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Cancer Epidemiology:

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Title: Cancer Epidemiology:


1
  • Cancer Epidemiology
  • Descriptive Cancer Epidemiology
  • Analytical Cancer Epidemiology
  • April 22nd, 2005

2
Sources of Data for Cancer Epi
  • Various Sources and not a centralized system.
  • NCHS
  • Registry Data
  • Census Data
  • Death Certificates

3
US Mortality, 2002
No. of deaths
of all deaths
Rank
Cause of Death
  • 1. Heart Diseases 696,947 28.5
  • 2. Cancer 557,271 22.8
  • 3. Cerebrovascular diseases 162,672 6.7
  • 4. Chronic lower respiratory diseases 124,816
    5.1
  • 5. Accidents (Unintentional injuries) 106,742
    4.4
  • 6. Diabetes mellitus 73,249 3.0
  • 7. Influenza and pneumonia 65,681 2.7
  • 8. Alzheimer disease 58,866 2.4
  • Nephritis 40,974 1.7

Source US Mortality Public Use Data Tape 2002,
National Center for Health Statistics, Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004.
4
Changes In Overall Death Rates
5
Change in the US Death Rates by Cause, 1950
2002
Rate Per 100,000
1950 2002
HeartDiseases
CerebrovascularDiseases
Pneumonia/Influenza
Cancer
Age-adjusted to 2000 US standard population.
Sources 1950 Mortality Data - CDC/NCHS, NVSS,
Mortality Revised. 2002 Mortality Data US Mortal
ity Public Use Data Tape, 2002, NCHS, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, 2004
6
2005 Estimated US Cancer Deaths
Men295,280
Women275,000
27 Lung and bronchus 15 Breast 10 Colon an
d rectum 6 Ovary 6 Pancreas 4 Leukem
ia 3 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 3 Uterin
e corpus 2 Multiple myeloma 2 Brain/ONS 2
2 All other sites
Lung and bronchus 31 Prostate 10 Colon and rec
tum 10 Pancreas 5 Leukemia 4 Esophagus 4 L
iver and intrahepatic 3bile duct
Non-Hodgkin 3 Lymphoma
Urinary bladder 3 Kidney 3 All other s
ites 24
ONSOther nervous system. Source American Cancer
Society, 2005.
7
Cancer Death Rates, All Sites Combined, All
Races, US, 1975-2001
Rate Per 100,000
Men
Both Sexes
Women
Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard
population. Source Surveillance, Epidemiology, a
nd End Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of
Cancer Control and
Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute,
2004.
8
Cancer Death Rates, for Men, US,1930-2001
Rate Per 100,000
Lung bronchus
Stomach
Prostate
Colon rectum
Pancreas
Liver
Leukemia
Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard
population. Source US Mortality Public Use Data
Tapes 1960-2001, US Mortality Volumes 1930-1959,
National Center for Health Statistics, Centers f
or Disease Control and Prevention, 2004.
9
Cancer Death Rates, for Women, US,1930-2001
Rate Per 100,000
Lung bronchus
Uterus
Breast
Colon rectum
Stomach
Ovary
Pancreas
Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard
population. Source US Mortality Public Use Data
Tapes 1960-2001, US Mortality Volumes
1930-1959, National Center for Health Statistics,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004.
10
Cancer Death Rates, by Race and Ethnicity,
1997-2001
Per 100,000, age-adjusted to the 2000 US
standard population. Hispanic is not mutually e
xclusive from whites, African Americans,
Asian/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians.
Source Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End
Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of Cancer
Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer
Institute, 2004.
11
Cancer Sites in Which African American Death
Rates Exceed White Death Rates for Men, US,
1997-2001
Ratio of African American/White
African American
Site
White
  • All sites 347.3 245.5 1.4
  • Prostate 70.4 28.8 2.4
  • Larynx 5.4 2.3 2.3
  • Stomach 13.3 5.8 2.3
  • Myeloma 9.0 4.4 2.0
  • Oral cavity and pharynx 7.5 3.9 1.9
  • Esophagus 11.7 7.4 1.6
  • Liver and intrahepatic bile duct 9.3
    6.1 1.5
  • Small intestine 0.7 0.5 1.4
  • Colon and rectum 34.3 24.8 1.4

