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Dr Georgios Amanatidis


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Title: Dr Georgios Amanatidis

Climate change impact research in Africa
supported by the European Community Framework
Dr Georgios Amanatidis European
Commission Research DG, Environment Directorate,
Climate change and environmental risks
EC research the story so far
1952 ECSC treaty first projects started March
1955 1957 EURATOM treaty Joint Research Centre
set up 1983 ESPRIT programme 1984 First
Framework Programme (1984-1987) 1987 European
Single Act science becomes a Community
responsibility Second Framework Programme
(1987-1991) 1990 Third Framework Programme
(1990-1994) 1993 Treaty on European Union
role of RTD in the enlarged EU 1994 Fourth
Framework Programme (1994-1998) 1998 Fifth
Framework Programme (1998-2002) 2000 European
Research Area 2002 Sixth Framework Programme
(2002-2006) 2007 Seventh Framework Programme
  • Current FP6 climate projects on Africa
  • AMMA
  • Carbo-Africa
  • 7th Framework Programme
  • Themes and Priorities
  • Research opportunities for Africa

  • African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses
  • Analyses Multidisciplinaires de la Mousson
  • Afrikanischer Monsun Multidisziplinäre Analysen
  • Analisi Multidisciplinare per il Monsone Africano
  • Afrikanske Monsun Multidisciplinære Analyser
  • Analisis Multidiciplinar de los Monzones
  • Afrikaanse Moesson Multidisciplinaire Analyse
  • Duration 5 years (1/1/2005 31/12/2009)
  • EC Funding 13 M

The AMMA strategy is geared towards
multidisciplinary research
The human dimension
The geophysical sphere
The project funded by the European Community
is committed to achieve on
  • Improving the short to medium range weather
    forecasting Current forecasts are poor and
    insufficient for any early warning system.
  • Seasonal to climate forecasting Statistical
    forecasts are still better than deterministic
    once and there is no agreement on the impact of
    climate change.
  • Improved tools for food security management
    West Africa is the most food insecure regions
    of the world.
  • Enhance the environmental monitoring in the
    region This regions is the least well covered
    by atmospheric observations.
  • Training and education The region lacks
    experts to advise decision makers or maintain
    operational observation and forecasting tools.

AMMA-EU a consortium of 59 partners
22 African institutions are partners
Coordinator IPSL/CNRS
  • Regional Centers
  • EIER
  • Universities
  • University Cheikh Anta Diop of Dakar (Senegal)
  • University of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)
  • University of Bamako (Mali)
  • University Abdou Moumouni (Niamey, Niger)
  • University of Abomey Calavi (Benin)
  • Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and
    Technology (Ghana)
  • University of Jos (Nigeria)
  • Weather services
  • Mali
  • Senegal
  • Ghana
  • Niger
  • Guinée Conakry
  • Agronomic and environment research centers
  • ISRA, Senegal
  • INERA, Burkina Faso
  • IER, Mali
  • CSE, Senegal
  • CERAAS, Senegal

Observational network for the the period
Land Productivity
  • Aim
  • Quantify the impacts of climate variability on
    land productivity and agricultural yields.
  • Objectives
  • Improve forecast tools and crop yield models,
  • Evaluate the potential of seasonal to decadal
  • Improve our understanding of the vegetation
  • interactions between grass and trees
  • Experimental trials in real and controlled
    conditions are underway to understand the role of
    the villager's practices and their impact on the
    mitigation of climatic factors

Institutions AGRHYMET (Niger), IBIMET (Italy),
IGUC (Denmark), CIRAD, CNRS, UPS (France), INERA
(Burkina), IER, U.Bamako, DNM (Mali), UAM, INRAN
(Niger), ISRA, UCAD, DMN, CERAAS (Senegal)
Early Warning Systems for Food Security
  • Aim
  • To demonstrate how the results and products of
    AMMA research can be used to improve the
    efficiency of existing operational Early Warning
    Systems (EWSs) for food security
  • Objective
  • To test the application of AMMA information
    products for targeted users (farmers and national
  • integrating the information produced by national
  • to provide inputs for the improvement of the food
    crisis forecasting timetable.

