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Civil Rights Movement


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Title: Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement
  • Lesson 8

The Segregated South
  • Part I

The Segregated South
  • Reconstruction 1865-1877
  • End of slavery.
  • New opportunities.
  • By the end, new opportunities were disappearing.
  • Pres. Rutherford B. Hayes
  • Removed federal soldiers from state houses.
  • Louisiana
  • South Carolina
  • Left African-Americans to the mercy of former

The Segregated South
  • Jim Crow Laws
  • Discriminatory and segregationalist laws.
  • Widespread throughout the South.
  • 9/10 African-Americans lived in the South.
  • Goals of Jim Crow
  • To impose strict segregation on southern society.
  • To prevent any appearance of social equality.
  • State after state enacted new laws of
  • U.S. Supreme Court (Plessy v. Ferguson) supported

The Segregated South
  • Southern states enacted new literacy tests and
    property qualifications for voting.
  • Poor whites still allowed to vote.
  • Lynching became common.
  • As did white on black violence.
  • Very small black middle class arose
  • Entrepreneurs
  • Professionals.
  • Most African-Americans restricted to agricultural
    work or menial jobs in cities.

African American Leaders
  • Influential leaders
  • Booker T. Washington
  • Born in slavery (1856).
  • Educated at Freedmens school.
  • Supported racial accommodation.
  • Economic improvement.
  • Self-reliance.
  • Large African-American following.
  • Business.
  • Worked to open schools for African-American

African American Leaders
  • Influential leaders
  • W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Alternative to Booker T Washington.
  • Critical of Washingtons alleged acceptance of,
    the inferiority of the Negro.
  • Blacks must fight for
  • Civil equality.
  • Higher education.
  • 1905 Niagara Movement
  • Promoted racial integration, civil, and political
    rights for African Americans.
  • 1910 National Association for the Advancement of
    Colored Peoples (NAACP).

African American Leaders
  • Struggle to overturn legal and economic barriers
    to equal opportunity for African Americans.
  • Segregation continued.
  • World War I
  • Segregated units.
  • Barred from Marines and the Coast Guard.
  • Restricted to working as cooks, laundrymen, etc
    in the Army.
  • Endured humiliating and violent treatment.
  • Opposed by northern and southern troops.

African American Leaders
  • World War II
  • 2.5 million African-Americans served.
  • Army.
  • Air force.
  • Navy.
  • Marines.
  • Coast Guard
  • African Americans served with distinction and
    made valuable contributions to the war effort.

Civil Rights After WWII
  • Civil Rights gained national attention.
  • Black voters switched from Republican to
  • Why?
  • The Depression, Roosevelt, and the New Deal.
  • Affirmation of New Deal policies.
  • New Deal policies had positively affected African
  • Gain employment and various forms of relief.
  • Supported the party of the New Deal.
  • Roosevelt administration had more
    African-Americans than any previous

Legal Challenges to Segregation
  • Thurgood Marshall
  • Legal Defense and Education Fund.
  • Mounted legal challenges to segregation.
  • Morgan v. Virginia (1946).
  • Supreme Court used the interstate commerce clause
    to declare segregation on interstate buses
  • The Court also struck down
  • All-white primaries, racially restrictive
    housing, and the exclusion of African-Americans
    from graduate schools and law schools.

Legal Challenges to Segregation
  • Rulings often not enforced.
  • Limited real improvements.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).
  • Separate but equal.
  • Violence common
  • Against African-Americans who voted, pushed for
    change, or behaved inappropriately towards
  • Emmett Till.
  • All white jury acquitted Tills killers.

Separate But Equal
  • Daily realities for African Americans
  • Poverty.
  • Legally sanctioned segregation (de jure).
  • Daily racism (de facto).
  • Segregation a national problem
  • South.
  • D.C.
  • West.
  • Mid-West.
  • Legal victories were minor victories.

Separate But Equal
  • 1954 Brown v. Board of Education.
  • Topeka, Kansas.
  • Oliver Brown sued to allow his daughter to attend
    a nearby white school.
  • Kansas courts rejected his lawsuit because of
    nearby African American schools fulfilled
    separate but equal.
  • NAACP appealed to the Supreme Court.
  • Thurgood Marshal, lawyer.
  • Separate but unequal.
  • Unequal financial resources, quality and number
    of teachers, physical and educational resources.

Separate But Equal
  • 1954 Brown v. Board of Education, cont
  • Marshall referred to the psychological impact of
    separate but equallow self esteem.
  • 1952 Court unable to rule.
  • 1954 Supreme Court heard the case again.
  • Chief Justice Earl Warren
  • separate educational facilities are inherently
  • 1955 Court gave primary responsibility to local
    school boards.
  • They should enforce the ruling with all
    deliberate speed.
  • Lower federal courts to monitor progress.

