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In a business context, but also in your own presentation of work! Marketing already did this ... Based on a sample of nearly 5 million respondents and over 50 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Research

  • Les 4
  • Liesbeth Huybrechts
  • Sanne Jansen

Synthesize the Research into User Requirements
  • synthesize data into form that can be used by
    product development team
  • through use of personas
  • The Inmates are Running the Asylum (Cooper,
  • and About Face 2.0. (Cooper, 2003).

  • scenarios, profiles created to inspire and
    guide design
  • visual, textual descriptions, but ideally result
    of studying real people
  • heavily used by advertisers 1980, 1990
  • personas are narrow descriptions
  • less effective with diverse audience
  • best for homogenous audiences or niche markets

  • identify users needs, used to develop,
    validate, prioritize new or proposed features
  • creation of Needs versus Functions Chart
  • Combination summary of market and design
    research, personas, needs vs. Functions Chart
  • gt final User Requirements Report

How to create Personas
  • 5 steps
  • choose primary and secondary personas
  • Avoid common pitfalls
  • prepare for objections
  • conduct a persona workshop
  • complete the personas

Create Personas
  • archetypical Users with specific goals, needs
    based on real market and design research.
  • Include
  • name
  • photograph
  • demographic characteristics
  • technographic characteristics
  • behavioral characteristics
  • barriers and/or challenges
  • specific goals and needs

ultimate goal of personas
  • identify specific user goals and needs
  • so they can be aligned with
  • business needs
  • technical goals
  • to create an agreed upon prioritized list of
    features and functions
  • common understanding of whom product is being
    designed for
  • !! prevents project team from making decisions on
    personal preferences and biases

Choose primary and secondary personas
  • Cooper advises 1 to 3 primary and 2 to 3
    secondary personas
  • narrow number of personas by Market Segment
  • rarely persona from each segment, sometimes
    multiple from each segment
  • secondary personas
  • particular role rather than market segment
  • e.g. segment classroom teacher (product
    e-learning software), sec role students because
    their needs may be important too

Avoid common pitfalls
  • dont mix up business and user goals
  • business-defined goal
  • user needs easy way to get to personalized
    marketing messages
  • user-driven goal
  • user wants to be alerted when the best price
    comes available

Prepare for objections
  • In a business context, but also in your own
    presentation of work!
  • Marketing already did this
  • (not focussed enough on costumer behaviors)
  • We have a lot of experts here so we know what our
    users want
  • (experts can be included in stakeholder
  • Everyone is a user
  • (even large companys can prioritize users)

Prepare for objections
  • This feels silly. Its just creative writing
    exercise based on made-up data
  • (real data)
  • I did these before and they just werent useful
  • (pitfalls)
  • Theres just not enough time
  • design research saves time!

Conduct a persona workshop
  • collaborative workshop with one representative
    from each area
  • engineering, content, design, marketing,
    executive team
  • workshop is process by which personas emerge
    means as important as end

Conduct a persona workshop, TIPS
  • Evaluate personas before, during, after workshop
  • Do presentation of Persona Development Process
    before Persona Workshop
  • Explain process and reason for using Personas
  • Set expectations for upcoming workshop
  • make relevant research documents and background
    articles available.
  • All team members who agree to participate must
    be familiar with previously conducted market and
    design research
  • so they can make informed recommendations.

Conduct a persona workshop, TIPS
  • Create posters with salient market research data
    for workshop participants to easily refer to
  • if you have quotes from user interviews, enlarge
    them on the walls for inspiration
  • seed the personas before meeting so that the
    group can get traction immediately

Complete the personas
  • final deliverable
  • often persona menu
  • one-page document containing summary view of all
  • This includes
  • Name
  • Photograph
  • Key demographics
  • Key technographics
  • Primary goals, needs
  • persona menu should be included with design
    documentation and present with design sessions,
  • Informs decision making.

