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Chinese Cuisines


The dish erupts in fireworks when the steam and sizzle has cleared, leaving the ... This dish was invented in 1894 by a vendor whose name was Lai Yuanxin (???) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chinese Cuisines

Chinese Cuisines
  • Sunny

  • Chinese cuisine, a crystallization of the
    civilization and wisdom of all Chinese
    nationalities, is a gem in the nations cultural
    treasury. The vastness of Chinese geography and
    history created the varieties of Chinese cuisine.
    Thus, China gains the highest reputation in the
    world for its culinary culture, and is known as
    the three major culinary kingdoms together with
    France and Turkey.

Features of Chinese Culinary Arts
  • The choice of raw materials and ingredients(??)
  • Chinese cuisines stress the choice of raw
    materials and auxiliary(??) materials. In
    different seasons, there will be different
    ingredients and seasonings(??). Beef, mutton, and
    mustard(??) for summer and preserved(???) food
    and pepper for winter.

The use of seasonings
  • The feature of seasoning in Chinese cooking lies
    in the variety of condiments and the proper use
    of them. According to the ancient theories about
    seasoning, the harmonious proportion of the five
    tastes (sweet, sour, bitter, pungent(??) and
    salty) could produce the best flavor.

The basic seasonings with the five flavors are as
  • Sweet--- molasses(??), honey, sucrose(??),
    saccharin(??) and maltose(???), etc.
  • Sour--- vinegar and ginger, lemon acid, tomato
    sauce, etc.
  • Bitter--- dried orange peel, etc.
  • Hot--- pepper(???), mustard(??), onion,
    chilli(???), wild pepper(???) and curry
    powder(???) etc.
  • Salty--- salt, soy, fermented soya beans(???),

The making of cuisines
  • The cooking of cuisines mostly involves cutting,
    temperature, the cooking techniques and the
    protective treatment of raw materials.
  • Cutting--- dicing(?????), shredding(????),
    mashing(??), slicing(????), or cutting into
    strips(?), pieces(?), cubes(???) etc. are the
    cutting methods often used in cooking.
  • The time and temperature tender, medium( ???),
    overdone(???) or just done to a turn(??).

  • Cooking techniques frying(?), dry-fry(??),
    deep-frying(??), baking(??), broiling(?),
    simmering(?), steaming(?), stewing(?),
    decocting(?), braising(?), boiling(?),
    quick-boiling(?) and so on.
  • the protective treatments Rolling in starch(??),
    dipping in batter(????) and pouring starchy(???)
    sauce over the dish are the protective treatments
    of raw materials in the process of cooking.

Unit 4
  • Text A
  • Chinese Food

  • The importance of fan and cai in China.

  • The dichotomy between fan and cai shows how
    the principles of balance and harmony, Yin and
    Yang, are applied in everyday life.

  • 1. Four schools of Chinese cuisine.
  • 2. Reasons.
  • Geographical and climatic differences, historical
    and cultural circumstances.

Four Major Cuisines in China
  • Chinese cuisine can be broken into four major
    regional categories Yue Cuisine (the Cantonese
    Dishes), Chuan Cuisine (Sichuan Dishes), Lu
    Cuisine (Shandong Dishes), and Huaiyang Cuisine.

Yue Cuisine Guangdong( Cantonese) Dishes
  • It composed of Cantonese, Chaozhou and Dongjing
    cuisine. It comes from Guangzhou and uses a great
    variety of vegetables prepared with a minimum
    amount of cooking time and an exact degree of
    heat so that their fresh, tender taste, as well
    as their vitamine, are preserved.

  • The main ingredients of the dishes fresh water
    fish, seafood, birds, etc.
  • The major condiments(???)
  • oyster sauce, fruit juice, fermented soy bean
    sauce, fish sauce, lard, sugar and vinegar, salad
    oil, etc.
  • Cooking techniques stir-frying, simmering,
    decocting(?), stewing, or steaming, and never let
    the dishes overcooked. Stir-frying is the most
    favored method of cooking, closely followed by

  • The famous dishes
  • Dragon Duel Tiger(???), Steamed Bass(????), Shark
    Fin Soup (???), Thick Soup of Snake (???), Crisp
    Spring pigeon(????), Fresh Shrimp Meat in
    oil(?????), and etc.