Per 100,000, age-adjusted to the 2000 US
standard population. Source Surveillance, Epidem
iology, and End Results Program, 1975-2001,
Division of Cancer Control and Population
Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2004.
12
Cancer Sites in Which African American Death
Rates Exceed White Death Rates for Women, US,
1997-2001
Ratio of African American/White
Site
African American
White
  • All sites 196.5 165.5 1.2
  • Myeloma 6.6 2.9 2.3
  • Stomach 6.3 2.8 2.3
  • Uterine cervix 5.6 2.6 2.2
  • Esophagus 3.2 1.7 1.9
  • Larynx 0.9 0.5 1.8
  • Uterine corpus 6.9 3.9 1.8
  • Pancreas 12.8 8.9 1.4
  • Colon and rectum 24.5 17.1 1.4
  • Liver and intrahepatic bile duct 3.8 2.7 1.4
  • Breast 35.4 26.4 1.3
  • Urinary bladder 2.9 2.3 1.3
  • Oral cavity and pharynx 2.0 1.6 1.3

Per 100,000, age-adjusted to the 2000 US
standard population. Source Surveillance, Epidem
iology, and End Results Program, 1975-2001,
Division of Cancer Control and Population
Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2004.
13
Cancer Death Rates by Sex and Race, US, 1975-2001
Rate Per 100,000
African American men
White men
African American women
White women
Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard
population. Source Surveillance, Epidemiology, a
nd End Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of
Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National
Cancer Institute, 2004.
14
2005 Estimated US Cancer Cases
Men710,040
Women662,870
32 Breast 12 Lung and bronchus 11 Colon and
rectum 6 Uterine corpus 4 Non-Hodgkin
lymphoma 4 Melanoma of skin 3
Ovary 3 Thyroid 2 Urinary bladder 2 Pan
creas 21 All Other Sites
Prostate 33 Lung and bronchus 13 Colon and rec
tum 10 Urinary bladder 7 Melanoma of skin 5
Non-Hodgkin 4 lymphoma
Kidney 3 Leukemia 3 Oral Cavity 3 Pancreas
2 All Other Sites 17
Excludes basal and squamous cell skin cancers
and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder.
Source American Cancer Society, 2005.
15
Cancer Incidence Rates, All Sites Combined, All
Races, 1975-2001
Rate Per 100,000
Men
Both Sexes
Women
Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard
population. Source Surveillance, Epidemiology, a
nd End Results Program, 1973-2001, Division of
Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National
Cancer Institute, 2004.
16
Cancer Incidence Rates for Men, US, 1975-2001
Rate Per 100,000
Prostate
Lung bronchus
Colon rectum
Urinary bladder
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard
population. Source Surveillance, Epidemiology, a
nd End Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of
Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National
Cancer Institute, 2004.
17
Cancer Incidence Rates for Women, US, 1975-2001
Rate Per 100,000
Breast
Colon rectum
Lung bronchus
Uterine corpus
Ovary
Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard
population. Source Surveillance, Epidemiology, a
nd End Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of
Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National
Cancer Institute, 2004.
18
Cancer Incidence Rates by Race and Ethnicity,
1997-2001
Rate Per 100,000
Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard
population. Hispanic is not mutually exclusive f
rom whites, African Americans, Asian/Pacific
Islanders, and American Indians.
Source Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End
Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of Cancer
Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer
Institute, 2004.
19
Cancer Incidence Rates by Sex and Race,All
Sites, 1975-2001
Rate Per 100,000
African American men
White men
White women
African American women
Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard
population. Source Surveillance, Epidemiology, a
nd End Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of
Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National
Cancer Institute, 2004.
20
Lifetime Probability of Developing Cancer, By
Site, Men, US, 1999-2001
Site
Risk
All sites 1 in 2 Prostate 1 in 6 Lun
g and bronchus 1 in 13 Colon and rectum 1 in 1
7 Urinary bladder 1 in 28 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
1 in 46 Melanoma 1 in 53 Kidney 1 in 67
Leukemia 1 in 68 Oral Cavity 1 in 73 Stomach
1 in 81
Source DevCan Probability of Developing or
Dying of Cancer Software, Version 5.2 Statistical
Research and Applications Branch, NCI, 2004.
http//srab.cancer.gov/devcan
21
Lifetime Probability of Developing Cancer, By
Site, Women, US, 1999-2001
Site
Risk
All sites 1 in 3 Breast 1 in 7 Lun
g bronchus 1 in 18 Colon rectum 1 i
n 18 Uterine corpus 1 in 38 Non-Hodgkin lymp
homa 1 in 56 Ovary 1 in 68 Melanoma
1 in 78 Pancreas 1 in 81 Urinary bladder
1 in 88 Uterine cervix 1 in 130
SourceDevCan Probability of Developing or Dying
of Cancer Software, Version 5.2 Statistical
Research and Applications Branch, NCI, 2004.
http//srab.cancer.gov/devcan
22
Cancer Survival() by Site and Race,1995-2000
African
White
Difference
Site
American
All Sites 66 55 11 Breast (female) 89 75 14
Colon 64 54 10 Esophagus 16 9
7 Leukemia 48 39 9 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 60
51 9 Oral cavity 61 39 22 Prostate 100 96
4 Rectum 65 55 10 Urinary bladder 83 62
21 Uterine cervix 74 66 8 Uterine corpus 86
63 23
5-year relative survival rates based on cancer
patients diagnosed from 1995 to 2000 and followed
through 2001. Source Surveillance, Epidemiology
, and End Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of
Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National
Cancer Institute, 2004.
23
Relative Survival () during Three Time
Periods,By Cancer Site
1983-1985
1995-2000
Site
1974-1976
     