Personas adidas
  • Gearhead -- the hard-core, nonteen runner who
    needs high-performance shoes
  • Core Letterman -- the true-blue, white suburban
    high-school athlete. (Description from the
    internal Adidas guidelines ''age 16-24'' ''I
    don't like people who think they're too cool.'')
  • Contemporary Letterman -- the high-school athlete
    who, ''still cares about the ladies and hooking
  • Aficionado -- the kid, probably African-American,
    who likes brand-new, 100-plus basketball shoes
  • Popgirl -- the teeny-bopper who scours the mall
    for Skechers
  • Value Addict -- the shopper at Kohl's and Target,
    probably middle-aged and fairly well off
  • A-Diva -- '''Sex and the City' goes to the gym.'
  • Fastidious Eclectus -- the ''SoHo architect,''
    Liedtke says, who craves hip, distinctive
    sneakers. (Adidas guidelines ''age 15-35'' ''I
    think weirdness and confidence are sexy.'')

Create a Needs vs. Functions Chart
  • Marketing requirements document (MRD) includes
    prioritized outline of features and functions
  • but not often maps needs and priorities
  • analyze Persona needs chart and add column for
    features and functions
  • place outline number of each feature and function
    in the appropriate row to map it to users needs
    that it meets
  • helps crossfunctional team understand
    relationship between marketing goals, business
    needs and user needs

Create a Needs vs. Functions Chart
  • Needs vs Function Chart
  • gives team a formal model to decide how to adress
    those needs that are not met by a
  • or what to do with features/functions that do not
    meet a user need
  • with this last step data
  • from all points in the organisation
  • and from all relevant user perspectives are

Prioritize Persona Needs
  • in relation to features, functions
  • personas have unique and distinct goals, but
    often common needs
  • step 1 create Persona needs Chart
  • identify which personas each need
  • (some are shared by all, some are unique to one
  • step 2 sort the list so needs are shared by most
    personas are shown at the top
  • sorting personas and needs in other ways will
    help you see patterns
  • and understand their similarities and differences

Case using MBTI for personas
  • Using other research for creating personas
  • http//

Myers-Briggs Type IndicatorMBTI
Introduction to Myers-BriggsPersonality Type
  • Carl Jung developed a framework
  • to describe basic individual preferences
  • and explain some similarities and differences
    between people.
  • Two basic assumptions of his framework
  • Behaviour is predictable
  • People are born with behaviour preferences

What are preferences?
  • how we would choose if given free reign
  • Preferences affect what we pay attention to
    around us
  • Preferences affect how we perceive the actions of

Gaining insight into personality
  • Reduces your defensiveness when involved in a
  • Increases your openness to feedback (clues) from
    what is going on around you
  • Improves your ability to see others more
  • Appreciating differences in yourself helps you
    appreciate differences in others
  • Improves your ability to choose realistic goals

Origins of the MBTI
  • Isabel Myers and Katherine Briggs expanded on
    Jungs work
  • by developing an instrument to help people
    identify preferences
  • MBTI is
  • A tried and tested framework to help us
    understand human behaviour
  • Not a test!
  • Based on a sample of nearly 5 million respondents
    and over 50 years of research

People express preferences in four independent

  • Interaction preference
  • Extraversion vs. Introversion
  • Information Gathering Preference
  • Sensing vs. intuition
  • Decision-Making Preference
  • Thinking vs. Feeling
  • Life Style Preference
  • Judging vs. Perceiving

  • Words used to describe preferences in psychology
    do not mean the same thing as they do in everyday

The MBTI instrument
  • measures personality preferences on four
    different scales
  • Extraversion (E) - Introversion (I), Sensing (S)
    - Intuition (N)
  • Thinking (T) - Feeling (F)
  • Judging (J) - Perceiving (P).
  • Results from the indicator are delivered in a
    four letter type.