The Reaction
  • African Americans and liberals hailed the
  • Southern whites vowed to resist integration by
    all possible means.
  • Virginia passed a law closing integrated schools.
  • Southern congressional representatives issues the
    Southern Manifesto
  • Pledged to oppose the Brown ruling.
  • Eisenhower refused to support ruling.

Little Rock
  • Little Rock, Arkansas
  • Central High School.
  • Scheduled to integrate in 1957.
  • Parents opposed integration.
  • Governor (Orval Faubus) opposed integration.
  • National Guard ordered to surround school to
    prevent integration.
  • Elizabeth Eckford (one of nine) was blocked by
  • Mob yelled, Lynch Her! Lynch Her!
  • Continued for three weeks.

Little Rock
  • September 20, 1957
  • Federal court orders the Governor to integrate
    Central High.
  • Governor Faubus removed National Guard.
  • Anti-integrationists gathered to prevent the
    Little Rock Nine from entering the school.

Little Rock
  • September 23, 1957
  • Little Rock Nine secretly brought into Central
  • Mobs rushed the school.
  • The nine students rushed to cars.
  • The integration of Central High School lasted
    three hours.
  • Riots Mayor called for federal assistance.

Little Rock
  • President Eisenhower - Sept. 24, 1957.
  • Nationalized the Arkansas National Guard.
  • Deployed troops from the 101st Airborne to Little
  • To restore order not to integrate schools.
  • 1957-1958
  • Little Rock High Schools closed to avoid
  • Cooper v. Aaron (1959) prevented such actions in
    the future.

Little Rock
  • Little Rock High Schools reopened.
  • Integration slowly spread to lower grades.
  • Many whites fled public schools.
  • Enrolled children in all white private schools.
  • Integration of schools slow
  • 1965 2 of schools integrated.

No Easy Road To Freedom
  • Part II

  • 1955
  • An important year in civil rights.
  • Brown v. Board of Education.
  • Lynching of Emmett Till.
  • Rosa Parks and Montgomery Bus Boycott.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Rosa Parks arrest
  • African-American leaders call for bus boycott.
  • Submit a list of proposals
  • Courteous drivers.
  • Hiring of black drivers.
  • Equal system of seating.
  • Boycott to start on December 6, 1955.
  • The day of Parks hearing.

(No Transcript)
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • December 5, 1955
  • Meeting at the Holt Street Baptist Church.
  • Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Baptist minister.
  • New leader of The Montgomery Improvement Assoc.
  • Believed the Church had a social justice role.
  • Believed violence/hatred brought only ruin.
  • Urged followers to bless them that curse you.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • December 6, 1955
  • Parks trial.
  • Found guilty fined 14.00.
  • Bus boycott began.
  • Bus Boycott
  • Police issued tickets to car poolers.
  • Insurance companies dropped automotive insurance.
  • Acid thrown on the cars.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • January 30, 1956
  • Dynamite thrown on Kings front porch.
  • King remains calm and calls for nonviolent
  • Gayle v. Browser
  • Bus segregation unconstitutional.
  • The boycott
  • Was the start of the nonviolent resistance.
  • King wanted to build on its momentum to fight
    segregation nationwide.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • 1957
  • The Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
  • SCLC.
  • Formed by Martin Luther King Jr. and other
  • Backbone of civil rights movement.

Sit-ins and Freedom Riders
  • Sit-in movement
  • Four Carolina AT Students.
  • Woolworths Dept. Store, Greensboro.
  • Ordered food and told they could not be served.
  • Remained until closing.
  • The next day, 20 students showed up and engaged
    in the same protest.
  • Sit-ins spread throughout the South.
  • Supported by Civil Rights Leaders but remained a
    student movement.
  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).

Sit-ins and Freedom Riders
  • Freedom Riders Movement
  • James Farmer.
  • Depended upon opposition in order to put pressure
    of the President to enforce Boynton v. Virginia
    (integrated buses, trains, and terminals).
  • May 1961
  • Alabama and Mississippi.
  • Anniston, Alabama white mob attacks buses
    injuring several.
  • Justice Dept. representative John Seigenthaler
    obtained protection for the riders.
  • The protection vanished as the buses approached
  • Buses attack again. Injured included
  • Seigenthaler deputized local officials to protect
  • Protestors arrested peacefully.

Sit-ins and Freedom Riders
  • September 1961
  • Interstate Commerce Commission upheld the Supreme
    Courts ruling prohibiting segregation.
  • States and local authorities grudgingly accepted
    the desegregation of bus/train terminals.
  • On to Birmingham.(next lecture).

