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GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: PHYSICAL CAUSES: POTENTIAL DIRE CONSEQUENCES: COPING MEASURES:PREVENTIONMITIG

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BEGINS WHEN THE NATURAL SOLAR INPUT AND BENEFICIAL ... DALIAN, CHINA. COLORADO RIVER BASIN, WESTERN USA. THE EVERGLADES, FLORIDA. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: PHYSICAL CAUSES: POTENTIAL DIRE CONSEQUENCES: COPING MEASURES:PREVENTIONMITIG


1
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE PHYSICAL
CAUSESPOTENTIAL DIRE CONSEQUENCESCOPING
MEASURESPREVENTION-MITIGATION- ADAPTATION-
MONITORING
2
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • BEGINS WHEN THE NATURAL SOLAR INPUT AND
    BENEFICIAL GREENHOUSE EFFECT
  • ARE EXACERBATED BY GREENHOUSE GASES
  • THAT CAUSE POSITIVE FEEDBACK WITH THE POTENTIAL
    FOR CAUSING
  • A DOMINO EFFECT
  • OF LONG-TERM DIRE CONSEQUENCES,
  • UNLESS
  • COPING MEASURES ARE IMPLEMENTED IN A TIMELY
    MANNER

3
(No Transcript)
4
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Physical Causes

5
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE LITHOSPHERE-HYDROSPHERE-ATM
OSPHERE-BIOSPHERE INTERACTIONS
6
PHYSICAL INTERACTIONS OCCUR ON MANY SCALES
  • Propagation, reflection, and refraction of
    incoming visible light and EM waves from the sun
    (the solar input)
  • Absorption and storage of visible light (causing
    the natural greenhouse effect).

7
PHYSICAL INTERACTIONS OCCUR ON MANY SCALES
  • Absorption of long wave length re-radiated heat
    by greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide,
    methane, and nitrous oxide) in the atmosphere
    (which exacerbates the natural greenhouse
    effect)

8
PHYSICAL INTERACTIONS OCCUR ON MANY SCALES
  • Positive feedback between the atmosphere and
    hydrosphere, which can cause a long-term, global
    Domino Effect of dire consequences such as
    global warming, global climate change, sea level
    rise, uncertain quality and quantity of water,
    severe storms, desertification, and drought.

9
PLANET EARTHS AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF 57.9
DEGREES F IS CAUSED BY THE GREEHHOUSE EFFECT
10
THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT
11
THE SOLAR SPECTRUM
  • THE SOLAR SPECTRUM INCLUDES A) VISIBLE LIGHT
    (ROYGBIV), B) ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT (SHORTER WAVE
    LENGTHS), AND C) INFRARED LIGHT (LONGER WAVE
    LENGTHS).

12
THE GREENHOUSE GASES (WATER VAPOR, CARBON
DIOXIDE, METHANE, NITROUS OXIDE) IN EARTHS
ATMOSPHERE ARE TRANSPARENT TO VISIBLE LIGHT, BUT
NOT TO INFRARED RADIATION RE-RADIATED FROM A
WARMED EARTH.
13
THE PROBLEM IS THE POSITIVE FEEDBACK THAT THE
ADDITION OF JUST A LITTLE CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE
ATMOSPHERE CAUSES. THE DOMINOE EFFECT IT STARTS
CAN LEAD TO IRREVERSIBLE GLOBAL WARMING AND
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE OVER TIME.
14
THE CARBON CYCLE
15
NATURE ADDS 200 BILLION TONS OF CARBON DIOXIDE
ANNUALLY TO THE ATMOSPHERE
16
A PARADIGM SHIFT HAS OCCURRED
  • GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE WAS DISCUSSED IN A
    HYPOTHETICAL WAY FOR MANY YEARS.
  • IT WAS CONSIDERED ACADEMICALLY INTERESTING AND A
    LOW-PROBABULITY RISK FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS.
  • NOW, GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL WARMING ARE
    BEING REGARDED AS CLEAR FACTS.
  • BOTH IMPLY SERIOUS, DIRE CONSEQUENCES FOR
    PRESENT AND FUTURE GENERATIONS.