  • All sites 50 53 64
  • Breast (female) 75 78 88
  • Colon 50 58 63
  • Leukemia 34 41 46
  • Lung and bronchus 13 14 15
  • Melanoma of the skin 80 85 91
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 47 54 59
  • Ovary 37 41 44
  • Pancreas 3 3 4
  • Prostate 67 75 99
  • Rectum 49 55 64
  • Urinary bladder 73 78 82

5-year relative survival rates based on follow
up of patients through 2001. Recent changes in
classification of ovarian cancer have affected
1995-2000 survival rates Source Surveillance, Ep
idemiology, and End Results Program, 1975-2001,
Division of Cancer Control and
Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute,
2004.
24
Cancer Incidence Death Rates in Children 0-14
Years, 1975-2001
Rate Per 100,000
Incidence
Mortality
1980
1975
1985
1990
1995
2001
Age-adjusted to the 2000 Standard population.
Source Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End
Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of Cancer
Control and Population Sciences,
National Cancer Institute, 2004.
25
Cancer Incidence Rates in Children 0-14 Years,
By Site, 1997-2001
Site Male Female Total All sites 15.5 1
4.1 14.8 Leukemia 4.8 4.2 4.5 Ac
ute Lymphocytic 3.8 3.4 3.6
Brain/ONS 3.5 3.1 3.3
Soft tissue 1.0 1.0 1.0
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 1.3 0.6 0.9
Kidney and renal pelvis 0.8 1.0 0.9
Bone and Joint 0.8 0.6 0.7
Hodgkin lymphoma 0.6 0.5 0.6
Per 100,000, age-adjusted to the 2000 US
standard population. ONS Other nervous system
Source Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End
Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of Cancer
Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer
Institute, 2004
26
Cancer Death Rates in Children 0-14 Years, By
Site, 1997-2001
Site Male Female Total All sites 2.7
2.3 2.5 Leukemia 0.9 0.7 0.8 Acute L
ymphocytic 0.4 0.3 0.4 Brain/ONS 0.7
0.7 0.7 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 0.1 0.
1 0.1 Soft tissue 0.1 0.1 0.1 Bone and
Joint 0.1 0.1 0.1 Kidney and Renal pelvi
s 0.1 0.1 0.1
Per 100,000, age-adjusted to the 2000 US
standard population. ONS Other nervous system
Source Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End
Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of Cancer
Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer
Institute, 2004.

27
Trends in Survival, Children 0-14 Years, All
Sites Combined, 1974-2000
Year ofDiagnosis
Age
5 - Year Relative Survival Rates
0 - 4 Years 5 - 9 Years 10 - 14 Years


1974 -1976 1995 - 2000
1974 -1976 1995 - 2000
1974 -1976 1995 - 2000
5-year relative survival rates, based on follow
up of patients through 2001.Source
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results
Program, 1975-2001, Division of Cancer Control
and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institut
e, 2004.
28
Possible Risk Factors for Cancer
Smoking Dietary Factors Obesity Exercise Occup
ation
Genetic Susceptibility Infectious agents
Reproductive Factors Socioeconomic Status Enviro
nmental Pollution UV light Radiation Prescripti
on Drugs
Electromagnetic fields
29
CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES
  • Ecological
  • Cross-sectional
  • Case/Control
  • Cohort
  • RCT
  • Nested case/control

30
TOBACCO AND LUNG CANCER
  • RR ranges from 5-20 in 98 of studies
  • Death rates in smokers vs non-smokers show that
    lung cancer is almost always caused by smoking
  • Specificity Remove exposure the risk drops
  • More packs smoked causes faster death
  • Biologically plausible (Lungs contact smoke are
    site of cancer, animal models, carcinogens,
    prevalence increase is related to increase in
    death rate)

31
Tobacco Use in the US, 1900-2000
Per capita cigarette consumption
Male lung cancer death rate
Female lung cancer death rate
Age-adjusted to 2000 US standard population.


