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THE CHANGING FACE OF TEXAS

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Houston's prosperity will now depend, to an important degree, on the city's ... POSITIVE RATINGS OF RELATIONS AMONG ETHNIC GROUPS IN THE HOUSTON AREA (HAS, 1992-2005) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE CHANGING FACE OF TEXAS


1
THE CHANGING FACE OF TEXAS IN THE TWENTY-FIRST
CENTURY Perspectives on the New
Immigration Humanities Texas Gateway on the
Gulf.
STEPHEN L. KLINEBERG 18 June 2005
2
THE HOUSTON AREA SURVEY (19822005)
  • Supported by a consortium of local foundations,
    corporations, and individuals, annual
    random-digit-dialed phone interviews have been
    conducted, in English and Spanish, with 24
    suc-cessive representative samples of Harris
    County residents.
  • No other city in the nation has been the focus of
    a long-term study of this scope, and none more
    clearly exemplifies the remarkable ongoing
    transformations of urban America.
  • In 13 of the past 15 years, the surveys were
    expanded to reach at least 450 Anglos, 450
    Blacks, and 450 Hispanics.
  • In 1995 and 2002, the research included large
    representative samples from Houstons entire
    Asian population, the only such surveys in the
    country.

3
MEASURING PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS . . .
  • Utilizing a variety of identical questions over
    the years, the surveys have tracked the
    continuities and changes in area residents
    experiences and perspectives on
  • Economic conditions, poverty, and crime
  • Downtown development and transportation
  • Air and water pollution, and public health
  • Schools and other local government programs
  • Immigration, ethnic diversity, and discrimination
  • Abortion, homosexuality, and other dimensions of
    family values.
  • The following charts present just a small
    indication of what the surveys reveal.

4
THROUGH A PERIOD OF TRULY REMARKABLE CHANGE
  • In May 1982, two months after the first survey in
    this series, Houstons oil boom suddenly
    collapsed.
  • The region recovered from the recession of the
    1980s to find itself at the center of the most
    significant transformations of our time.
  • By the 1990s, Houston was fully in the midst of .
    . .
  • A restructured economy, and
  • A demographic revolution.

5
POSITIVE RATINGS OF LOCAL JOB OPPORTUNITIES (HAS,
1982-2005)
6
THE RESTRUCTURED ECONOMY
  • The resource economy of the Industrial Age has
    now receded into history.
  • The blue collar path to financial security has
    largely disappeared.
  • Almost all the good jobs today require high
    levels of technical skills and educational
    credentials.
  • In 2004, 75 disagreed that, A high school
    education is enough to get a good job. And in
    2005, 64 agreed that, There are very few good
    jobs in todays economy for people without a
    college education.
  • From now on, What you earn depends on what you
    have learned.

7
RESULT 1 AN HOURGLASS ECONOMY.
In the new knowledge-based, two-tiered economy .
. .
Poverty persists even as the city grows richer
Opportunities narrow for some while they expand
for others
Income inequalities continue to widen
8
TWO QUARTER-CENTURIES
THE GREAT COMPRESSION AND THE GREAT
INVERSION
Source Economic Policy Institute
Source Congressional Budget Office
From Kevin Phillips. 2002. Wealth and Democracy
A Political History of the American Rich. New
York Broadway Books, p. 137.
9
RESULT 2 THE NEW IMPORTANCE OF
QUALITY-OF-PLACE ISSUES.
  • The source of wealth today has less to do with
    control over natural resources and more to do
    with human resources.
  • A citys economic success will increasingly
    depend upon its ability to nurture, attract, and
    retain skilled and creative knowledge workers
    and high-tech companies.
  • Talented individuals and leading corporations are
    freer than ever before to choose where they would
    like to live.
  • As a result, quality-of-life issues have become
    significant determinants of a city's success in
    the new economy.