17
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Dire Consequences

18
POSITIVE FEEDBACK BETWEEN THE ATMOSPHERE AND
HYDROSPHERE CAN CAUSE A DOMINO EFFECT OF DIRE
CONSEQUENCES
  • GLOBAL WARMING IS NOW UNEQUIVOCAL
  • AND MANY LOCATIONS ARE NOW AT HIGH RISK FOR DIRE
    CONSEQUENCES AS THE RESULT OF CLIMATE CHANGING
    AND SEA LEVEL RISING

19
(No Transcript)
20
GLOBAL WARMING IS UNEQUIVOCAL
21
THE AVERAGE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE HAS RISEN 1.7
DEGREES F IN PAST 150 YEARS
22
DIRE CONSEQUENCES
  • Global warming, worldwide rise in sea level, and
    global climate change.
  • Collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation
    (The Atlantic Conveyor Belt).
  • Increase in number of severe windstorms.
  • Larger storm surges in seasonal hurricanes and
    typhoons.
  • Prolonged droughts in some regions and heavy
    precipitation in others.

23
RISE IN SEA LEVEL
24
KANAI FJORD, ALASKA
25
SOUTH GEORGIA ISLAND
26
WENGEN, SWITZERLAND
27
GREENLAND
28
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES, CANADA
29
MT KILIMANJARO, TANZANIA
30
GREAT BARRIER REEF, AUSTRALIA
31
FUNAFUTI,TUVALU
32
HALONG BAY, VIETNAM
33
VENICE, ITALY
34
MANHATTAN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY
35
TOKYO, JAPAN
36
THE NETHERLANDS
37
DALIAN, CHINA
38
COLORADO RIVER BASIN, WESTERN USA
39
THE EVERGLADES, FLORIDA
40
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • COPING MEASURES PREVENTION-MITIGATION-ADAPTATION-
    MONITORING

41
LOCAL REGIONAL SCALES
DATA BASES AND INFORMATION
HAZARDS GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN
UP AFTERSHOCKS
42
THE TIPPING SCENARIO ISSUE OF GLOBAL CLIMATE
CHANGE
  • The issue is
  • Within a few decades, will humans be able to
    slow, much less reverse, the dire consequences
    and future risks associated with global climate
    change?

43
PREVENTION, MITIGATION, AND ADAPTATION
  • PREVENTION MITIGATION MEASURES FOCUS ON
    UNSCRAMBLING THE EGG, THE HARDEST PART OF THE
    PROBLEM.
  • THEY FOCUS ON MEASURES THAT WILL SHUT DOWN OR
    REDUCE CO2 EMMISSIONS, OR REDUCE THEIR
    POSITIVE FEEDBACK.
  • ADAPTATION MEASURES ADDRESS AN EATING THE EGG
    SCENARIO, AN EDUCATED GUESS ABOUT THE FUTURE.
  • THEY FOCUS ON MEASURES THAT WILL PROVIDE A
    REALISTIC MARGIN OF SAFETY IN TERMS OF THE DIRE
    CONSEQUENCES OF THE SCENARIO.

44
MONITORING PROVIDES REAL- AND NEAR REAL-TIME
CONFIRMATION
45
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS INDICATE THAT THE
    TROPO-SPHERE IS WARMING FASTER THAN THE EARTHS
    SURFACE.
  • NOTE THIS INDICATES THAT GREENHOUSE GASES IN
    THE ATMOSPHERE ARE ABSORBING HEAT AND STARTING A
    POSITIVE FEEDBACK PROCESS.

46
PREVENTION MITIGATION
  • PREVENTION MEASURES ARE REQUIRED TO CONTROL THE
    SOURCE OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF CITIES,
    INDUSTRIES, AND ACTIONS OF PEOPLE.
  • MITIGATION MEASURES ARE REQUIRED TO REDUCE THE
    EFFECTS OF THE POSITIVE FEEDBACK THAT HAPPENS
    WHEN EXCESS CARBON DIOXIDE IS EMMITTED INTO THE
    ATMOSPHERE.

47
MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • ADAPTATION MEASURES ARE REQUIRED BECAUSE THE
    MOMENTUM OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE CAN NOT BE
    TURNED OFF OR REDUCED VERY MUCH IN A SHORT TIME.
  • CARBON DIOXIDE CONTINUES WARMING THE ATMOSPHERE
    FOR DECADES, WHILE SIMULTANEOUSLY WARMING OCEANS
  • THE OCEAN STORES HEAT FOR CENTURIES, TRANSPORTS
    IT, AND CHANGES CLIMATE OVER BROAD AREAS.

48
ADAPTATION
  • MANY COUNTRIES ARE MAKING LARGE INVESTMENTS IN
    ADAPTATION MEASURES NOW.
  • LEADERS ARE RECOGNIIZING THAT THE RISKS FOR
    PEOPLE, BUSINESSES, AND COMMUNITIES LIVING IN OR
    LOCATED IN COASTAL AREAS AND FLOODPLAINS WILL
    INCREASE.