Source Death rates US Mortality Public Use
Tapes, 1960-2000, US Mortality Volumes,
1930-1959, National Center for Health Statistics,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002.
Cigarette consumption US Department of
Agriculture, 1900-2000.
32
Trends in Cigarette Smoking Prevalence (), by
Gender, Adults 18 and Older, US, 1965-2002
Men
Women
Redesign of survey in 1997 may affect trends.
Source National Health Interview Survey,
1965-2002, National Center for Health Statistics,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004.
33
Trends in per capita cigarette consumption for
selected states and the average consumption
across all states, 1980-2001
United States
Massachusetts
California
Data from Orzechowski W, Walker RC. The tax
burden on tobacco historical compilation 2001
impact and opportunity, Volume 36. Arlington
(VA) Orzechowski and Walker 2001. Reprinted
with permission. Source Weir et al. Annual
report to the nation on the status of cancer,
1975-2000, featuring the uses of surveillance
data for cancer prevention and control. J Natl
Cancer Inst 2003 951276-1299
34
Current Cigarette Smoking Prevalence (), by
Gender and Race/Ethnicity, High School Students,
US, 1991-2003
Smoked cigarettes on one or more of the 30 days
preceding the survey.Source Youth Risk Behavior
Surveillance System, 1991, 1995, 1997, 1999,
2001, 2003, National Center for
Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004.
35
NUTRITION AND CANCER
  • Diet plays a role in cancer etiology and
    prevention.
  • There are inconsistencies in studies, but dietary
    variables do influence cancer risk.
  • Still many complex questions which factors, what
    mechanism, interaction, what steps should be
    taken in cancer prevention.

36
Worldwide Cancer Prevalence
- Adapted from International Agency for Research
on Cancer
World Health Organization
36
37
NUTRITIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES
  • CARET (The Beta-carotene, Retinol Efficacy
    Trial)
  • ATBC (The Alpha-tocopherol, Beta-carotene)
  • PPT (Polyp Prevention Trial)
  • EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into
    Nutrition and Cancer).
  • WHI, WHEL (Womens Health Initiative and
    Womens Healthy Eating and Living)

38
Survival curves of tertiles of
dietary fat ( energy) intake and all-cause
mortality
39
Survival curves of tertiles of fiber intake and
all-cause mortality
40
Dietary variables involved in carcinogenesis
  • Vegetables and fruits
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Dietary Fat
  • Micronutrients

41
(No Transcript)
42
Vegetable and Fruits
  • Overwhelming support of fruits and vegetables.
  • The cancers associated with are mouth, pharynx,
    oesophagus, lung, stomach, colon and rectum.
  • Netherland Cohort European Multiethnic cohort
    (RR 0.5 95 CI 0.3-0.9) for Brassica
    vegetables
  • Breast cancer and prostate cancer inconsistent

43
Mechanisms for vegetable and fruit
  • EPIC-Italy found inverse association between DNA
    adducts (damage marker) and veg/fruit.
  • Reduction of oxidative damage to DNA.
  • Influence activity of enzymes in the metabolism
    pathways.
  • Many other biological influences, but determining
    which nutrient or component is important is under
    investigation.

44
Dietary Fiber
  • Mixed evidence of the association between fiber
    and cancer risk.
  • Seven Countries study 10g/day 33 reduction.
  • Nurses Health Study no association on 16 year
    f/up for colon cancer.
  • Polyp Prevention Trial low in fat (20), high
    fiber (18g/1000kcal) and 5-8 vegetables/fruit on
    adomatous polyps.

45
Dietary Fat Meat Consumption
  • Mixed results for overall dietary fat and some
    cancers (breast). Colon, endometrium and
    prostate
  • Sources fat sub-types saturated,
    polyunsaturated (PUFAn6, n3), monosaturated
    (MUFA)
  • Choose lean meats
  • Preparation of meat baking, broiling rather than
    frying or charring

45
46
Micronutrients
  • Vegetable and fruits are sources.
  • 100s of micronutrients carotenoids, vit C, vit
    E, selenium, and others calcium and vit D
    (dairy).