Dragon Duel Tiger(???)(?,?,?),
Chuan Cuisine
  • The heavily spicy and peppery taste, invariably a
    part of this cooking method, leave one with a
    vivid impression. Sichuan Cuisine is
    Characteristically sour, sweet, peppery, spicy,
    bitter, fragrant, and salty.
  • The raw materials of a Sichuan dish
  • wild edible herbs, and the meat of domestic
    animals and birds.

  • The major condiments(???)
  • Pepper and Chinese prickly as are always in
    accompaniment, garlic, ginger and fermented
    soybean are also used in the cooking process.
  • The cooking techniques
  • Sautéing (?), stir-frying(????) without stewing,
    dry braising(?), PAO(?), Hui(??).
  • The famous dishes
  • young chicken with hot pepper, Gongbao Chicken in
    chilli sauce, Mapo Bean Curd, Twice cooked
    Pork(???), Tea Smoked Duck(???), Cabbage in
    Boiling Water.

Twice cooked Pork(???),
Mapo Bean Curd
Lu Cuisine--- Shandong and Beijing cuisine
  • The Shandong Cuisine is famous for its wide
    selection of materials, cooking methods, and
    seafood. Known for its taste, aroma, color and
  • The raw materials
  • domestic animals and birds , seafood and

  • The major condiments(???)
  • A small amount of oil and mild spices are used,
    together with the major seasonings as shallots
    and ginger.
  • The materials cooking techniques
  • BAO (quick frying), LIU (quick frying with corn
    flour), PA ( stew braising) ,roasting and
    boiling, using sugar to make fruit, and
    crystallizing with honey.

  • The famous Shandong dishes---- Braised Abalone
    with Shells(???), Fried Sea Cucumber with
    Fistulous Onion, and Fragrant Calamus in Milk
    Soup, Yellow River Carp in sweet and Sour Sauce
    (??????), Birds Nest Soup(???), Dezhou Braised
    Chicken (????) and etc..

Yellow River Carp(??)
Bejing cooking
  • Bejing cooking is characterized by its
    exquisite(???) selection of materials, fine
    cutting, and pure seasonings. It is rich, but not
    greasy(???) (????), light, but not skimpy(??).
    Skilled in preparing delicacies of every kind,
    there are no less than thirty-cooking methods
    employed. More prominent(????) are roasting,
    quick-fry, stir-fry(?), sauteing(?) with thick
    gravy(??), and braising(?). The best known
    specialities(??) ---- Beijing roast duck.

Beijing roast duck
Huaiyang Cuisine Shanghai Cuisine and Jiangzhe
Cuisine. (Yangzhou, Zhenjiang and Huaian)
  • They are characterized by the strictness in
    material selection, the emphasis of cleanliness
    and freshness of its ingredients, as well as the
    fine workmanship in cutting, matching, cooking,
    and arranging. Lightness, freshness, sweetness,
    and mildness of taste are the features of these
    dishes, and special attention is paid to
    retaining the ingredient of natural juices and

  • The main ingredient
  • seafood, fish and shrimps, vegetables.
  • The cooking techniques
  • stewing, simmering and braising. Its carving
    techniques are delicate, vivid, the melon carving
    technique is especially well known.

  • The famous dishes
  • Stewed Meatballs(?????), sweet and sour Mandarin
    Fish(????), Beggars Chicken(????) and etc.