49
REALISTIC ADAPTATION IS KEYED TO SCENARIO EVENTS
50
THE NETHERLANDS MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • AFTER 800 YEARS EXPERIENCE BATTLING THE NORTH
    SEA, THE NETHERLANDS HAS CREATED SOME OF THE
    STRONGEST FLOOD DEFENSES IN THE WORLD.
  • PRESENT RIVER DEFENSES PROVIDE 1-IN -250
    YEARS PROTECTION LEVELS.

51
THE NETHERLANDS MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • THE OOESTERSCHELDEKERING, A PART OF THE DELTA
    WORKS DAMS, DEFENDS AGAINST THE NORTH SEA.
  • THEY ARE NOW BEING MADE STRONGER TO PROVIDE
    1-IN-100,000 YEARS PROTECTION INSTEAD OF
    1-IN-10,000 YEARS PROTECTION.

52
THE NETHERLANDS MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • THE DUTCH ARE ALSO REVISING TRADITIONAL FLOOD
    MANAGEMENT THINKING.
  • IN ADDITION TO CONTAINING THE FLOOD WATERS, THEY
    WILL ALLOW CERTAIN DESIGNATED LOCATIONS TO BE
    FLOODED.
  • THIS TRATEGY IS CALLED, LIVING WITH WATER.

53
THE OOESTERSCHELDEKERING THE NETHERLANDS
54
THE NETHERLANDS MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • THE NETHERLANDS WILL COMMIT ABOUT 1.3 BILLION
    ANNUALLY TO INCREASE PROTECTION LEVELS.
  • THIS INVESTMENT IS EQUAL TO ABOUT 0.2 PERCENT OF
    THE NETHERLANDS GDP.

55
BRITAIN MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • THE BRITISH ARE IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE
    THAMES BARRIER, A SET OF FLOODGATES ACROSS THE
    THAMES RIVER.
  • THE BARRIER IS NOW BEING CLOSED 10 TIMES A YEAR
    TO PROVIDE 1-IN-2,000 YEARS PROTECTION
    OF LONDON FROM FLOODING CAUSED BY OCEAN STORM
    SURGES.

56
THAMES RIVER BARRIER LONDON, ENGLAND
57
THAMES RIVER BARRIER
58
BRITAINMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • THE PREDICTED RISE IN SEA LEVEL BY 2030 IS
    EXPECTED TO REQUIRE AN INCREASE IN PROTECTION
    ALONG THE THAMES TO 1-IN-1,000 YEARS.
  • THE ENTIRE SYSTEM WILL LIKELY BE REPLACED AND
    UPGRADED BY 2100.

59
JAPANMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • JAPAN IS ANTICIPATING MUCH MORE WATER FROM
    RISING SEA LEVEL, STORM SURGES AND PRECIPITATION
    FROM TYPHOONS, AND TSUNAMI WAVE RUN UP.
  • ITS G-CANS PROJECT HAS CREATED MASSIVE
    UNDERGROUND CONCRETE RIVER CHANNELS IN NORTHWEST
    TOKYO THAT FACILITATES MOVEMENT OF EXCESS WATER
    AWAY FROM TOKYO.

60
JAPAN G-CANS PROJECT
61
JAPANMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • JAPAN HAS INSTALLED UNDERGROUND PUMPS THAT CAN
    PUMP 100 TONS OF WATER PER SECOND OUT OF RIVERS
    AND BACK INTO THE HARBOR TO PREVENT FLOODING OF
    CTY STREETS.
  • BUT, THIS SYSTEM IS ALREADY CONSIDERED TO BE
    OPERATING AT FULL CAPACITY NOW.

62
BANGLADESHMITIGATION ADAPTATION
63
BANGLADESHMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • BANGLADESH, ONE OF THE MOST VULNERABLE PLACES ON
    EARTH TO GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE, NOW REQUIRES USE
    OF CLIMATE CHANGE MODELS IN ALL FUTURE PLANNING
    AND DECISIONS.
  • IT HAS BEGUN SWITCHING LAND USE FROM RICE FARMING
    TO PRAWN FARMING IN LOCATIONS WHRE SALT WATER IN
    THE BAY OF BENGAL IS NOW MOVING INLAND.

64
BANGLADESHMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • BUT BANGLADESH, ONE OF THE POOREST COUNTRIES IN
    THE WORLD, CAN NOT AFFORD THE INVESTMENTS
    REQUIRED FOR THE KINDS OF ADAPTATION MEASURES NOW
    UNDERWAY IN INDUSTRALIZED COUNTRIES.
  • INTERNATIONAL AID IS SLOW IN BECOMING AVAILABLE.

