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CHAPTERS 19

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Grover Cleveland. 7. SOUTH AMERICA - MONROE DOCTRINE ... ANIT-IMPERIALISTS - CLEVELAND, BRYAN, CARNEGIE, GOMPERS, TWAIN, SOUTHERN SENATORS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTERS 19


1
CHAPTERS 19 20 THE COURSE OF EMPIRE 1870-1900
2
A. REASONS FOR EXPANSION
  • 1. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • a. NEW MARKETS
  • b. LATIN AMERICA, PACIFIC CHINA

3
2. FOREIGN INVESTMENT
  • a. 1900-1914
  • b. 455M TO 2.5B

4
3. NAVAL POWER
  • a. ALFRED T. MAHAN 1886
  • THE INFLUENCE OF SEA POWER UPON
  • HISTORY (1890)
  • b. NAVAL BASES TO
  • SUPPORT WORLD POWER
  • c. WEST VS. ORIENT
  • d. SPURRED REBUILDING OF U.S.
  • NAVY BY 1898

5
4. CHRISTIAN "BURDEN"
  • a. MISSIONARIES
  • b. RESPONSIBILITY TO SPREAD
  • THE WORD
  • c. Josiah Strong our brothers keeper
  • Anglo-Saxon represented civil
    liberty
  • and pure spiritual Christianity
    1885
  • OUR COUNTRY ITS POSSIBLE FUTURE
  • AND PRESENT CRISIS

6
5. SOCIAL DARWINISM
  • a. RESP. TO RULE THE LESS
  • DEVELOPED NATIONS
  • Darwin THE DESCENT OF MAN, 1871
  • The Preservation of Favoured Races in the
    Struggle for Life subtitle for ORIGIN OF
    SPECIES
  • b. BESTOW DEMOCRACY ON THE
  • WORLD

7
Charles Darwin The Descent of Man 1871
  • Charles Darwin The Descent of Man 1871
  • There is apparently much truth in the belief
    that the wonderful progress of the United States,
    as well as the character of the people, are the
    results of natural selection.

8
c. Worldly view of Manifest Destiny
  • We ourselves are becoming, owing to our strength
    and geographical situation, more and more the
    balance of power of the whole world. TR, 1910

9
John Fiske
  • American Political Ideas 1885
  • stressed the superior character of
    Anglo-Saxon institutions and peoples.
  • The English race was destined to dominate
    the globe in the institutions, traditions,
    language, even in the blood of the worlds
    peoples

10
B. NEW EXPANSIONISM
  • 1. 1866 - U.S. PUSHED NAPOLEON III'S PUPPET OUT
    OF MEXICO
  • 2. 1867 - U.S. PURCHASED ALASKA
  • a. 7.2M
  • b. "SEWARD'S FOLLY"

11
3. 1870-1880'S - CANADA
  • a. SEWARD - "NATURE DESIGNS
  • CANADA TO BE PART OF U.S."
  • b. JINGOES - T. ROOSEVELT, LODGE,
  • BLAINE
  • - EXPANSIONIST POLICY SERVED NATIONAL
    INTERESTS

12
4. 1854 - JAPAN
  • - COMMODORE PERRY FORCED TRADE
    AGREEMENTS

13
5. 1899 - SAMOA
  • DIVIDED BETWEEN GERMANY U.S.

14
6. HAWAII
  • a. 1790'S - NEW ENGLAND TRADERS
  • b. 1820'S - YANKEE MISSIONARIES
  • c. 1840'S - WHALING SHIPS
  • d. 1850'S - SUGAR CANE PLANTATIONS
  • e. 1875 - RECIPROCITY TREATY
  • - DUTY FREE ON HAWAIIAN SUGAR AND
    AMERICAN GOODS

15
Hawaii (Cont.) 23-2
  • f. 1887 - U.S. TREATY FOR EXCLUSIVE USE OF
    PEARL HARBOR
  • BAYONNET CONSTITUTION - U.S. BUSINESSMEN
    OVERTHROW KING KALAKAUA
  • 1890 - MCKINLEY TARIFF REMOVED TARIFFS ON ALL
    SUGAR

16
g. 1893 - QUEEN LILIUOKALANI OVERTHROWN
  • CLEVELAND REFUSED TO RATIFY TREATY OF ANNEXATION
  • Businessmen, not Hawaiians wanted annexation

17
h. 1894 - REPUBLIC OF HAWAII
  • SANFORD P. DOLE, PRESIDENT
  • 1898 - HAWAII ANNEXED BY JOINT RESOLUTION OF
    CONGRESS
  • 1959 - HAWAII BECAME 50TH STATE

18
Imperialisim- 19th century
  • Rule of an empire or nation over foreign
    countries,
  • Acquiring colonies

19
Imperialists
  • Mahan, T. Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge
  • Reasons to spread democracy
  • - to rule the less fit (Social
    Darwinism)
  • - to open markets
  • - to protect from European powers

20
Anti-Imperialist League
  • Major reasons for opposing imperialism
  • Democratic Reasons- Self rule
  • Racist reasons - Southerners
  • Economic reasons cheap labor that competed with
    U.S. labor