Determining one's Myers-Briggs type
  • complicated by life-long learning experiences
  • classic question " Am I this way because I
    learned it or is this just the way I am?"??
  • drawn equally to opposing choices?
  • In such cases try to think back to how you were
    before the age of 12 or even younger
  • ? by the time we are 3 years old, the core of our
    cognitive organization is well-fixed, although
    the brain continues to allow some plasticity
    until puberty
  • After the onset of puberty, our adult learning
    begins to overlay our core personality - which is
    when the blending of nature and nurture becomes
    more evident.
  • For some this "learning" serves to strengthen
    what is already there, but with others it
    produces multiple faces to personality

Take the test!
  • http//

Extraversion (E)?
  • outer world ? people ? action ? breadth
  • energized by active involvement in events
  • they like to be immersed in a breadth of
  • most excited when they are around people
  • often have an energized effect on those around
  • like to move into action and to make things
  • usually feel very at home in the world
  • often find their understanding of a problem
    becomes clearer if
  • they can talk out loud about it
  • hear what others have to say

People who prefer extraversion may
  • "go-getters" or "people-persons
  • feel comfortable with and like working in groups
  • have a wide range of acquaintances and friends
  • sometimes jump too quickly into activity and not
    allow enough time for reflection
  • sometimes forgets to pause to clarify the ideas
    that give aim or meaning to their activities

Introversion (I)?
  • ?inner world ? ideas ? reflection ? depth
  • energized and excited when they are involved with
    the ideas, images, memories, and reactions that
    are a part of their inner world
  • often prefer solitary activities
  • or spending time with one or two others with whom
    they feel an affinity
  • often have a calming effect on those around them
  • Take time to reflect on ideas that explain the
    outer world
  • truly like the idea of something
  • often better than the something itself, and ideas
    are almost solid things for them?

People who prefer introversion may
  • be seen as calm and reserved
  • feel comfortable being alone
  • like solitary activities
  • prefer fewer, more intense relationships
  • sometimes spend too much time reflecting
  • not move into action quickly enough
  • sometimes forget to check with the outside world
    to see if their ideas really fit their experience

Sensing (S)
  • facts ? details ? experience ? present
  • immersed in the ongoing richness of sensory
  • grounded in everyday physical reality
  • concerned with what is actual, present, current,
    and real
  • approach situations with an eye to the facts
  • often develop a good memory for detail
  • accurate in working with data
  • remember facts or aspects of events that did not
    even seem relevant at the time they occurred
  • often good at seeing the practical applications
    of ideas and things
  • may learn best when they can first see the
    pragmatic side of what is being taught
  • experience speaks louder than words or theory

People who prefer sensing may
  • recall events as snapshots of what literally
  • solve problems by working through things
    thoroughly for a precise understanding
  • be pragmatic
  • look to the "bottom line
  • work from the facts to the big picture
  • put experience first
  • place less trust in words and symbols
  • sometimes focus so much on the facts of the
    present or past that they miss new possibilities

Intuition (N)
  • symbols ? pattern ? theory ? future
  • immersed in their impressions of the meanings or
    patterns in their experiences
  • understanding through insight gtlt hands-on
  • concerned with what is possible and new
  • orientation to the future
  • often interested in the abstract and in theory
  • enjoy activities where they can use symbols or be
  • memory of things is often an impression of what
    they thought was the essence of an event
  • gtlt a memory of the literal words or experiences
    associated with the event
  • often like concepts in and of themselves
  • even ones that do not have an immediate
    application, learn best when they have an
    impression of the overall idea first.

People who prefer intuition may
  • recall events by what they read "between the
    lines" at the time
  • solve problems through
  • quick insight
  • through making leaps
  • be interested in doing things that are new and
  • work from the big picture to the facts
  • place great trust in insights, symbols, and
  • less in what is literally experienced
  • sometimes focus so much on new possibilities that
    they miss the practicalities of bringing them
    into reality

Thinking (T) ?
  • ?impersonal ? truth ? cool ? tough-minded
  • concerned with determining the objective truth in
    a situation
  • More impersonal in approach, believe they can
    make the best decisions by removing personal
    concerns that may lead to biased analyses and
    decision making
  • act based on the truth in a situation,
  • a truth or principle that is independent of what
    they or others might want to believe or wish was
  • concerned with logical consistency and analysis
    of cause and effect
  • can appear
  • Analytical
  • Cool
  • tough-minded?

