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ANATOMY OF SMALL ANIMALS

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Long sticky tongue that allows it to catch its prey ... d. Placoid pointed scales found on sharks and rays that are similar to teeth. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ANATOMY OF SMALL ANIMALS


1
Basic Anatomy terminology for small animals
2
EXTERNAL PARTS- p.44-45
  • Cheek The fleshy side of the face below the eye
    and above and to the side of the mouth.
  • Dewlap The loose fold of skin under the chin of
    an animal, most prominent in female rabbits.

3
3. Elbow The upper joint of the front leg just
below the shoulder. 4. Flank The fleshy part of
the side between the ribs and the rump
(croup). 5. Foot pad The part of the foot that
the animal walks on.
4
6. Forearm The part of the front limb just
below the elbow. 7. Guard hairs The longer,
coarse hairs above the shorter under-fur of an
animal that protects the animal and under-fur
from rain and cold.
5
8. Hock The tarsal joint or large joint halfway
up the hind limb 9. Loin The fleshy part of the
sides of an animal just below the spinal
column (sometimes used interchangeably with
flank).
6
10. Muzzle The projecting jaw that contains the
nose and mouth in some animals. 11. Nose pad
The tip of the nose that may be sensitive and
useful for investigating food, water, or
unfamiliar objects. (Called nose leather in cats).
7
12. Rump The upper rounded part of the
hindquarter (also called the croup). 13. Shoulder
The part of an animals body just above the
elbow of the foreleg. 14. Stifle The joint next
above the hock in the hind leg of a four footed
animal.
8
15. Thigh The hind limb extending from the rump
to the hock. 16. Whiskers The long projecting
hairs or bristles growing near the mouth of an
animal.
9
UNIQUE ANATOMY OF SMALL ANIMALS
10
Cat Anatomy (page 43) Forehead, nose break, chin,
shoulders, chest front foot, midsection, paw
pads, back foot, hock, thigh, flank tail rump,
back, shoulder blade, eye, cheek
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15
Nose and paw pads are sensitive used for
investigating food, water, or unfamiliar objects.
Nose and tongue used for further investigation in
smell and taste.
p. 43
16
The cats ears are supersensitive can detect
sound in the ultrasonic range. Although some
white cats with blue eyes may be deaf due to
degenerative changes in the cochlea.
17
  • Cats can hear 14 times better than that of humans!

18
The cats eye point forward to give it a 3
dimensional vision a cat can see in the dark as
well as it sees in the light.
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Rabbits (page 43) Ear, neck, eye, cheek, nose,
mouth, dewlap, toe, foot rib, belly, flank leg
hock, tail rump, hip, loin. The dewlap is only
found on female rabbits.
21
RABBIT SKELETON
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What is this?
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p. 43
Turtles (page 43) Scutes- epidermal scale found
on turtles divided into three types a. Marginal
scutes are around the outer shell, b. Central
scutes are down the center of the shell, c.
Coastal scutes located between the central and
marginal.
31
Central
Coastal
Marginal
32
Turtles have a hard tough layer of scales the top
part of the shell is called the carapace, it
forms the ribs and vertebrate. The lower part of
the shell is called the plastron.
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35
The turtles shell is made up of gular, humeral,
pectoral, abdominal, femoral, anal
bridge, Nuchal, costal, centrals, supracaudal
parts (page 56-7)
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39
Snakes (page 58) Eyes dont have eyelids instead
they have a brille, a transparent layer that
permanently covers the eye. The brille sheds and
a new layer is replaced each time the snake sheds
its skin.
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41
The shape of snake eyes is an indication it is
nocturnal or diurnal.
42
Nocturnal snakes are more active at night while
diurnal snakes are more active during the
daylight. A nocturnal species has a vertical
pupil that are opened very wide in dim light and
barely open in a slit / pinhole in bright light.
(See p.60)
43
Round pupils are characteristic of diurnal snakes
44
LIZARDS
  • Page 58

45
p.58
Gecko a nocturnal, tropical animal with 4 limbs
and 5 toes on each limb. On each toe is a
lamellae or an adhesive pad that allows the gecko
to climb almost any surface.
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51
  • ??Potential for clean adhesives that are reusable
    like bandaids??

