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ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS

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The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers provided ideal conditions for human settlement, ... Mesopotamia lay between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS


1
ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
  • CHAPTER 2
  • The Fertile Crescent

2
Chapter 2, Section 1Land Between Two RiversDay 1
  • Chapter 1 Objectives
  • Students will
  • Found out how geography made the rise of
    civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.
  • Learn about Sumers first cities.
  • Learn about the two most important empires in
    Mesopotamia.
  • Essential Question
  • What were the beginnings of human society?
  • How has geography shaped the patterns of history?
  • Geography Standard 1-4
  • History Standard 4
  • Warm UpRead Map Master page 33
  • Complete the questions under Identify and Apply
    Information
  • Agenda
  • Warm Up/Hand in Homework.
  • Read pgs. 34-39
  • Watch Petra Secrets of the Read City Discover
    School
  • Read Farming in Mesopotamia page 40 41
  • Homework
  • Finish Assessment on page 41

3
Farming in Mesopotamia
  • Youre going to create a Mesopotamian Farming
    manual
  • You will have a total of 6 steps, describe the
    steps in order and next to each description draw
    a picture that represents the step.

4
Steps to Farming in Mesopotamia
  • Local officials decided when to open flood gates
  • Animals grazed in soil to trample ground and eat
    weeds

5
Steps
  • Local officials decide when to let water flow
    onto crops
  • Farmers let animals graze in soil to trample and
    eat weeds.
  • Farmers break up the soil using hand tools
  • Spread seeds and plow
  • Plant seeds
  • Harvest the plants

6
Chapter 2, Section 1Land Between Two RiversDay 2
  • Chapter 1 Objectives
  • Students will
  • Found out how geography made the rise of
    civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.
  • Learn about Sumers first cities.
  • Learn about the two most important empires in
    Mesopotamia.
  • Essential Question
  • What were the beginnings of human society?
  • How has geography shaped the patterns of history?
  • Geography Standard 1-4
  • History Standard 4
  • Warm UpGo over Homework - Assessment on page 41
  • Agenda
  • Warm Up
  • Mesopotamia The Development of Written Language
    (united Streaming)
  • Questions
  • Mesopotamia From Nomads to Farmers (united
    Streaming)
  • Questions

7
VocabularyMesopotamia The Development of
Written Language
  • city-state
  • Definition A self-governing state consisting of
    a city and surrounding territory
  • Context Nippur was the most important city-state
    in Sumer.
  • cuneiform
  • Definition The system of writing used by the
    ancient Sumerians
  • Context Cuneiform writing looks more like
    symbols than pictures.
  • demon
  • Definition An evil spirit
  • Context According to Sumerian legend, Gilgamesh
    killed the demon Huwawa with the help of the sun
    god.

8
VocabularyMesopotamia The Development of
Written Language
  • epic
  • Definition A long poem telling the deeds of a
    hero and often centering on the ideals of a
    nation or culture
  • Context The Epic of Gilgamesh teaches us to
    enjoy the time we have on Earth.
  • immortality
  • Definition The quality or state of having an
    endless life
  • Context Gilgamesh was unable to achieve
    immortality, but he was able to leave behind a
    legacy through the work he had done during his
    lifetime.
  • Mesopotamia
  • Definition An ancient land located where we find
    the modern country of Iraq
  • Context Mesopotamia means, land between the
    rivers and got its name because it was located
    between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
  • Nippur
  • Definition A major city-state in the ancient
    Sumerian region of Mesopotamia
  • Context Nippur was a busy trading center in
    Sumer and its most important religious city.

9
VocabularyMesopotamia The Development of
Written Language
  • scribe
  • Definition A person paid to write, especially in
    ancient times
  • Context Mesopotamian scribes worked closely with
    the priests and kings.
  • stylus
  • Definition A hard, pointed writing tool cut from
    a reed
  • Context Sumerian scribe wrote with styluses they
    made from reeds.
  • Sumerians
  • Definition Residents of Sumer, a region of the
    ancient land of Mesopotamia
  • Context The Sumerians developed many inventions,
    such as the wheel and the plow.
  • tablet
  • Definition A flat slab often of clay or stone
    suitable for an inscription
  • Context The Sumerians etched symbols into wet
    clay tablets to create a permanent document of
    their activities.

10
QuestionsMesopotamia The Development of Written
Language
  • What was the importance of scribes in
    Mesopotamia?
  • Why did the scribes have greater access to the
    priests and kings than other people in the
    city-states?
  • How long did it take to train a scribe?
  • What is the name of the training school where
    scribes learn how to write?