People who prefer thinking may
  • have technical or scientific orientations
  • be concerned with truth
  • notice inconsistencies
  • look for logical explanations or solutions to
    almost everything
  • make decisions with their heads
  • want to be fair
  • believe telling the whole truth is more important
    than being tactful
  • sometimes miss seeing or valuing the "people"
    part of situations
  • can be experienced as
  • too task-oriented
  • Uncaring
  • indifferent

Feeling (F) ?
  • personal ? value ? warm ? tenderhearted
  • concerned with whether decisions and actions are
  • More personal in approach
  • believe they can make the best decisions
  • by weighing what people care about and the
    points-of-view of persons involved in a situation
  • concerned with personal values
  • places high value on relatedness between people
  • often concerned with establishing or maintaining
    harmony in their relationships
  • often appear caring, warm, and tactful
  • !! in type language, feeling does not mean being
    "emotional" rather, it is a way of reasoning?

People who prefer feeling may
  • have people or communications orientations be
    concerned with harmony and be aware when it is
  • look for what is important to others and express
    concern for others
  • make decisions with their hearts
  • want to be compassionate
  • believe being tactful is more important than
    telling the "cold" truth
  • sometimes miss seeing or communicating about the
    "hard truth" of situations
  • be experienced by others as too idealistic, soft
    or indirect

Judging (J)
  • structured ? decided ? organized ? scheduled
  • prefer a planned or orderly way of life
  • like to have things settled and organized
  • feel more comfortable when decisions are made
  • like to bring life under control
  • want to make decisions to bring things in their
    outer life to closure
  • this only describes how their outer life looks
  • Inside they may feel flexible and open to new
    information (which they are)
  • in type language, judging means
  • "preferring to make decisions" gtlt "judgmental"

People who prefer judging may
  • like to make decisions, or at least like to have
    things decided
  • look task oriented
  • like to make lists of things to do
  • like to get their work done before playing
  • plan work to avoid rushing just before deadline
  • sometimes make decisions too quickly without
    enough information
  • sometimes focus so much on the goal or plan that
    they miss the need to change directions at times

Perceiving (P)
  • ?flexible ? open ? adaptable ? spontaneous
  • prefer a flexible and spontaneous way of life
  • like to understand and adapt to the world
  • like to stay open to new experiences
  • want to continue to take in new information
  • this only describes the outer life
  • Inside they may feel very planful or decisive
  • in type language perceiving means
  • "preferring to take in information"
  • gtlt "perceptive" in the sense of having quick and
    accurate perceptions about people and events?

People who prefer perceiving may
  • like staying open to respond to whatever happens
  • look more loose and casual
  • like to keep laid-out plans to a minimum
  • like to approach work as play or mix work and
  • work in burst of energy
  • enjoy rushing just before deadlines
  • sometimes stay open to new information so long
    that they miss making decisions
  • sometimes focus so much on adapting to the moment
    that they do not settle on a direction or plan

Planner Inspector ISTJ
  • Theme is planning and monitoring, ensuring
    predictable quality
  • Thorough, systematic and careful
  • See discrepancies, omissions, and pitfalls
  • Talents administrating and regulating.
  • Dependable, realistic, and sensible
  • Want to conserve the resources of the
    organization, group, family or culture and
    persevere toward that goal
  • Thrive on planning ahead and being prepared
  • Like helping others through their roles
  • as parent, supervisor, teammate, and community

Protector Supporter ISFJ
  • Theme is protecting and caretaking, making sure
    their charges are safe from harm
  • Talents making sure everything is taken care of
    so others can succeed and accomplish their goals
  • Desiring to serve individual needs, often work
    long hours
  • Quietly friendly, respectful, unassuming. Thrive
    on serving quietly without fanfare.
  • Devoted to doing whatever is necessary to ensure
    shelter and safety, warning about pitfalls and
    dangers and supporting along the way.

Foreseer Developer INFJ
  • Theme is foresight. Use their insights to deal
    with complexity in issues and people, often with
    a strong sense of "knowing" before others know
  • Talents lie in developing and guiding people
  • Trust their inspirations and visions, using them
    to help others
  • Thrive on helping others resolve deep personal
    and ethical dilemmas
  • Private and complex, they bring a quiet
    enthusiasm and industry to projects that are part
    of their vision.