The Albany Movement
  • Segregationalist held their ground where the
    federal government did not step in.
  • Mainly in the deep south (Albany, Georgia).
  • The Albany Movement
  • NAACP and SNCC.
  • October 1961
  • Thousands of African-Americans marched, sat-in,
    and boycotted (to integrate public facilities).
  • Many spent time in jail.
  • Peaceful nature of protests and arrests prevented
    an outpouring of national sympathy.

The Albany Movement
  • December 1961
  • Martin Luther King Jr. arrives in Albany.
  • Made the city the symbol of the civil rights
  • Arrested twice.
  • Released quickly to avoid bad publicity.
  • The Kennedy administration kept out of Albany.
  • Late 1962
  • Albany movement collapsed.
  • Showed that mass protest without violent white
    reaction and direct federal involvement could not
    end segregation.

Election of 1960
  • Richard Nixon
  • John F. Kennedy
  • African American support moved to Kennedy after
    Nixons weak stand on civil rights.
  • Kennedy moved towards African-Americans.
  • Helped King get released from Atlanta jail.

Election of 1960
  • Kennedy wins 1960 election.
  • Moves slowly on civil rights.
  • Appoints segregationists to courts.

But For Birmingham
  • Part III

But For Birmingham
  • Birmingham, Alabama.
  • History of racial hatred and violence.
  • SCLC and Fred Shuttlesworth
  • Planned to
  • Fill the city jails.
  • Boycott downtown dept. stores.
  • Enrage Public Safety Commissioner Eugene Bull
  • Expected violent white reaction.
  • Force federal intervention (remember Albany).

But For Birmingham
  • Martin Luther King
  • Arrived in Birmingham April 1963.
  • Carried a manifesto demanding
  • End to racist hiring practices.
  • End to segregated public accommodations.
  • Creation of a biracial committee to oversee
  • Jailed.
  • Wrote, Letter from a Birmingham Jail.
  • Defending his tactics.
  • Called for peaceful civil disobedience.
  • Asserted that freedom would never be given.

But For Birmingham
  • May 3, 1963
  • Protestors filled Birminghams streets.
  • Sheriff Bull Connors police attacked
    protestors with nightsticks, attack dogs, and
    high-pressure fire hoses.
  • T.V. cameras caught it all.
  • Thirteen hundred battered and bruised children
    being arrested.
  • Horrified the nation.
  • Caused many blacks to reject Kings message of

But For Birmingham
  • African Americans in Birmingham responded by
    fighting the police with stones and clubs.
  • King and other leaders met with white business
    owners who agreed to hire black sales people.
  • Did not stop the violence.
  • President Kennedy ordered three thousand troops
    to Birmingham to
  • Reestablish order.
  • Enforce the integration agreement.

But For Birmingham
  • Events of Birmingham
  • Gave civil rights leaders the attention they
  • Encouraged President Kennedy to fulfill his
    campaign promises.
  • Sent Congress civil rights legislation that would
    mandate (require) integration in all public
  • Civil rights leaders organized a March on
  • August 28, 1963.
  • Martin Luther King address, I Have A Dream.

But For Birmingham
  • The March on Washington failed to push Congress
    into action.
  • Civil rights legislation stalled in committee.
  • Southern whites voted to maintain segregation.
  • Violence continued.
  • Church bombing killed 4 children attending Sunday

The Death of a President
  • President Kennedys poll numbers dropped
  • Civil rights bill in limbo.
  • Growing military commitment in Vietnam.
  • President Kennedy visited Dallas, Texas
  • Attempt to heal divisions within the Texas
    Democratic Party.
  • November 22, 1963 President Kennedy assassinated
    in Dallas.
  • Assassination traumatized the nation.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson becomes
  • Had not been known as a friend to civil rights.
  • Many civil rights activists viewed the new
    president with suspicion.
  • Throughout 1964, Johnson took civil rights as a
  • Traded political favors for Republican backing to
    silence 57 day filibuster.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law (July 2,

The Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Made it illegal to discriminate for reasons of
    race, religion, or gender in public places and
    businesses that served the public.
  • Federal Fair Employment Practices Committee
  • Created by Congress.
  • Empowered the federal government to withhold
    federal funds from institutions that violated the

Freedom Summer
  • Election of 1964
  • Lyndon Johnson (D).
  • Barry Goldwater (R).
  • 40 new Democrats enter Congress.
  • President Johnson pushed legislation to enact
    his, Great Society.
  • War on Poverty.
  • Additional funding for education.
  • Protection of Civil Rights.

