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Title: Major Moons


1
IN THE NAME OF
ALLAH
AND
THE MOST MERCIFUL
THE MOST BENEFICIAL
2
GROPUP09
MAJOR MOONS OF
JUPITER SATURN
RBIYA
GROUP LEADER
RAFIA
PRESENTER
ATIQA
MEMBER
3
CONTEXT
  • HISTORY 04
  • ORIGIN OF MOONS06
  • INTRODUCTION TO JUPITER10
  • MAJOR MOONS11
  • INTRODUCTION TO SATURN52
  • MAJOR MOONS54
  • REFERENCES88
  • CONCLUSION91

4
HISTORY
  • Jupiter has 4 major moons
  • These 4 (IO,EUROPA,GANYMEDE CALLISTO) large
    Jovian moons were discovered by GALILEO in 1610
  • Saturn has 6 major moons
  • ENCELADUS in 1789 by WILLIAM HERSCHEL

5
HISTORY
  • TETHYS DIONE In 1684 by GIOVANNI
  • TITAN In 1655 by CHRISTIAN HUYGENS
  • RHEA In 1672 by CASSINI

6
ORIGIN
  • Many of the moons of the planets formed through
    accretion but on a small scale
  • Once the nebular gas began to accrete onto the
    large Jovian protoplanets, condition similar to
    the miniature solar nebula

7
ORIGIN
  • with condensation accretion continuing to
    occur
  • Some of the smaller moons may have been chipped
    off their parent planets during collision with
    asteroids
  • Or may be they captured asteroids themselves

8
ORIGIN
9
JUPITER
MAJOR MOONS OF JUPITER
10
JUPITER
  • 5th planet in the solar system
  • The massive largest one
  • Name originated from GREEK word JOVE-name after
    their god
  • Uniquely it represent the model of our own solar
    system with the moons symboling the planets

11
JUPITER'S MOONS
  • Q HOW MANY MOONS DOES JUPITER HAVE?
  • ANS A LARGE NUMBER
  • 63!
  • Divided into 4 groups
  • Galilean moons largest groups of planet-Jupiter
    moons
  • Inner most moons mostly small in size, with
    elliptical orbits
  • 3rd group orbit with retrograded sense

12
JUPITER'S MOONS
  • Outer most moons just very small in size


13
GALILEAN MOONS
  • They are four in number named as
  • GANYMEDE
  • CALLISTO
  • IO
  • EUROPA

14
COMPARATIVE DISTANCES
15
COMPARISION
16
GANYMEDE-largest moon
  • Largest of the JOVIANS
  • moons 5260km in
  • the diameter
  • Density of 1.93g/cm3
  • shows that it is at
  • least 50 water ice composition

17
GANYMEDE-largest moon
  • Average reflectivity of 50
  • A silicate rich core with mantle of liquid water
  • No existence of atmosphere

18
ICY CRATERED SURFACE
  • There are two distinctly different types of
    TERRAIN
  • Dark terrain
  • Bright terrain
  • Water ice is the dominant component of the crust
  • No large scale mountains landforms

19
ICY CRATERED SURFACE
20
TERRAIN
21
  • DARK TERRAIN
  • Polygonal in shape separated each other by
    brighter terrain

22
  • May have a reasonable amount of DUST and ROCKY
    debris
  • Highly cratered surface suggested that this
    part is relatively OLD must be dated back to
    METEORIC bombardment age that ended up 4biillion
    years ago

23
  • BRIGHTER TERRAIN
  • May be made up of PURE water
  • They are mostly LOW cratered area suggested its
    age up to just 3.5 billion years

24
TERRAIN
25
CALLISTO
  • It has no atmosphere to speak of
  • Diameter of 4900km
  • Highest noonday temperature is of -110C highest
    of the GALILEAN moons
  • Has a very darkest surface due to low
    reflectivity of just 20

26
CALLISTO
27
DENSITY
  • Never volcanically active
  • Has the lowest density of
  • all the other GALILEAN
  • moons 1.79g/cm3
  • Relatively small amount of heavier radioactive
    elements

REASON
28
FROZEN FORM

29
IO
  • Bright-orange colored sphere with, white
    irregular splotches
  • Polar regions are relatively darker

30
IO
  • Absolutely no impact craters
  • UNIQUNESS nothing similar had been found in the
    solar systemTHAT ISa large number of
    odd-looking sinkholes like depression scattered
    over the surface