Institutions IBIMET CNR (Italy) AGRHYMET
(Niger) DMN Mali DMN Sénégal, DMN Niger, GMA
AMMA's objectives beyond the science
  • Strengthen the scientific community in West
    Africa in order to ensure that climate change
    studies for the region are maintained over the
    long term.
  • Contribute knowledge, expertise, methods and
    tools to national and regional operational
  • Facilitate the exchanges between the scientific
    community and the operation services in the
  • Raise public awareness of environment issues for
    the development of the region in a changing
  • Adaptive capacity strengthening is a priority
    for West Africa.

Only a truly multidisciplinary project can
achieve these objectives.
Quantification understanding and prediction of
C-cycle and other GHGs in Sub-Saharan
Africa European Commission, 6th Framework
Programme Duration 3 years (01/10/06
30/09/09) EC Funding 2.8 M Coordinator Prof.
Riccardo Valentini, University of Tuscia
(Italy) Participant currently 15 Institutions
(11 European, 3 African, FAO)
Why CarboAfrica? Africa is a region highly
vulnerable to climate change due to both
ecological and socio-economic factors however it
is the least well-covered region by studies on
climate change.
Sub-Saharan Africa and C-cycle 1- dominated by
biogenic processes (linked to climate
fluctuations) 2- low anthropic influence With
low fossil fuel emissions, Africas continental
scale carbon fluxes are dominated by biogenic
uptake and release from terrestrial ecosystems,
as well as fires and deforestation (Williams et
al., 2007).
Main Objectives
  • To set up and coordinate a first GHGs monitoring
    network of Sub-Saharan Africa, in order to
  • better quantify GHGs emissions in Sub-Saharan
    Africa (considering also fires and deforestation)
  • better understand the role of fire emissions on
    the African GHGs balance and its global
  • better understand the Africa's role in the
    global climate system
  • improve the assessment of the land use change
    and evaluate the potential for carbon
    sequestration (CDM)
  • promote the integration of the environmental
    dimension in the African socio-economic context.

THE NETWORK Carbon Flux network 18 stations, of
which 2 new (including the 1st in an African
tropical forest, in Ghana) 2 Atmospheric CO2
stations Airborne campaigns (CARE experiment)
CarboAfrica and Kyoto Protocol (CDM and REDD) 1-
Specific regional studies in key areas are being
conducted, considering both carbon sources and
sinks, in order to evaluate the potential for
carbon sequestration in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Training on CDM opportunities will be provided to
African stakeholders. 2- Specific researches to
evaluate the potential for reducing emissions
from avoided deforestation and forest degradation
(post Kyoto 2012) in sub-Saharan Africa will be
FP7 2007 2013 Specific Programmes
Cooperation Collaborative research
Ideas Frontier Research
People Marie Curie Actions
Capacities Research Capacity

JRC non-nuclear research
Euratom direct actions JRC nuclear research
Euratom indirect actions nuclear fusion and
fission research
Cooperation Collaborative Research
Ten themes
  • Health
  • Food, agriculture and biotechnology
  • Information and communication technologies
  • Nanosciences, nanotechnologies, materialsand new
    production technologies
  • Energy
  • Environment (including climate change)
  • Transport (including aeronautics)
  • Socio-economic sciences and the humanities
  • Space
  • Security
  • Euratom Fusion energy research, nuclear
    fissionand radiation protection