Conceptualizer Director INTJ
  • Theme is strategizing, envisioning, and
  • Talents lie in defining goals, creating detailed
    plans, and outlining contingencies
  • Devise strategy, give structure, establish
    complex plans to reach distant goals dictated by
    a strong vision of what is needed in the long run
  • Thrive on putting theories to work
  • open to any and all ideas that can be integrated
    into the complex systems they seek to understand
  • Drive themselves hard to master what is needed to
    make progress toward goals.

Analyzer Operator ISTP
  • Theme is action-driven problem solving
  • Talents lie in
  • operating all kinds of tools and instruments
  • using frameworks for solving problems
  • Keen observers of the environment
  • they are a storehouse of data and facts relevant
    to analyzing and solving problems
  • Thrive on challenging situations
  • having the freedom to craft clever solutions
  • do whatever it takes to fix things and make them
  • Take pride in their style and virtuosity
  • which they seem to effortlessly acquire

Composer Producer ISFP
  • Theme is composing, using whatever is at hand to
    get a harmonious, aesthetic result.
  • Talents lie in combining, varying and
    improvising, frequently in the arts but also in
    business and elsewhere.
  • With their senses keenly tuned in they become
    totally absorbed in the action of the moment,
    finding just what fits the situation or the
  • Thrive on having the freedom to vary what they do
    until they get just the right effect
  • Take action to help others and demonstrate values
  • Kind and sensitive to the suffering of others

Harmonizer Clarifier INFP
  • Theme is advocacy and integrity
  • Talents lie in helping people clarify issues,
    values, and identity
  • Support anything that allows the unfolding of the
  • Encourage growth and development with quiet
  • Loyal advocates and champions, caring deeply
    about their causes and a few special people
  • Interested in contemplating life's mysteries,
    virtues, and vices in their search for wholeness
  • Thrive on healing conflicts, within and between,
    and taking people to the center of themselves.

Designer Theorizer INTP
  • Theme is designing and configuring
  • Talents lie in grasping the underlying principles
    of something and defining its essential qualities
  • Seek to define precisely and bring coherence to
    systems based on the pattern of organization that
    is naturally there
  • Easily notice inconsistencies
  • Enjoy elegant theories and models for their own
    sake and for use in solving technical and human
    problems.Interested in theorizing, analyzing, and
  • Thrive on exploring, understanding, and
    explaining how the world works.

Promoter Executor ESTP
  • Theme is promoting.
  • Talents lie in persuading others and expediting
    to make things happen
  • Have an engaging, winning style that others are
    drawn to
  • Adept at picking up on minimal nonverbal cues
  • Anticipate the actions and reactions of others
    and thus win their confidence
  • Like the excitement and challenge of negotiating,
    selling, making deals, arbitrating
  • and in general, achieving the impossible
  • Thrive on action and the freedom to use all
    resources at hand to get desired outcomes.

Motivator Presenter ESFP
  • Theme is performance
  • Warm, charming, and witty
  • Want to impact and help others, to evoke their
    enjoyment, and to stimulate them to act
  • Want to make a difference and do something
  • Often masterful at showmanship, entertaining,
    motivating, and presenting
  • Thrive on social interaction, joyful living, and
    the challenge of the unknown
  • Like helping people get what they want and need,
    facilitating them to get results

Discoverer Advocate ENFP
  • Theme is inspiration, both of themselves and
  • Talents lie in grasping profound significance,
    revealing truths, and motivating others
  • Very perspective of others' hidden motives and
  • Interested in everything about individual and
    their stories as long as they are genuine
  • Contagious enthusiasm for "causes" that further
  • develop latent potential and the same zeal for
    discovering dishonesty and inauthenticity
  • Frequently moved to enthusiastically communicate
    their "message."