31
WHAT ARE THEY?
  • They are the vents of the volcanoes
  • At least 8 are currently active
  • Eruptions take place on continual basis
  • Last for few months to years
  • Named after GREEK gods of FIRE
  • IO is the only world in the universe besides
    Earth known to have active volcanoes

32
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33
  • Umbrella-shaped
  • plume
  • Gigantic fan
  • shaped in the
  • vacuum
  • Produced by the
  • eruption of gases
  • and materials from
  • the volcanoes

34
  • Mostly colored patterns includes yellow, red,
    orange and brown
  • Its surface is mostly covered with this volcanic
    material
  • Emitted gases are the SO2 And H2S(hydrogen
    sulfide)- by the help of REFLECTANCE SPECTRUM

35
MOUNTAINS
  • There exist mountain ranges
  • INTERESTINGLY up to 10km in height
  • HERE QUESTION ARISES FROM WHERE THEY
    ORIGINATED?
  • The TECTONIC FRUCTURING FORCES as similar in
    case of Earth

Q
ANS
36
TEMPREATURE
  • Average day time temperature is -145C
  • Although as hot as 300C near volcanoes
  • Average night time temperature is
  • -190C

37
VOLCANOES
38
ATMOSPHERE
  • Not founded water any where in surface, interior
    and not even on the atmosphere
  • It has a thin layer of atmosphere
  • Most probably the active volcanoes that releases
    the SO2 forms the atmosphere
  • And pressure is quiet small just about
  • 110-7 atmospheric pressure

REASON
39
EUROPA
  • Light brown surface with white patches
  • Move in the circular orbit of 670,900km in radius
  • No impact craters

40
EUROPA
  • Absolutely no
  • atmosphere
  • Max. day time
  • temperature is-180C
  • Reflectivity of 70
  • as it a bright world

41
EUROPA
  • Slightly smaller density
  • of about 3.03g/cm3
  • No signs of volcanism
  • either current or in the past
  • - different from the IO
  • Mostly the surface is smooth

42
WATER BODY
  • UNIQUENESS the only world in the solar system
    besides Earth that has WATER!
  • Density of Europa is consistent with up to 20 of
    water
  • Exist as ICE in the interior mostly
  • And the rest of it is made up of metals
    silicate

43
ICY FLOW
44
ABSENCE OF CRATERS
  • There are only few signs of craters
  • (only 3 probable craters of 18-25km apart)
  • It means that the present icy structure formed
    long after the era of METEORIC bombardment came
    to an end

REASON
45
CRATER IMPACT
46
FORMATION OF FROST
  • Water exposed to the
  • space rapidly evaporates
  • forming a thin layer
  • of atmosphere of
  • WATER VAPOUR

47
FORMATION OF FROST
  • Exceedingly cold temperature outside
  • condenses the it into solid ICE
  • This falls back to the surface ,covering the
    entire EUROPA landscape with a layer of fine
    FROST

48
ICE RAFTS
49
POSSIBILITY OF LIFE
  • Theoretical calculations of the current thermal
    state of EUROPA have an interesting
    possibility LIFE

50
POSSIBILITY OF LIFE
  • Result suggested that some LUIQUID WATER may be
    still present in the interior - hidden deep
    underneath the icy crust
  • Its mantel actually warm enough to support the
    LIFE
  • We r goin to start our INVASION of
    SATURN !!!!!!!!!!!

51
SATURN
MAJOR MOONS OF SATURN
52
SATURN
  • Saturn was the outermost planet known to ancient
    astronomy
  • It is the 6th planet of solar system
  • Its mass is 5.61029g
  • Its density is 0.7g/cm3

53
  • The atmosphere of Saturn consists of molecular
    Hydrogen ,Helium ,Methane and Ammonia.

54
MOONS OF SATURN
  • Saturn has 67! moons out of which 5 largest are
  • Titan
  • Rhea
  • Dione
  • Tethys
  • Enceladus

55
TITAN
  • Titan is the 2nd largest moon of solar system and
    1st of Saturn
  • We call it as a hazy titan
  • A thick uniform haze layer similar to
    photochemical smog seen above our cities found
    here

REASON
56
  • Titan probably contains a rocky core surrounded
    by a thick mantle of water ice.

57
HAZY TITAN
58
COLOR OF TITAN
  • Titan is very glowing
  • Throughout its day-to-day its color is changes
    from Blue to Green and Green to Red
  • As a result a beautiful glowing orange color is
    appears.