2. Food, Agriculture, Fisheries and Biotechnology
  • Objective
  • Building a European Knowledge Based Bio-Economy
    by bringing together science, industry and other
    stakeholders, to exploit new and emerging
    research opportunities that address social,
    environmental and economic challenges the
    growing demand for safer, healthier, higher
    quality food and for sustainable use and
    production of renewable bio-resources, the
    increasing risk of epizootic and zoonotic
    diseases and food related disorders threats to
    the sustainability and security of agricultural,
    aquaculture and fisheries production and the
    increasing demand for high quality food, taking
    into account animal welfare and rural and coastal
    context and response to specific dietary needs of
  • Key Activities
  • Sustainable production and management of
    biological resources from land, forest and
    aquatic environments
  • (1st CALL development of climate proof
    food crops novel forest breeding to improve
    adaptation to climate change)
  • - Fork to farm Food (including seafood), health
    and well being
  • - Life Sciences, biotechnology and biochemistry
    for sustainable non-food, products and processes

6. Environment (including Climate Change)
  • Objective
  • Sustainable management of the environment and
    its resource through advancing our knowledge of
    the interactions between the climate, biosphere,
    ecosystems and human activities, and developing
    new technologies, tools and services, in order to
    address in an integrated way global environmental
  • Emphasis will be put on prediction of climate,
    ecological, earth and ocean systems changes, on
    tools and on technologies for monitoring,
    prevention, mitigation of and adaptation to
    environmental pressures and risks including on
    health, as well as for the sustainability of the
    natural and man-made environment.
  • Key Activities
  • Climate change, pollution and risks
  • Sustainable management of resources
  • Environmental Technologies
  • Earth Observation and assessment tools for
    sustainable development

Budget for FP7-Environment
  • Total FP7 budget 50.521 bn
  • Total Cooperation programme budget 32.413 bn
  • Total budget for Environment theme 1.886 bn
  • Indicative breakdown
  • No increase of budget in 2007, 2008 compared to
  • Sharp increase only from 2011
  • In 2013 expenditure 60 higher than in 2006

International Cooperation of Environmental
  • Climate change Global dimension with strong
    effort on international cooperation
  • International cooperation benefits exchange and
    share of knowledge, assist in building effective
    policies, effective response
  • A number of current EU-funded projects focus on
    important climate change issues in developing
    countries (e.g. AMMA, CLARIS)
  • FP open to international partners all over the

Environment (incl. climate change)
  • Pressures on environment and climate (39M )
  • Environnent and health (16M )
  • Natural Hazards (13M )

Climate change, pollution and risks
  • Conservation and sustainable management of
    natural and man-made ressources (26M )
  • Evolution of marine environments (21M )

Sustainable management of resources
Environmental Technologies
  • Technologies for observation of the natural and
  • man-made environment (38M )
  • Protection of culture heritage (7M )
  • Technology assessment, verification, testing (5M
  • Earth observation (21M )
  • Forecasting methods and assessment tools (11M )