Explorer Inventor ENTP
  • Theme is inventing, finding ingenious solutions
    to people and technical problems
  • Talents lie in developing ideas into functional
    and innovative applications that are the first of
    their kind
  • Thrive on finding new ways to use theories to
    make systems more efficient and people better off
  • Hunger for new projects
  • Have faith in their ability to instantly come up
    with new approaches that will work
  • Engineers of human relationships and systems as
    well as in the more scientific and technological

Implementor Supervisor ESTJ
  • Theme is supervising, with an eye to the
    traditions and regulations of the group
  • Responsible, hardworking, and efficient
  • Interested in ensuring that standards are met,
    resources conserved, and consequences delivered
  • Talents lie in bringing order, structure, and
  • Want to keep order so the organization, group,
    family, or culture will be preserved
  • Thrive on organizing and following through with
  • teaching others how to be successful

Facilitator Caretaker ESFJ
  • Theme is providing, ensuring that physical needs
    are met
  • Talents lie in supporting others and supplying
    them with what they need
  • Genuinely concerned about the welfare of others,
    making sure they are comfortable and involved
  • Use their sociability to nurture established
  • Warm, considerate, thoughtful, friendly
  • Want to please and maintain harmonious
  • Thrive on helping others and bringing people

Envisioner Mentor ENFJ
  • Theme is mentoring, leading people to achieve
    their potential and become more of who they are
  • Talents lie in empathizing with profound
    interpersonal insight and in influencing others
    to learn, grow and develop
  • Lead using their exceptional communication
    skills, enthusiasm, and warmth to gain
    cooperation toward meeting the ideals they hold
    for the individual or the organization
  • Catalysts who draw out the best in others. Thrive
    on empathic connections
  • Frequently called on to help others with personal

Strategist Mobilizer ENTJ
  • Theme is directing and mobilizing
  • Talents lie in
  • developing policy, establishing plans,
    coordinating and sequencing events, and
    implementing strategy
  • Excel at directing others in reaching the goals
    dictated by their strong vision of the
  • Thrive on marshaling forces to get plans into
  • Natural organization builders and almost always
    find themselves taking charge in ineffective
  • Enjoy creating efficiently structured systems and
    setting priorities to achieve goals

list of famous MBTI Types
  • ISTJ?Harry Truman?Queen Elizabeth II?
  • ISFJ?Jimmy Stewart?Mother Theresa?
  • ESTJ?Colin Powell?Queen Elizabeth I ?
  • ESFJ?George Washington?Dolley Madison?
  • ISFP?Johnny Carson?Barbara Streisand?
  • ISTP?Clint Eastwood?Amelia Earhart?
  • ESFP?Elvis Presley?Elizabeth Taylor?
  • ESTP?Franklin Roosevelt?Madonna?
  • INFP?Albert Schweitzer?Anne Lindbergh?
  • INFJ?Mohandas Gandhi?Eleanor Roosevelt?
  • ENFP?Carl Rogers?Molly Brown?
  • ENFJ?Mikhael Gorbachev?Margaret Mead?
  • INTP?Albert Einstein?Marie Curie?
  • INTJ?Dwight D. Eisenhower?Ayn Rand?
  • ENTP?Walt Disney?Catherine II?
  • ENTJ?Bill Gates?Margaret Thatcher

  • Section introduction Design (As) Research. Anne
    Burdick p. 82
  • Speculation, Serendipity and Studio Anybody. Lisa
    Grocott p. 83
  • Toward a Definition of the Decorational. Denise
    Gonzalez Crisp p. 94
  • Demo Design Writing. Anne Burdick p. 101
  • Sensory Anomalies. Michael Naimark p. 109
  • Spontaneous Cinema as Design Practice. Rachel
    Strickland p. 118
  • Game Forms for New Outcomes. Emma Westecott p.
  • Strategy, Tactics and Heuristics for Research.
    Rob Tow p. 135

Section Two Introduction.
  • Design (As) Research.
  • Anne Burdick

Design (As) Research
  • Design requires a space
  • - the research lab -
  • for design risk-taking, speculation and
    discovery, for applications and for expanding
    knowledge of design itself
  • this chapter
  • sampling of concerns that drive this kind of
  • deals with complex issues of representation as
    defined through form
  • difference with user-testing and human-centred