52
The geckos eyes are very large but most have no
eyelids, instead they have a transparent covering
over the eye. Instead the eyes close to narrow
vertical slits or four pinhole openings and the
pupil change size as the light gets brighter.
53
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54
  • Leopard Gecko
  • Good temperament
  • Native to Afghanistan, Pakistan, India
  • True eyelid gecko
  • Nocturnal

55
  • Tokay Gecko
  • Nasty temperament
  • Likes to bite!
  • Native to SE Asia

56
  • Fat Tailed Gecko
  • Good temperament
  • True eyelid gecko
  • Native to W. Africa

57
  • Crested Gecko
  • semi-arboreal
  • Tolerate being handled
  • Native to New Caledonia (island in SW Pacific)

58
Iguana the green iguana is common to the pet
trade. The Iguana is normally found in Central
and South America
59
These lizards can get to be as long as 6 ½
ft. compared to only 8 inches when they are born.
Along the side of the lower jaw are large
scalessubtympanic shield.
60
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61
Iguana Facts
  • Herbivores
  • Diurnal (awake during day)
  • Require a LARGE habitat
  • Not for beginners

62
Chameleon
  • Have prehensile tail
  • Long sticky tongue that allows it to catch its
    prey
  • Rotating eyes that work independently of each
    other
  • 135 species!!

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64
Handling
  • Handling is stressful to Chameleons
  • They can become docile if handled with care.
    (Confetti)
  • They are pets that are better suited being being
    watched rather than handled a lot.

65
???Question???
  • What kind of Chameleon was Confetti?

66
  • Jackson Chameleon
  • 9-13 inches
  • 3 horns that make them look like mini-triceratops
  • Native to East Africa
  • Veiled Chameleon
  • 18-24 inches
  • Large helmet-like structure on head
  • Native to Saudi-Arabia

67
  • Panther Chameleon
  • Can reach up to 21 inches!
  • Many different color morphs
  • Native to Madagascar

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70
BIRDS (page 58) have some unique bones unlike
mammals. Bones include hyoid, atlas, radius,
ulna, ilium, pubis, ischium, pygostyle, sternum,
tibiotarsus. Many are fused unlike humans
71
Bird bones are relatively hollow with air spaces
making them lightweight for flight.Another
flight adaptation is no teeth is lighter weight
for flight ease.Wishbone helps keep chest from
collapsing during flight.
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Bird (page 58) Four types of feathers
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a. Contour feathers give birds their outward
smooth form. Protection from sun rain.They are
the largest
feather.
83
b. Flight feathers are contour feathers that
extend beyond the body and used for flying.
84
c. Down feathers are the soft small feathers
located under the contour feathers, they help
keep in body heat. Do not have hooks barbules
so look messy
85
d. Filoplume feathers are short, hair like
feathers found all over entire body but doesnt
serve any purpose for the bird except maybe
sensory.
86
OWLS do not have barbules on tips, so they can
fly with no sound
87
  • Crown the topmost part of the head
  • Ear Coverts the feathers covering the ears
  • Mandible The upper or lower segment of a bill
    of a bird
  • Nape The back of the neck
  • Eye Ring A ring encircling
  • the eye of many birds