65
UNITED STATESMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • ADAPTATION IS NOW ON THE AMERICAN AGENDA BECAUSE
    OF HURRICANE KATRINA AND ITS IMPACT ON NEW
    ORLEANS AND THE GULF COAST.
  • NEW ORLEANS HAS BECOME A LABORATORY FOR SCIENCE,
    TECHNOLOGY, HAZARD INSURANCE, AND PUBLIC POLICY.

66
NEW ORLEANSMITIGATION ADAPTATION
67
NEW ORLEANS LEVEE SYSTEM
68
NEW ORLEANSMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • NEW ORLEANS LEVEE SYSTEM ONLY PROVIDES 1-IN-100
    YEARS PROTECT-ION NOW.
  • 122 LEVEES IN THE SYSTEM ARE NOW CONSIDERED TO BE
    INADEQUATE FOR THE STORM SURGES AND PRECIPITATION
    EXPECTED IN FUTURE HURRICANES.

69
RETROFIT OF NEW ORLEANS LEVEE SYSTEM
70
NEW ORLEANS NEW ADAPTATION MEASURE
  • DEFENSE IN DEPTH, A THREE-LAYERED SYSTEM, HAS
    BEEN DEVISED TO PROTECT NEW ORLEANS.
  • THE INNER LAYER CONSISTS OF HARDENED LEVEES AND
    FLOOD WALLS.
  • THE MIDDLE LAYER IS COMPRISED OF A LARGE EXPANSE
    OF WETLANDS.
  • THE OUTER LAYER CONSISTS OF BARRIER ISLANDS IN
    THE GULF OF MEXICO.
  • EACH LAYER ACTS LIKE A SPEED BUMP TO ABSORB AND
    REDUCE THE ENERGY AND ADVERSE IMPACTS OF THE
    STORM.

71
THE THIRD LAYER BARRIER ISLANDS
72
TECHNOLOGY BASED ACTIONS THAT FACILITATE
PREVENTION-MITIGATION-ADAPTATION-MONITORING OF
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • HIGH- AND LOW- TECHNOLOGY-BASED SOLUTIONS

73
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 1. USING ALTERN-ATIVE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
    TO REPLACE USE OF FOSSIL FUELS
  • USE OF WIND, BIOFUEL, GEOTHERMAL, SOLAR,
    HYDRO-ELECTRIC, AND NUCLEAR), IS NOW BEING
    CONSIDERED.

74
WIND POWER GREAT POTENTIAL
75
WIND FARMS IN USA
76
ACTIONS TO CONTROL GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 2. USING BIOFUELS INSTEAD OF HYDROCARBONS(turning
    food into fuel)
  • Fossil fuel use, industrial emissions, and
    deforestation are the chief causes of rising
    carbon dioxide levels.

77
BIOFUELS
78
ACTIONS TO CONTROL GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 3. CAPTURING THE CARBON DIOXIDE FROM COAL- FIRED
    POWER PLNTS.
  • ONE-HALF THE ELECTRICITY GENERATED IN THE USA
    COMES FROM COAL, ONE OF THE DIRTIEST FOSSIL FUELS.
  • CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY IS NOW GAINING WIDE
    SUPPORT.

79
ACTIONS TO CONTROL GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • CARBON SEQUESTRATION (PUMPING CARBON DIOXIDE
    EMMISSIONS INTO THE GROUND AND STORING THEM,
    INSTEAD OF EMITTING THEM INTO THE ATMOSPHERE).

80
ACTIONS TO CONTROL GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 4. INCREASING THE USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY AND
    REDUCING THE USE OF FOSSIL FUELS IN BUILDINGS.
  • PGE MARKETS GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN CALIFORNIA.
  • ICELAND USES GEOTHERMAL ENERGY.

81
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
82
GEOTHERMAL PLANT ICELAND
83
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 5. PLANTING CARBON SINKS (R.G., A BAMBOO
    FOREST).
  • BAMBOO GROWS SO RAPIDLY THAT IT ABSORBS MUCH MORE
    CARBON DIOXIDE THAN IT EMITS.

84
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 6. REARRANGE THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH (i.e.,
    todays science fiction that is being created in
    the framework of geoengineering.)
  • The Magellan telescope is one example.)

85
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 7. IMPLEMENTING BLUEPRINTS TO TRANSFORM
    NON-GREEN HOUSES INTO GREEN HOUSES
  • (I.E., CHANGE THE HOUSES CARBON FOOTPRINT)

86
A GREEN COMMUNITY
87
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 8. BUILDING TALLER AND GREENER BUILDINGS FOR
    BUSINESS- AND GOVERNMENT- USE (for example, Bank
    of America Tower in New York City).

