran on the IBM hard-disk based PC
    XT with 24Kbytes of memory resident OS
  • Support for hard disk
  • Hierarchical directories
  • UNIX-like features I/O redirection and
    background printing
  • DOS 3.0 in 1984 ran on the PC AT (80286) with
  • DOS 3.1, also in 1984, provided support for PC
  • DOS 3.3, in 1987 ran on IBM PS/2 with 46Kbytes

Windows 2000 (W2K) Brief History
  • Need for a new operating system
  • MS-DOS/PC-DOS did not use the full capabilities
    of the evolving processors 80286, 80386, 80486
    and then Pentium (e.g., extended addressing,
    memory protection)
  • To compete with Macintosh, in 1990 Microsoft
    developed a graphical user interface (GUI),
    Windows 3.0, that had to run on top of DOS
  • Microsoft and IBM attempt to jointly develop a
    common operating system attempt fails IBM
    develops OS/2 (multitasking, multithreaded),
    Microsoft develops Windows NT

Windows 2000 (W2K) Brief History
  • Windows NT
  • NT 3.1 released in 1993
  • 32-bit operating system with ability to support
    older DOS and Windows applications, as well as
    provide OS/2 support
  • Same GUI as Windows 3.1
  • NT 3.x, several versions
  • NT 4.0
  • Same internal architecture as 3.x
  • Same user interface as Windows 98
  • Several graphics components moved to NT Executive
    (kernel mode)
  • Windows 2000 (W2K)
  • Same Executive and microkernel architecture as NT
  • New services and functions in support of
    distributed processing
  • W2K Professional vs. W2K Server

Single-User and Multi-User Multitasking
  • W2K (like OS/2 and MacOS) was design to exploit
    the capabilities of 32-bit microprocessors to
    meet the increasing needs of new applications
  • Motivations for multitasking
  • Applications have become more complex and
    interrelated (e.g., use of a word processor, a
    drawing program, and a spreadsheet application
    simultaneously for a document)
  • Growth of client/server computing system needs
    to support user interaction concurrently with
    inter-processor communication
  • W2K Professional supports single-user
    multitasking, while W2K Server supports
    multi-user multitasking

Windows 2000 Architecture
  • Modular structure for flexibility
  • Executes on a variety of hardware platforms
  • Supports application written for a variety of
    other operating system
  • Currently, W2K is only implemented on the
    Pentium/x86 platform
  • Separates application-oriented software from
    operating system software
  • OS software includes the Executive, the
    microkernel, device drivers, and the hardware
    abstraction layer and runs in kernel mode (access
    to system data and to hardware)
  • Application software runs in user mode and has
    limited access to user data

(No Transcript)
OS Organization
  • Modified microkernel architecture
  • Not a pure microkernel Many system functions
    outside of the microkernel run in kernel mode
    (reason performance)
  • Highly modular structure
  • Each system function is managed by just one
    component of the OS the rest of the OS and all
    applications access that component using a
    standard interface
  • Key system data can only be accessed through the
    appropriate function
  • Any module can be removed, upgraded, or replaced
    without rewriting the entire system

OS Organization Layered Structure
  • Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) Maps between
    generic hardware commands and responses and those
    unique to a specific platform
  • Microkernel Consists of the most used and most
    fundamental components of the OS. Manages thread
    scheduling, process switching, exception and
    interrupt handling, and multiprocessor
    synchronization. It does not run in threads not
    preemptable nor pageable
  • Device Drivers File system and hardware device
    drivers that translate user I/O function calls
    into specific hardware device I/O requests
  • I/O Manager Dispatches requests to appropriate
    device drivers
  • Object Manager Creates, manages, and deletes
    Executive objects
  • Security reference monitor Enforces
    access-validation and audit-generation rules
  • Process/thread manager Creates/deletes objects
    and tracks process and thread objects
  • Local Procedure Call (LPC) Facility Enforces
    client/server relationship between applications
    and executive subsystems within a single system

