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World Nutrition: 2003


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Title: World Nutrition: 2003

World Nutrition Report
  • World Health Organisation, 2003

  • One of the highest attainments in the Christian
    life is control of APPETITE and without this
  • Christian Temperance and Bible Hygiene By James
    White pg.206

Highlights from the 2003 World Health
Organization report entitled Diet, Nutrition,
and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases.
The Consultation recognized that the growing
epidemic of chronic disease afflicting both
developed and developing countries was related to
dietary and lifestyle changes
rapid changes in diets and lifestyles have
accelerated over the past decade. This is having
a significant impact on the health and
nutritional status of populations(pg. 1)
increased consumption of energy-dense diets high
in fat, particularly saturated fat, and low in
unrefined carbohydrateswith a decline in energy
expenditure (exercise) that is associated with a
sedentary lifestyle (pg. 1-2)
Because of these changes in dietary and lifestyle
patterns, chronic NCDs (non-communicable
diseases) --- including obesity, diabetes
mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD),
hypertension and stroke, and some types of cancer
osteoporosis, and dental diseases pg. 4- are
becoming increasingly significant causes of
disability and premature death(pg. 2)
in 2001, chronic diseases contributed
approximately 60 of the 56.5 million total
reported deaths deaths caused by chronic
diseases dominate the mortality statistics This
shift in the pattern of disease is taking place
at an accelerating rate because they have
started to appear earlier in life. (pg. 4)
Chronic diseases are largely preventable
diseases. (pg.5)
Nutrition is coming to the fore as a major
modifiable determinant of chronic disease, with
scientific evidence increasingly supporting the
view that alterations in diet have strong
effects, both positive and negative, on health
throughout life. (pg. 2) recognize the
essential role of diet, nutrition and physical
activity. (pg. 3)
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Diet has been known for many years to play a key
role as a risk factor for chronic
diseasesTraditional, largely plant-based diets
have been swiftly replaced by high-fat,
energy-dense diets with a substantial content of
animal-based foods. (pg. 6)
There is a vast volume of scientific evidence
highlighting the importance of applying a
life-course approach to the prevention and
control of chronic disease. (pg. 42)
only a small and negligible minority of the
worlds population consumes the generally
recommended high average intake of fruits and
vegetables. (pg. 24)
within the time frame of a week, at least 20 and
probably as many as 30 biologically distinct
types of foods, with the emphasis on plant foods,
are required for healthy diets. (pgs. 44-45)
increase the consumption of fruits and
vegetables to alter the types of fats and oils,
as well as the amount of sugars and starch
consumed (pg. 45)
reduce the intake of sugars-sweetened drinks
(particularly by children) and of high-energy
density foods that are micronutrient poor
(vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals), as well as
efforts to curb cigarette smoking and to increase
physical activity. (pg. 45)
replac(e) simple (carbohydrates with) complex
carbohydrates (unrefined sugars). (pg. 57)
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there is a need to maintain the healthy
components of traditional diets (e.g. high intake
of vegetables, fruits and NSP). (pg.68)
Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) Wholegrain
cereals, fruits and vegetables are the preferred
sources of non-starch polysaccharides
(NSP-dietary fibre). (pg. 58)
an individuals sense of understanding of his or
her environment, coupled with control over the
course and setting of his or her own life appears
to be the most important determinant of health.
(pg. 39)
Some preventive interventions early in the life
course offer lifelong benefits. (pgs. 42-43)
There is increasing evidence that chronic disease
risks begin in fetal life and continue into old
age. (pg. 31)
large size at birth (an effect of too much
dietary (animal) protein during pregnancy) is
also associated with an increased risk of
diabetes and cardiovascular disease breast and
other cancers long-term outcomes such as
susceptibility to diet-related chronic disease
later in life. (pg. 32)
the weight of current evidence indicates adverse
effects of formula milk on cardiovascular disease
risk factors increased mortality among older
adults who were fed formula as infants. The risk
for several chronic diseases of childhood and
adolescence (e.g. type 1 diabetes, coeliac
disease, some childhood cancers, inflammatory
bowel disease) have also been associated with
infant feeding on breast-milk substitutes and
short-term breastfeeding. (pgs.32-33)
increased atherosclerotic lesions were related
to increased dietary cholesterol in early life.
(pg. 33)
Protein, particularly animal protein, has been
shown to have a selective effect in promoting
height growth. Height has been shown to be
related to cancer mortality at several sites,
including breast, uterus and colon. The risk of
stroke is increased by accelerated growth
growth has been linked to development of
hypertension in adult life childhood obesity is
related to excess protein intake (pg. 35)
The presence and tracking of high blood pressure
in children and adolescents occurs against a
background of unhealthy lifestyles, including
excessive intakes of total and saturated fats,
cholesterol and salt, inadequate intakes of
potassium, and reduced physical activity, often
accompanied by high levels of television viewing.
In adolescents, habitual alcohol and tobacco use
contributes to raised blood pressure. (pg. 36)
these early manifestations of chronic disease
are occurring earlier and earlier (in age, and)
once they have developed they tend to track in
that individual throughout life. On the more
positive side, there is evidence that they can be
corrected. Overweight and obesity are, however,
notoriously difficult to correct after becoming
established. (pg. 37)
the influence of advertising the exposure of
young children to heavy marketing practices of
energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods replace
traditional micronutrient-rich foods by heavily
marketed, sugars-sweetened beverages (i.e. soft
drinks) and energy-dense fatty, salty and sugary
foods. (pgs. 44 68)
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In North Karelia, age-adjusted mortality rates of
coronary heart disease dropped dramatically
between the early 1970s and 1995 the decline was
largely achieved through community action and the
pressure of consumer demand on the food market
the Republic of Korea is also notable since the
community has largely maintained its traditional
high-vegetable diet despite major social and
economic change. (pg. 7)
The broad parameters for a dialogue with the food
industries are less saturated fat more fruits
and vegetables effective food labeling and
incentives for the marketing and production of
healthier products there is a need to stress
the importance of clear and unambiguous messages
to children and youths. (pg. 7)
family eating patterns, including the increased
consumption of fast foods, pre-prepared meals and
carbonated drinks, have taken place over the past
30 years. (pg. 38)
there has been a steady increase in the
proportion of food eaten that is prepared outside
the home the energy (calories), total fat,
saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium content of
foods prepared outside the home is significantly
higher than that of home-prepared food. (pg. 67)
For infants and young children, the main
preventive strategies are a) the promotion of
exclusive breastfeeding b) avoiding the use of
added sugars and starches when feeding
formula c) instructing mothers to accept their
childs ability to regulate energy intake rather
than feeding until the plate is empty d)
assuring the appropriate micronutrient intake
needed to promote optimal linear growth. For
children and adolescents, prevention of obesity
implies the need to e) promote an active
lifestyle f) limit television viewing g)
promote the intake of fruits and vegetables h)
restrict the intake of energy-dense,
micronutrient-poor foods (e.g. packaged
snacks) i) restrict the intake of
sugars-sweetened soft drinks. (pgs. 67-68)
  • Seventh-day Adventists are to be represented to
    the world by the advanced principles of health
    reform which God has given us.
  • Health and Healing, Ellen G. White, paragraph 3,
    page 4