88
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • THE BANK OF AMERICA TOWER IN NEW YORK CITY IS
    A 1 BILLION PROJECT THAT OPENED IN 2008.
  • IT IS A HIGH-TECH MODEL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY.

89
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 9. LIGHT UP YOUR CITY WITH LIGHT EMITTING DIODES
    (LEDs) INSTEAD OF THE OLD HIGH-PRESSURE SODIUM
    BULBS THAT EMIT MORE CARBON DIOXIDE.
  • 10. ENACT A HIGH CARBON TAX A SET TAX RATE ON
    THE CONSUMPTION OF CARBON PRODUCING FUEL IN ANY
    FORM.

90
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 11. INCREASING THE GREENNESS OF YOUR HOUSE WHILE
    DECREASING ITS SIZE.
  • 12. DOING LAUNDRY (i.e., washing and drying) MORE
    EFFICIENTLY.

91
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 13. TURN OFF THE LIGHTS AT QUITTING TIME.

92
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 14. ASSISTING EMPLOYEES TO PARTICIPATE IN
    PROXIMATE COMMUTING (i.e., living close to
    work)
  • 15. IMPROVING THE WALK, AND THE BIKE, CAR, BUS,
    AND TRAIN RIDE FOR COMMUTERS.

93
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 16. MOVING TO THE CITY AND LIVING IN A GREEN
    HIGH-RISE BUILDING

94
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 17. PAYING YOUR BILLS ONLINE.
  • 18. REDUCING CARBON DIOIDE EMISSIONS FROM YOUR
    HOME BY THE OPENING AND CLOSING OF FILM-COVERED
    AND INSULATED WINDOW SYSTEMS.

95
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 19. HIRING AN ENERGY EXPERT TO CONDUCT AN ENERGY
    AUDIT ON YOUR HOME.
  • 20. BUYING GREEN POWER (I.E., WIND, SOLAR,
    HYDROELECTRIC, NUCLEAR, AND GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
    SOURCES) WHENEVER POSSIBLE.

96
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 20. CHECKING THE GREEN STAR LABEL ON OVENS,
    REFRIGERATORS, HOTELS, ETC.
  • 21. WRAPPING YOUR WATER HEATER (OR BUYING A
    GREENER ONE).

97
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 22. REDUCING THE PRODUCTION OF NITROUS OXIDE AND
    METHANE.

98
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 23. FOLLOW THE LEADER (e.g., California) TO
    ACHIEVE A CONCERTED, COORDINATED, LEVERAGED,
    GLOBAL EFFORT.

99
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 24. KEEPING PLASTIC BAGS OUT OF LANDFILLS.
  • POLYETYLENE BAGS CAN TALE UP TO 1,000 YEARS TO
    BIODEGRADE IN LANDFILLS THAT EMIT GREENHOUSE
    GASES.
  • 25. REDUCING YOUR PETROLEUM MILES BY BUYING
    PRODUCE FROM YOUR LOCAL FARMER.

100
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 26. REDUCING THE TIME THAT AIRPLANES ARE IN THE
    AIR (e.g., single skies, continuous descents,
    straight landing paths, and straight take off
    paths.)

101
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 27. THINKING AND ACTING GREEN IN THE FRAME-WORK
    OF THE 2005 ENERGY POLICY ACT (or its
    equivalent).

102
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 28. SETTING THE OFFICE THERMOSTAT HIGHER (e.g.,
    80 degrees F) IN THE SUMMER AND LOWER (e.g., 68
    degrees F) IN THE WINTER.
  • 29. TURNING OFF SCREEN SAVERS AND COMPUTERS.

103
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 30. KILLING FEWER TREES (i.e., an estimated 900
    million per year now) AND MOVING TOWARDS A
    PAPERLESS SOCIETY.

104
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 32. DEVELOPING ZERO-CARBON HOUSING
  • LONDON IS LEADING IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF
    LONG-RANGE PLANS THAT COULD EVENTUALLY CREATE
    200,000 ZERO-CARBON HOUSES PER YEAR.

105
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 33. BEING MORE AGGRESSIVE ABOUT PASSIVE ENERGY
    (e.g., adding extra insulation and
    state-of-the-art ventilation)

106
ACTIONS TO SLOW GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 34. CHANGING FROM STANDARD LIGHT BULBS TO COMPACT
    FLUORESCENT BULBS (CFBs).
  • EVERY LITTLE BIT HELPS TO REDUCE THE HOUSES
    CARBON FOOTPRINT.
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