Stewed Meatballs(?????),
beggars Chicken(???)
Medicinal food and vegetarian food according to
different beliefs or demands.
  • Medicinal food As old Chinese sayings such as
    it is better to depend on food than on tonics
    for nutrients than on medicines. Many foodstuffs
    not only contain nutrients needed by the body,
    but are also useful for preventing or curing

  • Chinese medicinal food, also known as
    dietotherapy (????) , combines foodstuffs with
    certain kinds of traditional medicine. Turning
    bitter medicine into delicious dishes, such
    dietotherapy can both appease(??) hunger and
    prevent or cure diseases. Under ordinary
    circumstances, dietotherapy can also help promote
    health if taken over a long period. The most
    common medicinal foods in the Chinese diet
    include lotus seed porridge, eight-treasure rice
    budding, three-delicacy soup.

  • There are many varieties of medicinal food in
    China. They include various dishes, soups,
    drinks, porridges and pastries. Dietotherapy is
    administered in accordance with the constitution
    of each individual, the nature of his ailment,
    the change of seasons and his preference for and
    reaction to different foods.

  • Based on the principle of syndrome
    differentiation followed in traditional Chinese
    medicine, the most fundamental aspect of
    medicinal food is to improve the body's
    resistance and strengthen its immunity function.
    With lifestyle improvements, progress in cooking
    techniques and the study of new foods that have
    therapeutic potential, medicinal food will play
    an even greater role in promoting health in China
    as well as the rest of the world.

Vegetarian food
  • It has been an important food in the Chinese
    culture for a long time. It has been a popular
    choice of food since the Song dynasty and was
    developed further in the Ming and Qing dynasties.
    There are three types of schools -- Monastery
    vegetarian food, court vegetarian food and folk
    vegetarian food. The main characteristics of this
    type of food is to be uniquely cooked and

  • The main ingredients are green leafy vegetables,
    fruits, mushrooms and bean curd products.
    Vegetable oil is usually a condiment, as it is
    not only delicious and nutritious, it also helps
    the digestion process and prevents cancer.
    Although lots of vegetarian dishes get the names
    with meat" , "fish" like "Braised Vegetarian
    Meat", "Vegetarian Shrimps", they do not contain
    real fish, meat, chicken, just processed and
    cooked to look and taste like the real things.

Some well-known Sichuan dishes are described
  • guoba roupian(????) Guoba refers to the crispy
    bits of rice that get stuck to the bottom of the
    rice pot. Guoba is put on a hot plate in stack,
    and then a service person proceeds to baptize the
    rice with piping hot soup. The dish erupts in
    fireworks when the steam and sizzle has cleared,
    leaving the mirage on the table. Delicious! Soupy
    additions are meat and vegetables, which soften
    the rice to a crunchy texture.

zhangcha yazi (????)
  • Sichuan Duck Smoked with Camellia and Camphor
    Leaves. Local ducks are soaked in glutinous rice
    juice mixed with salt, Chinese prickly ash, and
    peppers. Then the soaked ducks are removed out of
    the juice. They are smoked with camellia and
    camphor leaves until the ducks' skin become
    brown. The final step is to steam or deeply fry
    the brown ducks, which smell good and taste
    tender .

gongbao jiding (????)
  • Spicy Chicken Fried with Peanuts. It is a
    well-known dish, which is served by almost all
    the local restaurants. The main ingredients
    consist of chicken chest meat, dry peppercorns
    and peanuts. A cook puts the chest meat in diced
    size, peppercorns and other necessary ingredients
    into hot oil to fry. As the dish is ready,
    peanuts are added. It is said that a man whose
    name was Ding Gongbao (???) from Guizhou province
    invented this dish. When he served as a governor
    of Sichuan Province during the Qing Dynasty, his
    cook often cooked the fried chicken with dry red
    pepper. Ding enjoyed this dish very much and he
    worked with his cook to further improve the
    quality of the dish, Finally the recipe of the
    dish was widely spread in Sichuan and local
    people named the dish after Ding Gongbao,

Mapo Doufu
  • Mapo refers to a lady with a pockmarked face.
    Doufu means bean-curd. Mapo Doufu is one of the
    common dishes in Sichuan, characterized by the
    use of many spices an liberal application of
    pimiento and hot red peppers. Mapo Doufu is a
    small square of bean curd, with garlic, minced
    beef, salted soybean, all prepared in a chilly
    sauce. It is said that a salted soybean, all
    prepared in a chilly sauce. It is said that a
    lady with a pockmarked face set up shop with her
    husband near a bridge in Chengdu a century ago.
    The lady served itinerant peddlers and boatmen
    with her red-hot stew bean-curd when they passed
    by. Gradually her customers named her bean-curd
    as Mapo Bean-Curd.