47
Selenium
  • Essential trace mineral.
  • The amount in fruits and vegetables depends on
    the soil in the region.
  • Sources vegetables, fruits, cereal grains, meat
    and fish.

48
Folate
Generic term folate for food folate and
supplemental folate. Sources of folate vegetabl
es/foliage folic acid supplements and
fortification. Associated with several diseases/i
llness
49
Carotenoids
  • More than 40 carotenoids found in fruits and
    vegetables can be metabolized by humans.
  • 5 types are commonly occurring.
  • Provide the bright colors found in fruits and
    vegetables.
  • Clear evidence of direct association with cancer?

50
Circulating Carotenoid Concentrations
51
Trends in Consumption of Five or More Recommended
Vegetable and Fruit Servings for Cancer
Prevention, Adults 18 and Older, US, 1994-2003
Note Data from participating states and the
District of Columbia were aggregated to represent
the United States. Source Behavioral Risk Factor
Surveillance System CD-ROM (1984-1995, 1996,
1998) and Public Use Data Tape (2000, 2003),
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention
and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004.
52
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1985
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
53
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1986
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
54
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1987
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
55
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1988
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
56
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1989
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
57
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1990
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
58
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1991
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
59
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1992
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
60
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1993
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
61
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1994
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
62
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1995
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
63
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1996
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
64
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1997
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
65
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1998
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
66
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1999
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
67
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2000
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
68
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2001
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
No Data 1519 2024 25
69
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2002
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
(BMI ?30, or 30 lbs overweight for 54 person)
No Data 1519 2024 25
Source Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
System, CDC
70
Trends in Prevalence () of No Leisure-Time
Physical Activity, by Educational Attainment,
Adults 18 and Older, US, 1992-2002
Adults with less than a high school education
All adults
Note Data from participating states and the
District of Columbia were aggregated to represent
the United States. Educational attainment is for
adults 25 and older. Source Behavioral Risk Fact
or Surveillance System CD-ROM (1984-1995, 1996,
1998) and Public Use Data Tape (2000, 2002),
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention
and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003.
71
Trends in Prevalence () of High School Students
Attending PE Class Daily, by Grade, US, 1991-2003
Source Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System,
1991-2003, National Center for Chronic Disease
Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, 2004. MMWR
200453(36)844-847.
72
Trends in Overweight Prevalence (), Children
and Adolescents, by Age Group, US, 1971-2002
Overweight is defined as at or above the 95th
percentile for body mass index by age and sex
based on reference data. Source National Health
and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1971-1974,
1976-1980, 1988-1994, 1999-2002, National Center
for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, 2002, 2004.
73
Trends in Obesity Prevalence (), By Gender,
Adults Aged 20 to 74, US, 1960-2002
Obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30
kg/m2 or greater. Source National Health Examin
ation Survey 1960-1962, National Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey, 1971-1974,
1976-1980, 1988-1994, 1999-2002, National Center
for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, 2002, 2004.
74
Screening Guidelines for the Early Detection of
Breast Cancer, American Cancer Society 2003
  • Yearly mammograms are recommended starting at
    age 40 and continuing for as long as a woman is
    in good health.
  • A clinical breast exam should be part of a
    periodic health exam, about every three years for
    women in their 20s and 30s, and every year for
    women 40 and older.
  • Women should know how their breasts normally feel
    and report any breast changes promptly to their
    health care providers. Breast self-exam is an
    option for women starting in their 20s.
  • Women at increased risk (e.g., family history,
    genetic tendency, past breast cancer) should talk
    with their doctors about the benefits and
    limitations of starting mammography screening
    earlier, having additional tests (i.e., breast
    ultrasound and MRI), or having more frequent
    exams.