21
Anti Imperialists
  • William James
  • Mark Twain
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • William Jennings Bryan
  • Grover Cleveland

22
7. SOUTH AMERICA - MONROE DOCTRINE
  • a. BRITISH GUIANA VENEZUELA BOUNDARY
    DISPUTE
  • - 1887-1895
  • - DISCOVERY OF GOLD ON BORDER
  • b. VENEZUELA DEBT DISPUTE - 1902 - 1903
  • - GERMANS ITALIANS BLOCKADED HARBOR
  • - IGNORED MONROE DOCTRINE
  • - T. ROOSEVELT ARBITRATE
  • - Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

23
C. SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR
24
Spanish American War
25
1. BACKGROUND CAUSES
  • a. CUBAN REBELLION AGAINST SPAIN - 1868-78
  • - FREE THE SLAVES
  • - SELF GOVERNMENT
  • - SPAIN REFUSED AND MADE CUBA PAY FOR
    REBELLION
  • b. EUROPEAN AMERICAN INVESTMENT IN CUBAN
    SUGAR CANE
  • - 1884 - NO AMERICAN DUTY - PRODUCTION
    BOOMED
  • - EUROPEAN BEET SUGAR CAUSED PRICES TO FALL

26
- 1890'S DEPRESSION
  • - 1894 - WILSON-GORMAN TARIFF
  • 40 DUTY ON RAW SUGAR
  • 1895 - FURTHER REVOLT AGAINST SPAIN

27
2. IMMEDIATE CAUSES
28
a. "YELLOW JOURNALISM"
  • - PULITZER HEARST
  • - SENSATIONAL ACCOUNTS OF SPANISH ATROCITIES

29
b. CLEVELAND OPPOSES WAR
  • TR supports war
  • To free Cuba and expel Spain from this
    hemisphere
  • the benefit done to our people by giving them
    something to think about that isnt material
    gain
  • because the army and navy needed the practice

30
c. 1896 - MCKINLEY ELECTED
  • Opposed to war
  • Our trade has suffered, the capital invested by
    our citizens in Cuba has been largely lost…The
    forcible intervention of the United States as a
    neutral to stop the war, according to the large
    dictates of humanity…is justifiable on rational
    grounds. April 11, 1898

31
d. 1898 - WAR FEVER REACHES PEAK
  • - DUPUY DE LOME LETTER
  • - HEARST PRINTED LETTER
  • - BATTLESHIP MAINE BLOWS UP IN HAVANA
    HARBOR - (Feb)
  • - Approx. 300 KILLED
  • - SPANISH WERE BLAMED - "REMEMBER THE
    MAINE"

32
- ASST. SEC. OF NAVY ROOSEVELT ORDERS
COMMODORE DEWEY TO
  • TAKE "OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS" IN
    PHILIPPINES IN EVENT OF WAR WITH SPAIN
  • RESIGNS NAVY TO FORM ROUGH RIDERS FIRST UNITED
    STATES VOLUNTEER CAVALRY

33
- AUGUST - WAR ENDS
  • - 5,462 DEAD
  • - 379 IN COMBAT

34
e. TELLER AMENDMENT
  • APRIL 20 - CONGRESS DECLARED CUBA FREE
    INDEPENDENT
  • DEMANDED SPAIN WITHDRAW
  • AUTHORIZED PRES. TO USE MILITARY FORCE
  • ADOPTED TELLER AMENDMENT DISCLAIMING ANY
    INTENTION TO ANNEX CUBA

35
- 1902 - ADOPTED PLATT AMENDMENT
  • LIMITED CUBA'S INDEPENDENCE
  • PERMITTED U.S. TO INTERVENE TO PROTECT LIFE,
    LIBERTY AND PROPERTY
  • GAVE U.S. GUANTANAMO NAVAL BASE
  • 1934 CANCELLED PLATT
  • 1959 - CASTRO TAKES OVER IN CUBA

36
3. RESULTS OF SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
  • a. FINAL TREATY
  • - FREEDOM FOR CUBA
  • - U.S. PAID 20M FOR PHILIPPINES
  • - U.S. GOT PUERTO RICO GUAM

37
b. DEBATE OVER STATUS OF FILIPINOS
  • - ANIT-IMPERIALISTS - CLEVELAND, BRYAN,
    CARNEGIE, GOMPERS, TWAIN, SOUTHERN SENATORS
  • OPPOSED ACQUIRING COLONIES (DEMOCRACY)
  • OPPOSED FOR RACIAL REASONS
  • OPPOSED FOR LABOR REASONS

38
- IMPERIALISTS -
  • JINGOES - T. ROOSEVELT, MCKINLEY
  • CARRYING CIVILIZATION TO WASTE PLACES
  • PROTECT FROM OTHERS TAKING OVER
  • SOCIAL DARWINISM
  • CHRISTIAN BURDEN
  • MARKETS WORLD POWER STATUS

39
c. 1934 - TYDINGS-MCDUFFIE ACT
  • PROVIDED INDEPENDENCE AFTER 10 YEARS
  • JULY 4, 1946 - PHILIPPINES GOT INDEPENDENCE

40
Compare Causes of Spanish American War with War
in Iraq 2004
  • Causes Economic? Humanitarian? Democratic?
  • Who supported the war?
  • Who opposed the war?
  • Results? Cuba?
  • Expected Results in Iraq?