10
THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGE
  • Houston's prosperity will now depend, to an
    important degree, on the citys ability to
    develop into a more environmentally and
    aesthetically appealing urban destination.
  • This means significant and sustained improvements
    in . . .
  • Mobility and traffic congestion
  • The quality of air and water
  • The revitalization and preservation of downtown
    areas
  • The beautification of freeways and bayous
  • The abundance of parks and trees
  • The venues for sports, art, and culture
  • The richness of hiking, boating, and birding
    areas

11
WHATS THE BIGGEST PROBLEM FACING PEOPLE IN
HOUSTON TODAY? (1982-2005)
12
THE SHIFT IN IMMIGRATION POLICY
  • Meanwhile, major new immigration streams have
    transformed the composition of the Houston (and
    American) populations.
  • Between 1492 and 1965, 82 of all immigrants into
    this country came from Europe.
  • Under the notorious 1924 National Origins Quota
    Act, only Europeans (especially Nordics) were
    admitted.
  • The Hart-Celler Act of 1965 changed American
    immigration policy, with preferences no longer to
    be based on national origins, but instead on
  • Family reunification
  • Occupational skills

13
THE DEMOGRAPHIC REVOLUTION
Along with Los Angeles and New York, followed by
Miami, San Francisco and Chicago, Houston now
finds itself at the forefront of the new
ethnicity that is profoundly changing the social
and political landscape of urban America.
  • Unlike all previous immigrant streams, todays
    immigration is
  • Non-European,
  • Socioeconomically bifurcated,
  • Coming into a bifurcated economy, and
  • Giving few signs of slowing down.

Nowhere are these new realities more clearly seen
than in the Houston area.
14
THE U.S. CENSUS FIGURES FOR HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS
(1960-2003)
1960 1970
1980
1990 2000
2003 Total Populations 1,243,258
1,741,912 2,409,547
2,818,199 3,400,578
3,553,882
15
INTERACTIONS OF AGE AND ETHNICITY
  • Two ongoing revolutions The aging and the
    colorizing,
  • a.k.a. the graying and the browning, of
    America.
  • 76 million American babies (primarily Anglos)
    were born
  • between 1946 and 1964, now aged 41 to 59.
  • The population of Americans over the age of 65
    will double in
  • the next quarter century.
  • They will be replaced by the younger Americans,
    who are
  • disproportionately non-Anglo and less
    privileged.
  • The aging of America is thus as much a
    division along
  • ethnic lines as it is along generational
    lines.

16
RESPONDENTS AGED 50 AND OLDER INTHREE ETHNIC
COMMUNITIES (1988-2005)
17
PROPORTION OF RESPONDENTS IN FOUR AGE GROUPS WHO
ARE ANGLO, BLACK, HISPANIC, AND ASIAN OR OTHER
(2000-2005)
18
LEVELS OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT IN FIVE
COMMUNITIES (HAS, 1994-2005)
Number of Respondents 1,018
4,866
4,725
2,112 2,829
19
LEVELS OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTIN FOUR ASIAN
COMMUNITIES (1995, 2002)
Number of Respondents 292
251
222
76
20
LEVELS OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTIN THREE BLACK
COMMUNITIES (1994-05)
Number of Respondents 4,725
58

77
21
LEVELS OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTIN FIVE LATINO
COMMUNITIES (1994-2005)
Number of Respondents 2,112
1,626 285
176
132
22
POSITIVE RATINGS OF RELATIONS AMONG ETHNIC GROUPS
IN THE HOUSTON AREA (HAS, 1992-2005)
23
ATTITUDES TOWARD HOUSTONS IN-CREASING DIVERSITY
(HAS, 1994-2005)
24
ATTITUDES TOWARD THE NEWIMMIGRATION (HAS,
19942005)
25
BELIEFS ABOUT THE NEW IMMIGRANTSIN FIVE
COMMUNITIES (HAS, 1994-2004)
26
THE IMPACT OF A NEIGHBORHOODS RACIAL COMPOSITION
ON THE LIKELI-HOOD OF BUYING A HOUSE (HAS, 2004)
27
ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN BELIEFS ABOUT EQUALITY OF
OPPORTUNITY IN AMERICA (HAS, 1991-2005)
28
CONTACT INFORMATION
Professor Stephen L. Klineberg Department of
Sociology, MS-28 Rice University, P. O. Box
1892 Houston TX 77251-1892 Telephone
713-348-3484 or 713-665-2010 email address
slk_at_rice.edu Web www.houstonareasurvey.org
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