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Biofuels:Some opinions from Agrisector

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Food, Fodder and Fuel go together for sustaining rural ... 3.5 tonnes / ha Jaggery, 2.0 tonnes / ha Sugar. Advantages of using sweet sorghum over sugarcane ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biofuels:Some opinions from Agrisector


1
BiofuelsSome opinions from Agri-sector
  • N. Seetharama, NRCS (ICAR), Hyderabad
  • E-mal nrcshyd_at_ap.nic.in or N.Seetharama_at_cgiar.or
    g
  • Website www.nrcsorghum.res.in
  • NY Nayakar, UAS, Dharwad
  • Email Nnayakar_at_yahoo.com

2
Problems with sectoral approach
  • Food, Fodder and Fuel go together for
    sustaining rural livelihood severe competition
    among above
  • All things not considered even in the primary
    sector earlier example of Subabul for fuel we
    need others
  • So integration necessary, not an option
  • Sustainability of new technologies from the angle
    of
  • Economics (not subsistence alone)
  • Environment
  • Inter-generation equity (long-term conservation)

3
Tree genetics and improvement
  • Genetic resources
  • How much variation
  • GEOGRPHICAL
  • GENETIC
  • What adaptive features?
  • How much further genetic improvement is possible?
  • Start improvement now
  • Collection, evaluation, documentation,
    conservation, and utilization NBPGR's
    responsibility
  • Germplasm exchange

4
Plantation management
  • What cropping pattern? first few years
  • Probable threats
  • For tree itself
  • Working as alternate hosts for pests
  • Resource utilization efficiency
  • Synergy across agroecologies
  • whole-plant utilization, value addition
  • Ecological aspects other species in same or
    neighboring plantation/field
  • Nodal agencies CRIDA IGFRI (agroforestry)

5
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6
Integration of
  • Production in situ utilization
  • Marketing surplus piggyback?
  • Long-term benefits of knowledge sharing
  • Better served by a regd. Society

7

          Sorghum as a Raw Material for ethanol
Production  
  • Recently, the consumption and area is
    decreasing
  • Commercialization of Agriculture
  • Public Distribution System (PDS)
  • Transformation of our economy and globalization
  • A retrospective step for the stability of
    livelihood of poor

 
 
8
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9
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10
Recovery of by-products
  • 250 Kgs residue per tonne of grain used for
    fermentation.

11
Indian experience on use of grains ethanol
production
  • Grain vs molasses based potable alcohol- imminent
    competition.
  • Grain-based ethanol more expensive than molasses
    - based
  • Costs in 2002 in eastern Maharashtra,
  • Molasses Rs.13.00 to Rs.16.00 per litre
  • Grain Rs. 21.00 to 27.00 per litre
  • .

12
Sweet Sorghum
  • Sorghum that is rich in Stalk sucrose,
  • Resembles exactly sugarcane for its juicy stalk
    but has advantage over sugarcane.
  • Can co-exist with sugarcane
  • Yield
  • 35 tonnes of stalks per hectare besides
  • at least 1.5 tonnes grain.
  • stalk sugar are 16-19 .
  • The recovery of juice from the stalk is above 45
  • 3.5 tonnes / ha Jaggery, 2.0 tonnes / ha Sugar

13
Advantages of using sweet sorghum over sugarcane
  • 1. Can be harvested in 4 months after planting
  • 2. Can be completely mechanized
  • 3. Established from seed
  • 4. Can be used as either food or feed
  • 5. The bagasse has a higher biological value

14
Advantages of alcohol production from sorghum
  • 1. Superior quality of alcohol
  • 2. Sustainable agricultural development in dry
    area
  • 3. Minimum purchased inputs
  • 4. Biodiversity conservation
  • 5. Environmental benefits
  • 6. Social marketing

15
Limitations for sorghum use and means to overcome
the same
  • Relatively higher cost of raw material
    Transportation cost due to huge bulk but is
    cheaper than maize and other grains.
  • (stalks)
  • Volatility of price of raw material (but always
    lower)
  • Lack of guaranteed supply of sorghum stalks
    throughout the year
  • Lack of market information
  • Froth formation is more in sorghum than that of
    alternate broken rice.
  • Huge solid content during decantation

16
Recommendations
  • 1. Provision of market information system
  • 2. Portable alcohol from grain sources only
  • 3. Cooperative (farmer's cooperative)
  • 4. Tax holiday
  • De-Anny Kelly campaign in Australia.

17
Sorghum vs. sugarcane - Rs/liter
  • Manpower - ?
  • Steam
  • Electricity
  • Yeast
  • Water use
  • Coaster use
  • Pollution control
  • Raw materials cost Rs 11.00 vs. 6.80
  • Cost per liter Rs 18.50 vs. 14.30
  • By product sorghum- more latent heat, bagagasse
    better as animal feed
  • Sorghum grain 1 tonne/ha not considered above
  •  
  •  

18
Research and Development Support
  • Government /public institutions for technological
    advancements
  • These should be augmented by the user industries
    and their associates
  • Private seed industry can play a mutually
    beneficial role

19
Other players
  • Biotechnology how soon? Cost?
  • Sugar accumulation
  • More oil from cereals
  • Quality
  • Processing quality
  • End-use
  • Integration of biological,social and economic
    aspects of the challenge
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