75
Mammogram Prevalence (), by Educational
Attainment and Health Insurance Status, Women 40
and Older, US, 1991-2002
All women 40 and older
Women with less than a high school education
Women with no health insurance
A mammogram within the past year. Note Data
from participating states and the District of
Columbia were aggregated to represent the United
States. Source Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance
System CD-ROM (1984-1995, 1996-1997, 1998, 1999)
and Public Use Data Tape (2000, 2002), National
Centers for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2000, 2001, 2003.
76
Screening Guidelines for the Early Detection of
Cervical Cancer, American Cancer Society 2003
  • Screening should begin approximately three years
    after a women begins having vaginal intercourse,
    but no later than 21 years of age.
  • Screening should be done every year with regular
    Pap tests or every two years using liquid-based
    tests.
  • At or after age 30, women who have had three
    normal test results in a row may get screened
    every 2-3 years. However, doctors may suggest a
    woman get screened more if she has certain risk
    factors, such as HIV infection or a weakened
    immune system.
  • Women 70 and older who have had three or more
    consecutive Pap tests in the last ten years may
    choose to stop cervical cancer screening.
  • Screening after a total hysterectomy (with
    removal of the cervix) is not necessary unless
    the surgery was done as a treatment for cervical
    cancer.

77
Trends in Recent Pap Test Prevalence (), by
Educational Attainment and Health Insurance
Status, Women 18 and Older, US, 1992-2002
All women 18 and older
Women with no health insurance
Women with less than a high school education
A Pap test within the past three years. Note
Data from participating states and the District
of Columbia were aggregated to represent the
United States. Educational attainment is for
women 25 and older. Source Behavior Risk Factor
Surveillance System CD-ROM (1984-1995, 1996-1997,
1998, 1999) and Public Use Data Tape (2000,
2002), National Center for Chronic Disease
Prevention and Health Promotion, Center for
Disease Control and Prevention, 1997, 1999, 2000,
2000, 2001, 2003.
78
Screening Guidelines for the Early Detection of
Colorectal Cancer, American Cancer Society 2003
  • Beginning at age 50, men and women should follow
    one of the following examination schedules
  • A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) every year
  • A flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSIG) every five years
  • Annual fecal occult blood test and flexible
    sigmoidoscopy every five years
  • A double-contrast barium enema every five years
  • A colonoscopy every ten years
  • Combined testing is preferred over either annual
    FOBT, or FSIG every 5 years alone.
  • People who are at moderate or high risk for
    colorectal cancer should talk with a doctor about
    a different testing schedule

79
Trends in Recent Fecal Occult Blood Test
Prevalence (), by Educational Attainment and
Health Insurance Status, Adults 50 Years and
Older, US, 1997-2002
A fecal occult blood test within the past year.
Note Data from participating states and the
District of Columbia were aggregated to represent
the United States. Source Behavioral Risk Facto
r Surveillance System CD-ROM (1996-1997, 1999)
and Public Use Data Tape (2001, 2002), National
Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention and Prevention, 1999, 2000, 2002,
2003.
80
Trends in Recent Flexible Sigmoidoscopy
Prevalence (), by Educational Attainment and
Health Insurance Status, Adults 50 Years and
Older, US, 1997-2002
A flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy within
the past five years. Note Data from
participating states and the District of Columbia
were aggregated to represent the United States.
Source Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
System CD-ROM (1996-1997, 1999) and Public Use
Data Tape (2001, 2002), National Center for
Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and
Prevention, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003.
81
Screening Guidelines for the Early Detection of
Prostate Cancer, American Cancer Society 2003
  • The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and the
    digital rectal examination (DRE) should be
    offered annually, beginning at age 50, to men who
    have a life expectancy of at least 10 years.
  • Men at high risk (African-American men and men
    with a strong family history of one or more
    first-degree relatives diagnosed with prostate
    cancer at an early age) should begin testing at
    age 45.
  • For men at average risk and high risk,
    information should be provided about what is
    known and what is uncertain about the benefits
    and limitations of early detection and treatment
    of prostate cancer so that they can make an
    informed decision about testing.

82
Recent Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test
Prevalence (), by Educational Attainment and
Health Insurance Status, Men 50 Years and Older,
US, 2001-2002
A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test within
the past year. Note Data from participating
states and the District of Columbia were
aggregated to represent the United States.
Source Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
System Public Use Data Tape (2001, 2002),
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention
and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, 2002, 2003.
83
Recent Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
Prevalence (), by Educational Attainment and
Health Insurance Status, Men 50 Years and Older,
US, 2001-2002
A digital rectal examination (DRE) within the
past year. Note Data from participating states
and the District of Columbia were aggregated to
represent the United States. Source Behavioral
Risk Factor Surveillance System Public Use Data
Tape (2001, 2002), National Center for Chronic
Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002, 2003.
84
Several Other Risk Factors
  • Screening
  • Sun Exposure
  • Gene by Environment Interaction
  • Proteomics/ Genomics
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