OzPoz Project Overview - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – OzPoz Project Overview PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 363de-NzE1M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

OzPoz Project Overview

Description:

Exploration of Mars. 2003 Nozomi arrival. 2004 Mars Exploration Rovers 1 & 2 ... 2003 Mars Express (Beagle 2) Exploration of Mars. 2009 Smart Lander, Long Range Rover ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:150
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 52
Provided by: Chris560
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: OzPoz Project Overview


1
The Australian Centre for Space Photonics
Andrew McGrath, Joss Hawthorn, Jeremy Bailey
Presentation to the NSSA, October 2003
2
Mars and the Anglo-Australian Observatory
Andrew McGrath, Joss Hawthorn, Jeremy Bailey
Presentation to the NSSA, October 2003
3
The Australian Centre for Space Photonics
  • 2002 Proposal to the ARC for a Centre of
    Excellence
  • Strong technical basis
  • Strong reasons for an Australian involvement
  • Withdrew from ARC proposal on applicability
    issues
  • Continuing work maintaining vision following
    different route to involvement

4
Mars
  • Diameter 6790 km
  • Rotation period 24.6229 hours
  • Polar inclination 23.98
  • Mass 0.1074 Earth masses
  • Escape velocity 5030 ms-1
  • Surface gravity 3.73 ms-2
  • Albedo 0.16
  • Atmosphere 95 CO2, 3 N2
  • Surface pressure 10 hPa
  • Surface temperature 130K 300K
  • Solar orbit diameter 1.4 AU
  • Distance from Earth 50Mkm to 400Mkm

5
History
  • Long term interest
  • Mythological
  • Scientific
  • Similarity to Earth

6
History
Percival Lowell, 1906
7
History
8
History
9
Mars
  • Recent opposition only 55 million km Earth to
    Mars
  • AAO observations using UKIRT in Hawaii, August
    2003 obtained spectral images in the NIR

10
Long slit spectroscopy
11
Long slit spectroscopy
12
Long slit spectroscopy
13
Long slit spectroscopy
14
Spectrographic analysis
Spectrographic slit ensemble Viking imagery 2.2
to 2.3µm
15
Spectrographic analysis
Raw spectrum of part of the Martian disk
16
Spectrographic analysis
Hellas spectral data relative to dataset
centre - spectral features highlighted
17
Spectrographic analysis
CO2 absorption retrieved MOLA topography from
AAO/UKIRT data
18
Spectrographic analysis
  • Atmosphere
  • Geology
  • Astrobiology

But theres a pretty hard limit to what can be
done from Earth. We need to go there.
19
Exploration of Mars

1960 Two Soviet flyby attempts
  • 1962 Two more Soviet flyby attempts, Mars 1
    within 190,000 km
  • 1964 Mariner 3, Zond 2
  • 1965 Mariner 4 (first flyby images), Zond 3
  • 1969 Mariners 6 and 7
  • 1971 Mariners 8 and 9
  • 1971 Kosmos 419, Mars 2 3 (first landers)
  • 1973 Mars 4, 5, 6 7
  • 1975 Viking 1, 1976 Viking 2

20
Exploration of Mars

1988 Phobos 1 and 2
  • 1992 Mars Observer
  • 1996 Mars 96
  • 1997 Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor
  • 1998 Nozomi launch
  • 1999 Climate Orbiter, Polar Lander and Deep Space
    2
  • 2001 Mars Odyssey

21
Exploration of Mars

2003 Mars Express (Beagle 2)
  • 2003 Nozomi arrival
  • 2004 Mars Exploration Rovers 1 2
  • 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
  • 2005 Rosetta flyby
  • 2007 Mobile Scientific Laboratory
  • 2007 Netlanders-07
  • 2007 Remote Sensing Orbiter

22
Exploration of Mars

2007 Small Scout Missions (Phoenix)
  • 2009 Smart Lander, Long Range Rover
  • 2009 Mars 2009 Communications Satellite
  • 2009 Netlanders-09
  • 2009 ExoMars-09
  • 2014 Mars 2014 (possible sample return)
  • 2015 Possible ESA manned mission
  • 2016 Mars 2016 (possible sample return)
  • 2019 Possible NASA manned mission

23
ExoMars-09
  • ESA exobiology mission scheduled to land a 220kg
    rover in 2009
  • Pasteur instrument package
  • Panoramic camera
  • Drill for sample acquistion (depth 1.5m)
  • Optical colour microscope
  • Subsurface electromagnetic sounder
  • Laser plasma spectrometer
  • Gas chromatograph
  • Mass spectrometer

24
ExoMars-09
  • 180-day lifetime on surface
  • Search/sample/process cycle 6 days

25
ExoMars-09
  • Opportunity for Australian involvement
  • ESA call to international community for
    interested parties to suggest instrumentation or
    other project support (due 14-May-03)
  • Large consortium with ACA and AAO as major
    partners submitted a proposal