Earth observation and assessment tools
Pressures on Environment and
Climate 1st Call (WP 2007) 39 M
The Earth System and Climate Functioning
abrupt changes
The Global Carbon cycle and GHG budgets
Climate Change Natural and Socio-economic Impacts
Response strategies Adaptation, Mitigation and
Natural and anthropogenic emissions and pressures
Future Climate
Stability of the Thermohaline Circulation THOR
Air quality and climate in megacities CITYZEN MEG
Climate change impacts in the Parana-Plata river
Full costs of climate change CLIMATECOST
Ocean acidification EPOCA
Climate change impacts on mountain regions ACQWA
Impacts of climate policies on land use and
ecosystems CCTAME
Climate Change impacts adaptation strategies in
water policies CLIMATEWATER
Pressures on Environment and
Climate 2nd Call (WP 2008) 42 M
The Earth System and Climate Functioning
abrupt changes
The Global Carbon cycle and GHG budgets
Climate Change Natural and Socio-economic Impacts
Response strategies Adaptation, Mitigation and
Natural and anthropogenic emissions and pressures
Future Climate
New components in Earth System modelling
Water resources in Northern India, and adaptation
Climate-chemistry interactions in the stratosphere
Sea-Level Rise
Analysis of emerging economies in a post-Kyoto
Addressing deforestation in tropical areas
Climate variability terrestrial carbon cycle
Risks of novel options to limit climate change
Arctic Ocean ecosystems
FP7 Climate change research roadmap (WP 2009-2010)
  • impacts of climate change on key sectors such as
    tourism, agriculture, forestry, with the aim to
    improve the link between climate, hydrological,
    bio-physical and socio-economic parameters
  • tropospheric chemistry, biosphere and climate
  • process-oriented validation in earth system
  • networking activities for research collaboration,
    databases and dissemination in different climate
    related fields such as on atmospheric composition
  • Climate change predictions in Sub-Saharan Africa,
    quantification of impacts and assessment of
    adequate adaptation measures (SICA)
  • Changes in mean flow and extreme hydrological
    events in Europe and neighbouring countries as a
    threat to security (SICA)
  • earth system functioning and related critical
  • pollution of water and soil on global and
    regional scale linked to biogeochemical cycles
  • biogeochemical and physical processes controlling
    the magnitudes and distribution of ocean carbon
    sources and sinks at different time scales
  • climate change impacts on biodiversity and
    terrestrial ecosystems
  • networking and cooperation with non-EU countries
    such as China, to disseminate and use research
    results for adaptation strategies (coordinated
    call with Energy Theme)
  • optimal synergy between national, European and
    international policies and measures addressing
    adaptation during their development and
    implementation processes.

Climate change predictions in Sub-Saharan Africa
(east to west), quantification of impacts and
assessment of adequate adaptation measures
  • The quality of seasonal forecasts and decadal
    climate change predictions should be improved
    over the Sub-Saharan African region (east to
    west) through better use and development of
    forecasting models on seasonal to decadal
    climatic scales. It will increase our confidence
    in the simulated sensitivity of rainfall
    perturbations due to changes of increased
    greenhouse gases, land-use, etc. Furthermore, a
    better understanding of climate impacts and
    improved forecasting capabilities are needed in
    key sectors such as water resources and
    agriculture. With these tools and taking into
    account the socio-economic aspects of African
    societies, the vulnerability to inter-annual
    variations and longer trends in climate can be
    evaluated. This in turn will lead to adaptation
    strategies for which their feasibility and
    associated costs will be assessed. This topic
    needs to have a strong involvement of the African
    research community.

Changes in mean flow and extreme hydrological
events in Europe and neighbouring countries as a
threat to security
  • The project will analyse ongoing and future
    climate induced changes in hydrological budgets
    and extremes in Europe and neighbouring
    countries. This will include the assessment of
    changes in mean flows, frequency and magnitude of
    extreme precipitation (intensity and duration),
    run-off, stream flows and ground water balance.
    Modelling capabilities should be improved to
    better quantify such changes over the next
    decades, and modelling should integrate
    meteorological/climatic and hydrological aspects
    to better quantify such changes and associated
  • In the case of neighbouring countries, these
    changes will be analysed as a threat to security
    In an interdisciplinary assessment, conclusions
    from the climate and hydrological study combined
    with research on conflicts and peace, in a
    comparative manner, may allow to identify factors
    that can enhance social, institutional and
    economic resilience, prevention of violent
    conflicts and peace building though cooperation
    over access to natural resources. Climate and
    hydrological analysis together with analysis on
    conflicts and peace will be part of the
    interdisciplinary project.
  • Specific International Cooperation Action SICA
    targeted to North Africa and neighbouring
    Mediterranean countries, and/ or Sahel, and/ or
    Middle East

  • EU research http//ec.europa.eu/research/
  • Seventh Framework Programme http//ec.europa.eu/r
  • Information on research programmes and projects
  • http//cordis.europa.eu/
  • RTD info magazine
  • http//ec.europa.eu/research/rtdinfo/
  • Information requests
  • research_at_ec.europa.eu
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