Design (As) Research
  • use the act and material of design as means of
  • generate new information through making
  • projects in this section exist primarly in
    contexts outside mass market
  • academia, literature, corporate research culture,
    documentary film, High Design and Art
  • this community exist necessarily outside concerns
    of popular culture and marketplace
  • hothouses for the difficult, the unresolved, the
    complex, the unconventional

Speculation, Serendipity and Studio Anybody
  • Lisa Grocott

Search for design that resides in the realm of
possibility (Dilnott, 1998, p. 24)
  • identification of the distinctive quality of
    discovery in art and design
  • surpass reworking the familiar and explore and
    discover the unfamiliar
  • that experience is theorized by Terrence
    Rosenberg by critiquing the way a straight line
    of intent defines a narrow focal channel for
  • instead advocating a poetic research method with
    non-linear links seeks alternative paths to those
    predicted form the outset (Rosenberg, 2000, p. 5)
  • this discovery-led practice can herald the
    distinction between simple invention and true

Studio Anybody
  • Grocott established Studio Anybody
  • graphic design consultancy where value of
    speculative research and reality of corporate
    environment where not divorced
  • space between academy and user by research
    through activity of designing
  • the professional designer deploys studio-based
    research to actively investigate the activity of
  • Goal
  • graphical community of practice values
    innovative, creative design and invests in
    research and extends to research through design
  • this case illustrates that tacit understanding
    about creative speculation can inform and enhance
    tangible knowledge about design practice

  • In what ways can a professional design studio
    foster a speculative culture?p. 84
  • What role can speculation play within workplace
    education?p. 85
  • Could critical speculation be the foundation for
    a business strategy?p. 87
  • To what ends can play be good business practice?
    p. 87
  • Is speculation time central to the contribution
    and merit of any designed artifact? p. 89
  • To what extent can a discovery-led design process
    be deployed in commercial practice? p. 91

How can a professional design studio foster a
speculative culture?
  • Desire to develop, implement and reflect upon a
    critically enhanced practice model that
    accomodated a discovery-led process
  • By cyclical, action research where the process of
    designing the artifact constituted the research
    methodology (Seagro and Dunne, 1999)
  • research study intended to explore
  • a particular and subtle configuration of
    inter-related and inter-dependent design
  • that sought to naturalize the professional
    relationship between speculative research and
    commercial activity

How can a professional design studio foster a
speculative culture?
  • First move development of space for speculation
    by initiating a stream of design projects
    authored and funded by the studio
  • pure, client-free space of studio-initiated
    projects helps to elucidate in what ways and to
    which extent the design process directly informs
    the artefacts we create
  • original business model hoped that the
    rhizomatic, poetic nature of the speculative
    stream would generate a reservoir of ideas that
    could be drawn on by the commissioned client
    stream (Rosenberg, 2000)

Client-led Presentation Process for Commissioned
  • The dotted section of a client-led process
    represents the limited space for speculation
    within a predominantly predetermined, reductive
    design process.

Discovery-led Process for Speculative Projects
  • The dotted section of a design-led process
    represents the possibilities afforded within the
    space for speculation in this poetic, iterative
    design process.

What role can speculation play within workplace
  • Designers initiating own speculative projects is
    not new
  • underground zines to internationally distributed
    publications give examples of designers creating
    a client-free space

What role can speculation play within workplace
  • More challenging finding critical speculation
    that would fall within the research notion of
    scholarship, where outcomes are critiqued and
    disseminated within the relevant community
  • therefore research questions and methodology
    framed in association with Grocotts other
    workplace PMIT University
  • educational context for research would situate
    ongoing analysis and reflection within community
    of scholarship
  • formal research culture of academy asserted that
    professional research be more then introspective
    speculation and contributes to the greater
    community of practice

What role can speculation play within workplace
  • image by Lisa Grocott at Studio Anybody AGDA
    awards 2002
  • Studios initial research study framed by
    big-picture question
  • what happens when discovery-led research becomes
    an integral component of professional graphic