OS Organization Layered Structure Cont.)
  • Virtual memory manager Maps virtual addresses
    in processs address space to physical pages in
  • Cache manager Improves performance of file-based
    I/O (read from cache, defer write)
  • Windows/graphics modules Creates the
    windows-oriented screen interface and manages the
    graphics devices
  • User processes
  • Special system support processes Services not
    included in W2K (e.g., logon process)
  • Server processes Other W2K services (e.g., event
  • Environment subsystems Supported subsystems are
    Win32, Posix, and OS/2
  • User applications Can be of five types Win32,
    Posix, OS/2, Windows 3.1 or MS-DOS

Client/Server Model
  • Operation
  • A client (e.g., application program or another OS
    module) requests a service by sending a message
  • Message routed through the Executive to
    appropriate server
  • Server performs requested operation and returns
    results or status with another message
  • Message routed through Executive back to client
  • Advantages of client/server architecture
  • Simplifies the Executive possible to construct a
    variety of APIs
  • Improves reliability clients cannot not directly
    access hardware
  • Provides a uniform means fro applications to
    communicate via LPC
  • Provides base for distributed computing

Threads and SMP
  • W2K features that support threads and SMP
  • OS routines can run on any available processor
    and different routines can execute simultaneously
    on different processors
  • Multiple threads of execution within a single
    process may execute on different processors
  • Server processes may use multiple threads to
    process requests from many clients simultaneously
  • W2K provides mechanisms for sharing data and
    resources between processes and flexible
    interprocess communication capabilities

  • Brief history (cont.)
  • First widely available version outside Bell Labs
    was Version 6, in 1976
  • Version 7, released in in 1978, is the ancestor
    of modern UNIX systems
  • Most important non-ATT development done at U. of
    C. at Berkeley, called UNIX BSD, running first on
    PDP, then VAX
  • In 1982, Bell Labs combined several ATT versions
    into a system marketed as UNIX System III
  • A number of new features were developed to
    produce UNIX System V
  • Traditional UNIX systems System V Release 3
    (SVR3), 4.3BSD
  • Traditional UNIX system characteristics
  • Hardware is surrounded by the operating-system
    called kernel
  • UNIX comes with a number of user services and
    interfaces (I.e., shell, other interface
    software, and the components of the C compiler)
  • Runs on a single processor and has limited
    protection capabilities

Modern UNIX Systems
  • System V Release 4 (SVR4)
  • Developed jointly by ATT and Sun Microsystems,
    combined features from SVR3, 4.3BSD, Microsoft
    Xenix System V, and SunOS
  • New features real-time processing support,
    process scheduling classes, dynamically allocated
    data structures, virtual memory management,
    virtual file system, and a preemptive kernel
  • Runs on machines ranging from 32-bit
    microprocessors up to supercomputers
  • Solaris 2.x
  • Suns SVR4-based UNIX release
  • Provides a number of advanced features fully
    preemptable, multithreaded kernel, full support
    for SMP, and an object-oriented interface to file
  • Is is the most widely used and most successful
    commercial UNIX implementation
  • 4.4BSD
  • Linux

Modern UNIX Systems (Cont.)
  • 4.4BSD
  • Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) series of
    UNIX releases has played a key role in the
    development of OS theory
  • Most enhancements to UNIX first appeared in BSD
  • 4.xBSD is widely used in academic installations
    and has served as the basis of a number of
    commercial UNIX products
  • 4.4BSD is the final version of BSD to be released
    by Berkeley and includes a new virtual memory
    system and changes in the kernel structure
  • Linux

Modern UNIX Systems (Cont.)
  • Linux
  • Started as a UNIX variant for the IBM PC
    architecture written by Linus Torvalds and posted
    on Internet in 1991
  • A large number of collaborators contributed to
    the development of Linux under the control of
  • Linux is free and the source code is available
    under the auspices of the Free Software
    Foundation (FSF)
  • Today, Linux is a full-featured UNIX system
    running on a variety of platforms
  • Linux key advantages
  • Modular structure kernel organized as a
    collection of loadable modules a module can be
    loaded and linked into the kernel while the
    kernel is in memory and executing
  • With source code available, vendors can tweak
    applications and utilities to meet specific
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