p. 45A
88
Most birds have a skull bone that elongates
toward the front of the head. Some have a skull
with an upper beak fused to it while other birds
have hinged on both upper and lower (mandibles)
giving it more flexibility
89
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92
Fish (page 59) Cold blooded vertebrates that move
with the aid of fins and breathe using gills.
93
Gills- major organ in respiratory system fish
draw in water by their mouth through the constant
opening and closing, then force the air into the
pharynx and out the gills.
94
filaments part of the gill that allows water to
flow out
95
lamella thin wall part of the filament inside
the gill which oxygen and carbon dioxide are
exchanged from the blood vessels contained within.
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97
External anatomy of a fish include these parts
mouth, nostril, eye, scales, head, truck, spiny
dorsal fin, tail, soft dorsal fin, caudal fin,
peduncle, anal fin, pelvic fin, pectoral fin,
gill opening and a gill cover.
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99
Scales- Extensions of the dermis layer of skin
that provide protection to the fish by thin boney
plates that overlap each other. The exposed part
of the scale has a thin layer of epidermis.
100
There are four types of scales on fish a.
Ctenoid- serrations on edges of scale surfaces b.
Cycloid- smooth surfaces and edges
101
c. Gamoid- thick and heavy scales on the gar and
birches that are similar to those found on
ancient fish. d. Placoid pointed scales found
on sharks and rays that are similar to teeth.
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103
Ganoid scales of the Florida Gar
104
Placoid scales of the Broadnose Sevengill Shark.
105
Cycloid scales of Jungle Perch
106
Ctenoid scales of the Paradise Fish
107
Cosmoid scales of the Queensland Lungfish.
108
Fins- Web of skin that are supported with bone
or cartilage rods called rays. Fins may be
sharp, spiny, or soft depending on location.
109
  • , preopercle
  • Operculum (gill cover)
  • Nape
  • Breast
  • Lateral line (sensory structure)
  • Caudal peduncle (region anterior to caudal fin)

110
dorsal fins- vertical fin located on fishs
back anal fin- a fin on underside of fish near
its tail.
111
caudal fin /tail fin- used for motion adipose
fin- fin located between the dorsal and caudal
fin that is small and fleshy.
112
pectoral fin- pair fins of found just behind the
head on each side of fish. pelvic fin- set of
fins found below the pectoral fins.
113
Skin In the skin cells are pigment cells called
chromatophores that give the fish its color. The
skin is protected by mucus produced by glands in
the skin to protect it from bacteria and what
makes it slippery.
p. 59
114
  • Amphibians (page 71)
  • Amphibians live part of their life on land and
    part in water.
  • Examples include frogs, toads and salamanders

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118
The body of amphibians is covered with thin,
moist skin rather than scales. Amphibians can
breathe through their skin by the process of
osmosis.
119
Amphibians
  • Amphibians can breathe through their lungs
    moist skin by a process known as OSMOSIS
  • They take in oxygen, water, salt and other
    minerals necessary to sustain life through the
    process of osmosis.
  • Osmosis is the process by which water diffuses
    through a cell membrane.

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Life cycle of amphibians a. Egg b. Larva with
gill buds c. Larva with developing gills and limbs
122
d. Larva with fully developed gills and limbs e.
Adult stage
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  • 1. Frogs and Toads Adults have four legs and no
    tails
  • 2. Salamander four legs and a tail

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The dog's field of vision is very wide from 200
to 270 degrees (depending on the size of its
snout and the skull's shape) compared to man's
160 degrees. Their eyes are very similar to a
human's, but the ocular globes have less
movement. A human's sight is binocular and
forward, while a dog's are laterally.
136
Dogs, because of the location of their eyes can
detect a movement behind them. Dogs are
farsighted and detect moving objects much more
than immobile ones. Dogs have excellent night
vision since they have a special membrane that
allows them to receive light.
Sight hounds
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138
Smell is the strongest sense
139
More developed olfactory brain region
140
Wet nose scent membranes help carry smells
141
Dogs have about 25 times more olfactory (smell)
receptors than humans do. These receptors occur
in special sniffing cells deep in a dog's snout.
142
Dog Detectives???
  • Studies show dogs can sniff out cancers and sense
    epileptic seizures are coming, pregnancy, etc

143
Cow pregnancy checks
144
Some breeds have a greater talent for sniffing
out things. A few examples are Basset Hounds,
Bloodhounds, and Beagles, which are considered
'scent hounds.'
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