59
COLOUR OF TITAN
60
ATMOSPHERE
  • Titans atmosphere is thick and denser
  • It is made up of mostly N2, Ar, a few percent of
    CH4 in addition to ethane and propane, CO and
    other compounds
  • Its atmosphere undergoing a series of chemical
    reactions powered by
  • sun light

61
INFRARED REFLECTIVITY
62
  • It also have liquid lakes, clouds and
    mountainslakes of METHANE and ETHANENot
    of water!!!

63
INTRESTING FEATURE
  • If a person wants to fly
  • then
  • Titans atmosphere is best !
  • A person can fly just with
  • man made wings WOW!

64
RHEA
  • It is the 9th largest moon of solar system and
    2nd of Saturn.
  • Its surface consists of 25 rocks and 75 water
    ice
  • It is known as WISPY RHEA
  • Due to the tectonic activity

REASON
65
  • It has craters but these are flatter than our
    moon.

66
MAIN FEATURE
  • It is the only moon who have rings around it
  • Its faint rings contain dust particles and debris.

67
RINGED REHA
68
DIONE
  • It is the 4th moon of the Saturn
  • It has huge fractures on hemisphere which made
    Forward and Trailing side
  • These are quiet different from each other.

69
  • It has craters.

70
FORWARD HEMISPHERE
  • Forwarded hemisphere is dark
  • It is covered with dens population of craters
  • It has large craters having diameter of 62miles
    or 99km.

71
TRAILING HEMISPHERE
  • Consists of a complex network of bright wispy
    marking superimposed over a darker surface
  • With numerous craters
  • It has small craters as compare to forward
    hemisphere with diameter of 19miles or 30km.

72
DIONE
  • TRAILING HEMISPHERE FORWARD HEMISPHERE

73
THEORY
  • Scientists believed that in earlier it is tidally
    locked
  • Meteoric impact took place preferably on the
    forward facing side
  • A large impact could change its current
    orientation

74
DIONE
75
TETHYS
  • It is the 5th important moon of Saturn
  • It is 248km in diameter
  • A huge impact of crater that covers 2/5 of the
    surface of it has been found

76
  • It has heavy and light craters in shape of belt
    across the moon.

77
  • It is highly reflective object in the solar
    system known due to its VISUAL WAVELENGTH
  • It has an average density of just 1.2g/cm3
  • Probably have rocky material mixed with the ice

78
AMAZING FEATURE
  • It has a large Canyon (Ithaca Chasma) which runs
    about 1242 miles long
  • That means Canyon runs across 2/3 of the moon
  • These cracks are due to the shrinking and cooling
    of the surface layers

79
CANYON
80
ENCELADUS
  • It is the 6th important moon of Saturn
  • It has a plum of liquid water and chemicals
  • Its temperature is -210 degree Celsius

81
PLUM OF LIQUAD WATER
82
As it reflects 100 sunlight that it receives.
83
TIGER STRIPES
  • Near south pole there are V and Y shaped
    ridges and valleys which are called TIGER
    STRIPES
  • There are two theories about these stripes

84
THEORIES
  • It is migrating towards Saturn which increasing
    its rotation due to which rotation axis is
    flatten
  • This flattering causes near the surface of poles
    to push outward and buckle forming ridges

85
  • Warm material rose from the interior of the
    surface leading to a polar terrain from its
    current area to a new region
  • It would then adjust to match the new polar
    orientation which causes surface tension and
    ridges formed

86
ARTISTIC VIEW
87
CRATERS ON SATURN MOONS
88
REFERENCES
  • Astronomy today,McMillan,5th edition,2005,pp-358
  • The space-age solar system, Joseph F. Baugher,
    Institute of Technology Chicago, Illinois John
    Wiley Sons, pp-221-251
  • Satellites of Jupiter, Saturn Uranus,
    International Astronomical Union Circulates, 2nd
    week of May

89
REFERENCES
  • Solar system bodies JPL/NASA, 2nd week of May
  • Origin of Europa Galilean satellites,
    University of Arizona,2nd week of May
  • Jupiters known satellites Department of
    Terrestrial Magnetism at Carniege Institute of
    Science, 2nd week of May

90
REFERENCES
  • Article by Institute of Astronomy University of
    Hawaii, Scott Steppard David Jewitt, 2nd week
    of May
  • Moons and Planets, William K. Hartmann,5th
    edition THOMSON BROOKS/COLE

91
CONCLUSION
  • Despite of the modern technology, still man is
    unable to know the UNIVERSE as these MOONS!
    This shows the limitation of the MANKIND! Even
    though he considered HIMSELF
  • SUPERIOR
  • Although HE Is NOT!!!!

92
THANK YOU
SO LONG
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