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19th century Nationalism

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Egypt is semi-autonomous, under governer Muhammad Ali (after napoleon) Selim III ... Muhammad Ali. Born: Macedonia, 1769. Led Albanian contingent against ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 19th century Nationalism


1
19th century Nationalism Imperialism
2
Napoleonic Empire 1812
3
Congress of Vienna
4
Austria, Russia, Prussia England (later France)
5
Age of Diplomacy
  • Will govern by accord, diplomatic balance of
    power within Europe.
  • Decides to restore order in the old, conservative
    ways with KINGS.
  • No wars between the states of Europe
  • Promotion of national interests
  • WHAT IS NATIONALISM? How do you get people
    behind it?

6
European Imperialism
  • Imperialism becomes intricately tied to
    Nationalism both economically and politically.
  • An expression of a nations wealth and influence
  • Furthering the previous colonial interests to
    supply raw goods for production of finished goods
    through industrialization.
  • Primary areas Africa, Asia, Latin America

7
Imperial Problems
  • German and Italian Unification in the 1860-70s.
  • Attempts to control the rate of change and
    prevent political upheaval.
  • Nationalism fuels unification through non-wars.
  • Franco-Prussian War, Austrian-Prussian War.
  • Crimean War 1855

8
  • Concerns over Russias expansion in Crimean War
    (1855)
  • Declining Ottoman Empire, including SE Europe.
  • Access to Mediterranean
  • Shift of balance of power
  • Fr Eng. Help the Ottomans AGAINST Russia

9
British Empire 19th c.
10
Opening of Suez Canal, 1869
  • French English venture for access to the Red Sea
    from Mediterranean crucial for access to Asia by
    Europe.

akg-images
11
Congress of Berlin 1872
  • Gathered to apportion the empires of Europe
  • Competition for colonies among non-empires sets
    up alliances for WW I
  • Otto von Bismarck sets up this conference to try
    to deal with
  • Partitioning of Africa
  • Decline of the Ottoman Empire
  • Territories in Asia
  • Stop expansion of Russia

12
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13
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14
Ottoman Empire ca. 1900 -- Decline
15
  • Ottoman Empire declines over several centuries
  • Attempts to save by reforming Sultans over the
    19th century
  • Major Problems
  • Provincial structure, unruly army (Janissaries)
  • Economic threat from European industrialization
    as well as colonial interests
  • Some Ottoman provinces resist colonization by
    Europeans.
  • Egypt is critical to Englands overseas trade.
  • Egypt is semi-autonomous, under governer Muhammad
    Ali (after napoleon)

16
Selim III
Tried to initiate reforms of Ottoman
military Killed in coup detat in1806.
17
Muhammad Ali
Born Macedonia, 1769 Led Albanian contingent
against Napoleon 1799 Granted title of Pasha
and made governor of Egypt 1805 Conquered
Sudan 1822-1823 Put down insurrection in Crete
1824 Conquered Ottoman provinces of Palestine,
Syria 1831 Treaty of London denies Ali rule
over Levant but forces emperor to recognize Alis
dynastic rule over Egypt Died 1849
18
Mahmud II
Born 1785 Became Sultan 1808 Abolished
Jannisaries 1826 Initiated Tanzimat reforms
1839 Died 1839
19
Young Turks
  • Calls for a new Ottoman constitution
  • 1876 radicals seize power and force Sultan Abdul
    Hamid II to grant constitution
  • Hamid then suspended the constitution and ruled
    without parliament
  • Committee/Society of Union and Progress formed in
    1889
  • Wanted restoration of constitutional rule

20
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21
Asia in 1914
22
I
Europe in 1914 at the outbreak of war
23
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24
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25
  • Russia at the end of the 19th century
  • Autocratic, antiquated military,
    under-industrialized.
  • Sergei Witte urged Nicholas II to accelerate
    industry, refused.
  • 1905 Russo-Japanese War, navy destroyed
  • Shocking blow the last war had been the
    Napoleonic, which the Russians won against Nap.
  • Little social reform since liberation of serfs
    1861
  • No constitution under Nicholas II
  • Finally forced to call the Duma in 1905, disbands
    shortly thereafter (aborted revolution)

26
Romanov Dynasty
  • Russia enters WW I as part of the Triple Entente
    (England, Russia, France) against Germany, Italy
    and Austro-Hungary
  • After 3 years and massive destruction, Bolshevik
    Revolution breaks out at home Russia forced to
    withdraw.
  • Romanov family exiled, later killed.

27
Bolsheviks come to power
28
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gets Russia out of the
    war tremendous losses to Russia.
  • Most of western lands that were industrialized,
    natural resources, agricultural lands.

29
Western Front WW I
  • War continues on western front for another year.
  • Trench Warfare
  • Technology of war
  • Tremendous losses to all
  • Attrition
  • Collapse in 1918, Treaty of Versailles
  • Act 231 War Guilt Clause to Germany
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