26
ExoMars-09
  • Prospector proposal
  • Based on ACA expertise in most closely related
    search fields detection of evidence of 3-4 Gyr
    old microbial life (Western Australia)
  • Two-fold involvement
  • Search strategy
  • Instrument proposal

27
ExoMars-09
  • Prospector instrument
  • A NIR spectrometer boresighted to the stereo
    PanCam
  • Allows mineralogical assessment of potential
    drill/sample targets before the full investment
    of the expensive sample cycle

28
ExoMars-09
29
ExoMars-09
30
Communications -the bottleneck
  • Increasing number of missions
  • Evolution towards more data-intensive
    instrumentation
  • Increasing spacecraft data storage capacity
  • Greater reliance on public support for funding
    greater sense of presence requires greater data
    rates

31
Communications -the bottleneck
  • Radio (microwave) links, spacecraft to Earth
  • Newer philosophy - communications relay (Mars
    Odyssey, MGS)
  • Sensible network topology
  • 25-W X-band (Ka-band experimental) lt100 kbps
    downlink

32
(No Transcript)
33
Communications Bottleneck
  • Current missions capable of collecting much more
    data than downlink capabilities (2000!)
  • Currently planned missions make the problem 10x
    worse
  • Future missions likely to collect ever-greater
    volumes of data

34
(No Transcript)
35
Communications Bottleneck
  • Increasing downlink rates critical to continued
    investment in planetary exploration

36
Communications Energy Budget
Theoretical cost proportional to transmitting
wavelength X-band transmitter ? 40 mm Laser
transmitter ? 0.5-1.5 ?m Assuming similar
aperture sizes and efficiencies, optical wins
over microwave by gt 3 orders of magnitude
37
Long-term Solution
  • Optical communications networks

38
Long-term Solution
  • Optical communications networks
  • Advantages over radio
  • Higher modulation rates
  • More directed energy
  • Analagous to fibre optics vs. copper cables

39
Lasers in Space
  • Laser transmitter in Martian orbit with large
    aperture telescope

40
Lasers in Space
  • Laser transmitter in Martian orbit with large
    aperture telescope
  • Receiving telescope on or near Earth
  • Preliminary investigations suggest 100Mbps
    achievable on 10 to 20 year timescale
  • Enabling technologies require accelerated
    development

41
(No Transcript)
42
Lasers in Space - challenges
  • Immature technology cf. radio
  • Cloud and other weather
  • Pointing and tracking
  • Signal acquisition
  • Reliability

43
Lasers in Space - challenges
  • Will not replace radio for all applications
  • Fast-manoeuvring spacecraft
  • Cheap, highly independent spacecraft
  • Emergency operations
  • Entry/descent/landing comms
  • Dusty/thick atmosphere environments

44
Key Technologies
  • Suitable lasers
  • Telescope tracking and guiding
  • Optical detectors
  • Cost-effective large-aperture telescopes
  • Atmospheric properties
  • Space-borne telescopes

45
NASA approach today
  • Pursuing two approaches
  • Enhanced RF communications
  • Optical communications

46
Optical spacecraft comms
  • ESA have already run intersatellite test
  • NASA/JPL and Japan presently researching the
    concept and expect space-ground communications
    tests in the near future

47
NASA optical comms plans
  • Operational demonstration on Mars Telecom Orbiter
    (2009)
  • 5W average power (300W peak)
  • 1064µm wavelength (NIR)
  • 300mm aperture transmitter
  • 3 10 Mbps
  • 3-9 ? 8-10m receiving telescopes

48
AAO input
  • Proposed NASA parameters near-identical to AAO
    suggestions
  • AAO discussions with NASA to encourage change in
    wavelength (to 532nm)
  • Go for Green!

49
AAO input 532 vs. 1064nm
  • Achieve change with frequency doubler cell (can
    conceivably switch in out)
  • Better pointing (so higher power density, less
    spill) ?
  • Worse detector efficiency ?
  • Visible (marginally by eye, certainly by amateur
    astronomers) public relations coup comparable
    to USSR Sputnik
  • Suggestion favourably received by NASA and under
    serious consideration

50
An Australian Role
  • Australian organisations have unique capabilities
    in the key technologies required for deep space
    optical communications links
  • Existing DSN involvement
  • High-power, high beam quality lasers
  • Holographic correction of large telescopes
  • Telescope-based instrumentation
  • Telescope tracking and guiding

51
Australian involvement in missions to Mars
  • Take advantage of unique Australian capabilities
  • Australian technology critical to deep space
    missions
  • Continued important role in space

FOR MORE INFO...
http//www.aao.gov.au/lasers
About PowerShow.com