11
VocabularyMesopotamia From Nomads to Farmers
ancestors Definition People in ones family,
from whom one is descended Context Your
ancestors include your grandparents, great
grandparents, and great-great grandparents.
cuneiform Definition The system of writing
used by the ancient Sumerians Context Cuneiform
writing consists of characters with wedge-shaped
parts. domestication Definition The taming of
wild animals to use for farming or to be kept as
pets Context The domestication of sheep and
goats helped the Mesopotamians become farmers.
Euphrates River Definition One of the rivers
that borders what was the land of Mesopotamia.
Context The Euphrates River bordered
Mesopotamia to the west.
  • .

12
VocabularyMesopotamia From Nomads to Farmers
  • .

journal Definition A record of personal
experiences and thoughts kept on a regular basis
Context Writing a journal can help you
understand yourself. levee Definition Earthen
dams constructed to hold back floodwaters
Context A levee system helped the Mesopotamians
farm their most fertile land. Mesopotamia
Definition An ancient land located where we
find the modern country of Iraq Context
Mesopotamia means, land between the rivers and
got its name because it was located between the
Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
13
VocabularyMesopotamia From Nomads to Farmers
  • .

Nippur Definition A major city-state in the
ancient Sumerian region of Mesopotamia Context
Nippur was a busy trading center in Sumer and its
most important religious city. scribe
Definition A person paid to write, especially
in ancient times Context The job of a scribe
was considered important in Sumer. stylus
Definition A hard, pointed writing tool cut
from a reed Context Sumerians pressed the point
of a stylus into wet clay in order to write.
14
VocabularyMesopotamia From Nomads to Farmers
  • .

Sumerians Definition Residents of Sumer, a
region of the ancient land of Mesopotamia
Context Sumerians developed a culture whose
members farmed and traded instead of hunting and
gathering to make a living. Tigris River
Definition One of the rivers that borders what
was the land of Mesopotamia Context The Tigris
River bordered Mesopotamia to the east.
15
Questions Mesopotamia From Nomads to Farmers
  • Why did the ancient Sumerians look for new ways
    to produce their food?
  • How did growing crops and domesticating animals
    like sheep and goats allow the Sumerians to build
    cities and live in one place all year long?
  • What does the word Mesopotamia mean?
  • Between which rivers did Mesopotamia lie?
  • Why did the soil of the Mesopotamian region of
    Sumer grow such good crops?
  • What problem at first made farming difficult
    there and how did the Sumerians solve it?

16
Questions Mesopotamia From Nomads to Farmers
  • In what other way did the Sumerians control the
    rivers?
  • What important farming tool did the Sumerians
    invent?
  • What else did the Mesopotamians invent?
  • What do we call their system of writing?
  • What tools did the Mesopotamians use for writing?
  • What did the Sumerians put into writing before
    any other society?
  • What was the name of the temple where Sumerians
    believed their gods lived?
  • Of what material were the houses in Sumerian
    cities made?

17
Chapter 2 Section 2Babylonia and Assyria
  • Chapter 1 Objectives
  • Students will
  • Found out how geography made the rise of
    civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.
  • Learn about Sumers first cities.
  • Learn about the two most important empires in
    Mesopotamia.
  • Essential Question
  • What were the beginnings of human society?
  • How has geography shaped the patterns of history?
  • Geography Standard 1-4
  • History Standard 4
  • Warm UpIn your own words define the following
    words Empire, Caravan, Bazaar
  • Agenda
  • Warm Up
  • Read pgs. 42-44
  • Have the students create a Venn Diagram like the
    one found on page 42.
  • List appropriate details in the Babylonia
    circle.
  • Read pgs. 45-46
  • List appropriate details in the Assyrians
    circle.
  • If there is time, Section 2 Assessment on page 46

18
Babylonia v. Assyria Venn DiagramMesopotamia
Empires
  • Babylonia Assyria

19
Babylonia v. Assyria Venn DiagramMesopotamia
Empires
  • Babylonia Assyria

20
Chapter 2 Section 3The Legacy of Mesopotamia
  • Chapter 1 Objectives
  • Students will
  • Found out how geography made the rise of
    civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.
  • Learn about Sumers first cities.
  • Learn about the two most important empires in
    Mesopotamia.
  • Essential Question
  • What were the beginnings of human society?
  • How has geography shaped the patterns of history?
  • Geography Standard 1-4
  • History Standard 4
  • Warm UpIn this section you will learn of the
    advances made by the Mesopotamians, including the
    art of writing.
  • Think about how your lives would different
    without writing.
  • Agenda
  • Warm Up
  • Read pgs. 47-51
  • Writing Activity
  • Guided Reading Handout

21
Writing Activity
  • Read the quote on page 50
  • What do you think will happen to the gardeners
    according to Hammurabis Code, even after they
    pay for the dates?
  • What do you think should happen to the gardeners?