41
D. CHINA OPEN DOOR POLICY
  • 1. HAY - SEC OF STATE SENT "OPEN DOOR NOTES"
  • a. SPHERES OF INFLUENCE - GERMANY, FRANCE,
    BRITAIN, RUSSIA, JAPAN
  • b. "NO NATION TO INTERFERE WITH TRADING
    RIGHTS OF OTHERS"
  • c. EUROPEANS REFUSE
  • d. HAY ANNOUNCES ACCEPTANCE

42
2. BOXER REBELLION 1900
  • a. "ORDER OF LITERARY PATRIOTIC HARMONIOUS
    FISTS
  • China vs. Western Powers in China
  • b. U.S. BRITAIN PREVENTED OTHERS FROM
    RETALIATING
  • THUS GAINED INFLUENCE IN CHINA
  • c. U.S. GOT 25M INDEMNITY - USED 11M TO
    EDUCATE CHINESE IN US

43
E. RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR - 1904-1905
  • 1. T. ROOSEVELT NEGOTIATED PEACE
  • a. JAPAN DENIED LARGE INDEMNITY
  • b. TR WON NOBEL PEACE PRIZE
  • c. Japans special economic interests in
  • Korea were recognized by Russia
  • d. Russia and Japan agreed to evacuate
  • Manchuria

44
Taft-Katsura Agreement - 1905
  • U.S. accepted Japanese control of Korea
  • Japan disavowed any designs on the Philippines

45
Root-Takahira Agreement 1908
  • Both U.S. and Japan endorsed status quo
  • Both U.S. and Japan promised to respect the
    others possessions
  • Both promised to reinforce the Open Door Policy
    in China

46
2. FEAR OF JAPAN AS WORLD POWER
  • a. 1906 - SAN FRANCISCO SCHOOL BOARD PUT
    JAPANESE IN SEPARATE SCHOOL
  • b. ROOSEVELT OPPOSED AND GOT REVERSAL
  • c. 1907 - GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENT
  • - JAPAN PROMISED TO ISSUE
  • NO NEW PASSPORTS TO WORKERS
  • d. TR WANTED A STRONG JAPAN TO BALANCE
    RUSSIAN POWER IN ASIA

47
F. PANAMA CANAL
  • 1. BACKGROUND
  • a. PANAMA - PART OF COLUMBIA BUT SEPARATED BY
    JUNGLE
  • b. 1846 - AMERICA HAD RIGHT TO INTERVENE TO
    PROTECT ISTHMUS
  • c. 1850 - CLAYTON-BULWER TREATY - U.S.
    G.BRITAIN EQUAL RIGHTS
  • d. 1877 - FRENCH HAD SPENT 300M AND 20,000
    LIVES
  • e. 1901 - HAY- PAUNCEFOTE TREATY - US RIGHT
    TO BUILD CANAL

48
2. US. CHOSE PANAMA ROUTE OVER NICARAGUA
  • a. US OFFERED COLUMBIA 10M, 250,000 ANNUAL
    PAYMENT IN HAY-HERRAN TREATY - COLUMBIA
    WANTED 25M
  • b. TR SUPPORTED PANAMA REVOLUTION - USED
    MARINES
  • those contemptible little creatures TR
  • no taint of legality about it U.S. Atty Gen
  • c. US GAVE PANAMA 10M, 250,000 ANNUAL
    PAYMENT
  • d. 1914 CANAL OPENED
  • e. WILSON APOLOGIZED TO COLUMBIA - OFFERED
    25M
  • f. 1921 - APOLOGY DELETED BUT TREATY PASSED US
    SENATE

49
CARIBBEAN
  • 1. ROOSEVELT COROLLARY TO MONROE DOCTRINE 1904
    Big Stick Diplomacy
  • a. IN EVENT OF WRONGDOING IN LATIN AMERICA THAT
    REQUIRED
  • OUTSIDE INTERVENTION, US WOULD EXERCISE
    INTERNATIONAL
  • POLICE POWER.
  • b. 1905 - DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
  • c. 1906-09 - CUBA
  • d. 1909-23 - NICARAGUA - TAFT SENT IN MARINES

50
2. MEXICO - 1914 - 1917
  • a. WILSON REFUSED TO RECOGNIZE HUERTA GOVT.
  • b. WILSON SENT GEN JOHN J. PERSHING AGAINST
    PANCHO VILLA
  • c. CREATED DISTRUST OF MEXICO FOR US
  • d. RAISED FOREIGN POLICY QUESTION - SHOULD US
    JUDGE OTHER
  • COUNTRIES GOVERNMENTS?
  • e. "MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY

51
US Foreign Policy 1898-1914
  • Beginning with U.S. involvement in acquiring
    Hawaii and intervening in the Spanish-American
    War, the U.S. was engaged in an expansionist
    foreign policy. For reasons of spreading
    democracy and advancing economic investment and
    trade, the U.S. became involved in areas from the
    Caribbean to China.
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