  • Sichuan cuisine includes a number of famous snack
    dishes, specialties originated from xiao chi or
    finger food. The snack dishes cost you next to
    nothing. The offerings run through the whole
    vocabulary. A few of the more renowned snack
    dishes are listed here below

laitangyuan ( ??? ) Lai Rice- Dumpling
  • This dish was invented in 1894 by a vendor whose
    name was Lai Yuanxin (???). Lai started off as a
    street stall vendor, and his rice dumpling had a
    delicate visual appeal and tasted sweet. Later,
    Lai set up his own shop and local people named
    the rice dumpling after Lai. Traditionally four
    dumplings are in a soup with a side dish of
    sesame sauce. Each dumpling has a different sweet
    stuffing inside and it should be dipped in the
    sugar sesame sauce before devouring.

Dandan mian (???)
  • It is a kind of hot-spiced noodles in soup
    favored with a sauce containing dried shrimp,
    shredded preserved vegetables, peanuts, sesame
    seeds, chili oil, vinegar and garlic. Dandan
    refers to shoulder poles. In the earliest time a
    noodle peddler shouldered his pole with two
    baskets at the either side while walking along
    streets. The baskets contained his noodles and
    sauce. He sold his noodles for the convenience of
    passers-by. His noodles cost almost nothing and
    gradually local people called it Dandan Noodle.

Fuqifeipian (????) Slices of Beef and Assorted
Entrails of Oxen
  • Fuqi refers to a husband and his wife. It is said
    that a husband and his wife, whose name was Guo
    Chaohua (???) invented this dish. People named it
    Husband and Wife' s Slices of Beef and Assorted
    Entrails of Oxen. Usually Sichuan chefs slice
    cooked beef and some oxen entrails, and place
    them on a plate. Then they add numbingly spicy
    sauce to the beef and entrails on the plate.

Sichuan Hotpot
  • It is said that the hotpot originated in
    Chongqing city. In 1920s, there were several oxen
    slaughterhouses located in the northern side of
    the Yangtse River in Chongqing. The
    slaughterhouses often sold Oxen entrails in cheap
    price to vendors who owned stalls near the river
    ferry. The vendors cleaned the entrails and cut
    them into small pieces before putting them into
    pots to stew with hot pepper and other sauce. The
    vendors sold the stewed entrails in soup to
    boatmen, laborers and peddlers. It was cheap and
    tasty. However, the sliced oxen entrails in soup
    could only be eaten while it is hot.

  • As weather changed and wind blew from the river,
    the soup soon became cool and the entrails didn't
    taste good. Later, some boatmen set up a big wok
    full of hot, spiced oil. They skewed sliced
    entrails and eat them hot as the entrails were
    ready in the wok. This way of hotpot eating
    gradually spread far and wide in Sichuan
    Province, and at the present time, it has been
    introduced into main restaurants as an important
    part of Sichuan cuisine.
  • In Chengdu there are many sidewalk hotpot
    operations and exquisite hotpot restaurants. In
    the center of the table stands a big wok full of
    hot, spiced oil or hot rich soup alluring
    passers-by to sit down. Around the wok are placed
    a dozen plates of paper-thin slices of raw meat
    and other ingredients, and the customers pick up
    skewers of raw ingredients and make a do-it-

  • Like other Sichuan food not all of the hotpot is
    spicy-hot, with skewered food making your
    forehead drip or tongue searing. The development
    of the particular hotpot cuisine has been toned
    down for tourists with other flavorings such as
    sour vegetables and fish sauce, mutton soup, beer
    and duck flavor and hot pepper chicken soup. In
    winter or summer the skewered items tend to be
    almost the same with a variety of meat, seafood
    and rich vegetables.