Critical Speculation
  • Could critical Speculation be the foundation of a
    business strategy?
  • In studio-initiated, client-free projects
  • Use of speculative stream of experimental
    projects conceived to power the creative process
    and formal language behind commissioned client
  • First few years the studio disseminated their
    work in public and exhibition places
  • Experience phase helped to
  • learn to know new software
  • Negotiate new collaborations
  • Refine experimental form
  • Collectively develop body of work that forms
    basis of conceptual leads they still return to

To what ends can play be good business practice?
  • Projects informed commissioned work
  • the public projects inadvertently operating as a
    new business strategy.
  • Example La Lala La
  • Relation to Mooks Clothing Co
  • Explored foiled romantic love through a world of
    pop culture in an exhibition in 1999
  • How reading of music and movies emotionally
    responds to the state of your love life
  • Cassette tapes behind glass etc...
  • detail from La lala la studio-initiated public
    project 1999

To what ends can play be good business practice?
  • Mooks Clothing Co, the streetwear brand saw the
    exhibition, liked the conceptual threads and
    asked the studio to work out a campaign for them
  • detail from Mooks Clothing Co. fall / winter
    catalogue 2000

To what ends can play be good business practice?
Speculation time
  • What would enhance the design process and
    outcomes further
  • greater authority for the designers?
  • or a tighter collaboration with the client?
  • Not mutually exclusive
  • Negotiate an inclusive relationship with clients
    that supports a democratic, propositional style
    of the design the studio creates

Speculation time
  • Design literate director of experimenta was a
    long-time client of the studio and therefore
    their first guinea pig
  • Design for exhibition was experiment in how to
    negotiate and assert a new kind of client
    collaboration that legitimates speculation within
    the commercial projects
  • Central decision
  • abandon convention of showing the client a range
    of options
  • liberating the designers form the outset to
    pursue ideas in which they collectively saw merit

Speculation time
  • Second decision
  • dismission of client presentation model that
    reduced design process to series of formally
    approved decisions at each stage of project
  • Alternative regular meetings that are seen as
    critiques, discursive culture where ideas are
    openly rejected, recanted or revisited as the
    project evolved
  • collection of promotional material for
    Experimentas Waste exhibition 2001

Speculation time
  • Experimenta
  • Result was concept for the exhibition Waste
  • Recycling formal ideas tested in an earlier
    studio project
  • By allowing the studio to work on the same
    critical terms as the artists
  • gt challenge and expansion of the audience's
    perception of the role that graphic design can
  • Was obvious that a commercial design process
    could sustain both a designers' creativity and
    engage the client's audience
  • detail from He thought, He felt Something
    studio-initiated poster 2001

Commercial practice
  • To what extent can a discovery-led design process
    be deployed in commercial practice?
  • Phase three
  • ability to intuitively and analytically
    articulate to our clients the nature of the pure
    design process the studio-initiated projects had
    privileged us to experience
  • This opportunity came along with the arts program
    for the Melbourne Fashion Festival, when one day
    after the final design had been approved
  • but before production, the studio joked amongst
    each other about an alternative idea they should
    have proposed

Commercial practice
  • detail from work-in-progress Melbourne Fashion
    Festival arts program 2003
  • Festival director endorsed a beautiful, safe
    design intentionally restrained to take on the
    theme Excess and Exuberance
  • Studio's new idea controversially illustrate the
    excessive comsumer hype and marketing budgets
    that drive the fashion industry

Commercial practice
  • last-minute design for Melbourne Fashion Festival
    arts program 2003
  • Critique of the ever-increasing power afforded on
    sponsors in the communication material the studio
    produced for the festival
  • The client immediately valued the cultural
    commentary of the unfamiliar design and
    recognized the enhanced communication of the
    last-minute idea

  • This overview of the first steps of the studio in
    researching the tension between commercial
    practice, creative process and designed artifact
    might convince you of collective value of
    research through design
  • The studio now series of specific, short-term
    projects in diverse areas such as exploring a
    discursive form of graphic activism
  • The reflections presented in this chapter
    acknowledge the situation-specific, unique nature
    of every design situation
  • However the studio considers many of the
    strategies and observations documented scalable
    to larger companies and transferable to other
    design disciplines
  • Designing is all about possibilities and should
    not be reduced to a 12-step program