22
Chapter 2 Section 4Mediterranean Civilizations
  • Chapter 1 Objectives
  • Students will
  • Found out how geography made the rise of
    civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.
  • Learn about Sumers first cities.
  • Learn about the two most important empires in
    Mesopotamia.
  • Essential Question
  • What were the beginnings of human society?
  • How has geography shaped the patterns of history?
  • Geography Standard 1-4
  • History Standard 4
  • Warm UpWhat happens to a story as it is retold
    over a long period of time?
  • What important development changed the way
    stories were told?
  • Agenda
  • Warm Up
  • Read pgs. 52-57
  • Map Master questions pg. 53 55
  • Guided Reading handout
  • Section 4 assessment pg. 57
  • Homework
  • Decode the Phoenician activity

23
Chapter 2 Section 5Judaism
  • Chapter 1 Objectives
  • Students will
  • Found out how geography made the rise of
    civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.
  • Learn about Sumers first cities.
  • Learn about the two most important empires in
    Mesopotamia.
  • Essential Question
  • What were the beginnings of human society?
  • How has geography shaped the patterns of history?
  • Geography Standard 1-4
  • History Standard 4
  • Warm UpWhat is Monotheism (hint see pg.55)
  • Agenda
  • Warm up
  • Read pages 60-64
  • Notes for Chapter 2
  • Writing Activity page 64
  • Homework
  • Complete writing activity on page 64

24
The Fertile Crescent Chapter 2 Notes
  • Summary
  • Stretching from the coast of the Mediterranean
    Sea in present day Israel to the Persian Gulf,
    the Fertile Crescent was the birthplace of many
    early civilizations.
  • The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers provided ideal
    conditions for human settlement, with the first
    civilizations rising in Mesopotamia, or the land
    between the rivers.

25
Chapter 2 Notes
  • Section 1 Land Between Two Rivers
  • Mesopotamia lay between the Tigris and Euphrates
    rivers. These two rivers and the rich, fertile
    soil drew people to the region.
  • The early people of Mesopotamia became farmers
    and then builders of cities. The most successful
    and advanced cities were the city-states of Sumer.

26
Chapter 2 Notes
  • Section 2 Babylonia and Assyria
  • After the fall of Sumer, the biggest and most
    important civilizations were the empires of
    Babylonia and Assyria.
  • These civilizations built grand cities
  • where culture and learning were
  • highly valued.

27
Chapter 2 Notes
  • Section 3 The Legacy of Mesopotamia
  • The Mesopotamians were probably the first to
    develop two of the key components of almost all
    civilizationsa system of writing and a set of
    written laws.

28
Chapter 2 Notes
  • Section 4 Mediterranean Civilizations
  • Phoenicia developed into a great sea power with
    trade routes throughout the Mediterranean region.
  • These trade routes brought great wealth and
    knowledge to the Phoenicians.
  • The Phoenicians developed a system of writing
    with an alphabet of 22 letters. This alphabet
    formed the basis of the alphabets that many
    nations use today.

29
Chapter 2 Notes
  • Section 5 Judaism
  • To the Israelites, history and religion were
    closely joined and were recorded in the Torah.
  • The Israelites' beliefs developed into the
    religion we know today as Judaism. Judaism, still
    one of the world's major religions, had an
    important early influence on two later religions,
    Christianity and Islam.

30
Chapter 2 Review(3 days) The Fertile Crescent
  • Chapter 1 Objectives
  • Students will
  • Found out how geography made the rise of
    civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.
  • Learn about Sumers first cities.
  • Learn about the two most important empires in
    Mesopotamia.
  • Essential Question
  • What were the beginnings of human society?
  • How has geography shaped the patterns of history?
  • Geography Standard 1-4
  • History Standard 4
  • Warm UpGet out your book, 2 pieces of paper,
    and your notes for this chapter! ?
  • Agenda
  • Warm Up
  • Study Guide

Mrs. Whites Class RULES!!!
31
Chapter 2 ReviewThe Fertile Crescent
  • Chapter 1 Objectives
  • Students will
  • Found out how geography made the rise of
    civilization in the Fertile Crescent possible.
  • Learn about Sumers first cities.
  • Learn about the two most important empires in
    Mesopotamia.
  • Essential Question
  • What were the beginnings of human society?
  • How has geography shaped the patterns of history?
  • Geography Standard 1-4
  • History Standard 4
  • Warm Up
  • Continue working on your study guide.
  • When you are done completing the Standardized
    Test Prep on page 67 ?
  • Agenda
  • Warm Up
  • Study Guide
  • Review

STUDY, STUDY, STUDY the test is tomorrow!!!
32
Directions Name the concept represented by all
the sections in the circle
Rome
Alexandria
Jerusalem
Carthage
33
Directions Name the concept represented by all
the sections in the circle
Judaisim
Islam
Christianity
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