Freedom Summer
  • President Johnson
  • Signed executive order to require government
    contractors to practice non-discrimination in
    hiring and on the job.
  • Appointed
  • First African-American to the Cabinet
  • Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Robert
  • First African-American woman to the federal
  • Judge Constance Baker Motley.
  • First African-American to the Supreme Court
  • Justice Thurgood Marshall.

Freedom Summer
  • Civil rights laws did not end discrimination or
  • Large pockets of opposition to civil rights
  • Martin Luther King pushed to change voting laws
  • Blacks restricted by poll taxes and literacy
  • 24th Amendment banned poll tax.
  • 1964 plans to get blacks to the polls.

Freedom Summer
  • Freedom Summer
  • Organized by Bob Moses (SNCC).
  • Mississippi.
  • Movement to register black voters and cultivate
    black pride.
  • Whites/Blacks opened Freedom Schools
  • To teach literacy and black history.
  • Helped African Americans register to vote.

Freedom Summer
  • Registering African Americans to vote was
  • June 1964 August 1964
  • 35 shootings.
  • 30 bombings.
  • Three Freedom Summer workers were killed.
  • Movement drew national support and registered
    60,000 new African American voters.

Selma, Alabama
  • Voter registration drive in Selma.
  • Sheriff Jim Clark arrested 2,000 protestors.
  • King called for freedom march from Selma to
  • March 7, 1965 Marchers faced fifty Alabama State
    Troopers and mounted forces at Pettus Bridge.
  • T.V. cameras witnessed what happened.
  • National outrage grew.
  • Kings movement gained national support.

Selma, Alabama
  • Alabama Governor George Wallace.
  • Told President Johnson he could not provide
    protection for the marchers.
  • President Johnson ordered the National Guard and
    250 federal marshals to escort the protestors.
  • March 21, 1965
  • March resumed 3,200.
  • March 7, 1965
  • March reaches Montgomery 25,000.

Urban Riots and Black Power
  • August 1965 Los Angeles, C.A.
  • Drunk driving arrest in Watts became a riot.
  • Watts police had reputation for racism and
  • Riot resulted in 34 deaths and 45 million in
  • Demonstrated growing willingness of African
    Americans to reject the nonviolence movement.
  • Goals over dreams.
  • Force would become the tool of choice.

Urban Riots and Black Power
  • Martin Luther King spoke to African Americans in
  • They had little use for his dream.
  • King was shouted down and booed.
  • New voices called African Americans to seek power
    through solidarity, independence, and violence.
  • Black Power.

Urban Riots and Black Power
  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
  • Embraced black power movement.
  • New SNCC leader, Stokely Carmichael.
  • Moved from biracial, nonviolent to Black Power
    resistance stressing Black Nationalism.
  • Independence from white allies and violent
    rhetoric widened the gap between the radicals and
    moderates in the civil rights movement.

Urban Riots and Black Power
  • Nation of Islam (Black Muslims).
  • Founder Elijah Muhammad (1930s).
  • Attracted young black males.
  • Demanded adherence to a strict moral code.
  • No drugs or alcohol.
  • Taught black supremacy and separatism from an
    evil white world.
  • 1960s Nearly one-hundred thousand strong.

Malcolm X
  • Malcolm X
  • New voice in the civil rights movement.
  • Life of drugs, burglary, and pimping landed
    Malcolm Little in prison by the age of 20.
  • Read books, took correspondence courses, and
    converted to the Nation of Islam.
  • Changes name from Malcolm Little to Malcolm X
    (representing the stolen identities of African

Malcolm X
  • Malcolm X, cont
  • Released from prison in 1952 (age 27).
  • Became one of the most powerful and respected
    leaders in Nation of Islam.
  • Rejected integration with white society.
  • 1964
  • Changes his beliefs (somewhat).
  • Remained Black Nationalist but cooperates with
    other civil rights groups and white allies.

Malcolm X
  • Malcolm X, cont
  • Broke with Elijah Muhammad.
  • February 21, 1965
  • Murdered in Harlem by three Black Muslims.

The Black Panthers
  • The Black Panthers
  • Organized in 1966 by
  • Huey Newton.
  • Eldridge Cleaver.
  • Bobby Seale.
  • Developed school lunch programs.
  • Involved in other community activities.
  • Heavily armed and willing to use weapons.

Death of a Leader
  • 1968
  • Martin Luther King traveled to Memphis.
  • Address striking sanitation workers.
  • April 4, 1968
  • Shot and killed by James Earl Ray.
  • Civic rage in African American communities.

Death of a Leader
  • Congress passed
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1968.
  • Outlawed discrimination in the sale and rental of
  • Gave the U.S. Justice Dept. the authority to
    prosecute those convicted of discrimination.