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Introduction to Anthropology

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Appearing in Asia and South East Asia (1st major migration) (Homoerectus- 5 feet tall) ... Homo sapiens spread overtaking Homo erectus. 50,000 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Anthropology


1
Introduction to Anthropology
  • Ms. Hernandez
  • Period 2

2
Human Evolution Timeline
  • 2.5 million years ago
  • First man (Homohabilis) used stone tools
  • 2 million years ago
  • Humans control fire
  • 1.7 million years ago
  • Appearing in Asia and South East Asia (1st major
    migration) (Homoerectus- 5 feet tall)
  • .5 million years ago
  • Entering Europe (adapting to colder weather)

3
Human Evolution Timeline
  • 200,00 years ago
  • Homo sapiens in Europe adapt to modern man
  • 100,000
  • Homo sapiens spread overtaking Homo erectus
  • 50,000
  • Homo sapiens in Europe start having cultural
    changes overtake physical. (complex use of
    symbols/ language)
  • 15,000
  • Homo sapiens in North America

4
Human Evolution Timeline
  • 10,000
  • earliest records of farming changing from
    scavengers to producers (settlements begin)
  • 6,000
  • writing/ city-states/ pyramids kings
  • 3,000
  • iron resources used, nation like
  • 2,000
  • Roman and Chinese Empire

5
What is Anthropology?
6
Anthropology
  • Systematic way of understanding the human
    experience and human diversity
  • Comprehensive study of past and present human
    population and origin
  • Cross cultural comparison of all societies
  • Ancient vs. Modern
  • Small vs. Large
  • Simple vs. Complex

7
Basic Definition
  • Study of humankind over time and space

8
What makes Anthropology distinctive?
  • Study all varieties of people
  • Study humankind at all time periods
  • Study all aspects of humanity (religion,
    economics, food preferences, art, ecology,
    gender, race, etc.)
  • Accept the unity of humanity. We are ALL similar
    somehow.

9
Characteristics of Anthropology
  • Holistic assumption that any aspect of a culture
    is integrated with other aspects, so that no
    dimension of culture can be understood in
    isolation
  • Bio-cultural try to understand humans from a
    biological and cultural existence- the PHYSICAL
    and the SOCIAL

10
Ethnocentrism versus Cultural Relativism
  • Perception of reality socially and
    psychologically conditioned by culture

11
Ethnocentrism
  • Ethnocentrism attitude or opinion that the
    morals, values, and customs of ones own culture
    are superior to those of other people
  • Attitude that a societys customs and ideas can
    be judged within the context of ones own culture

12
Cultural Relativism
  • Cultural Relativism the attitude that a
    societys customs and ideas should be viewed
    within the context of that societys ideals and
    values

13
So much to cover! What to do? What to do?
  • Subfields of Anthropology

14
Two Broad Classifications
  • Biological/ Physical Anthropology study of human
    biological variation and the emergence and
    evolution of the human species
  • Cultural Anthropology study of recent and past
    societies

15
Biological/ Physical Anthropology
16
Biological/ Physical Anthropology
  • Human paleontology study of fossils and human
    evolution

17
Biological/ Physical Anthropology
  • Primatology study of primates (primarily for
    purpose of clarifying evolutionary relationships)

18
Biological/ Physical Anthropology
  • Population Genetics study of DNA structure and
    the flow of genes amongst civilizations across
    time and space

19
Cultural Anthropology
20
Cultural Anthropology
  • Archaeology investigation of past cultures
    through excavation of material remains

21
Cultural Anthropology
  • Anthropological Linguistics focus on the
    interrelationships between language and other
    aspects of a peoples culture
  • Study of language
  • How are languages different and/or similar?
  • How has language evolved?
  • How language is used socially?

22
Cultural Anthropology
  • Ethnology study of human cultures from a
    comparative perspective (study of how and why
    recent cultures differ and are similar)

23
Applied Anthropology
  • Concerned with applying information collected/
    perspectives/ theories/ methods to contemporary
    social problems and conditions (i.e., Public
    Health, Family Planning, World Bank)

24
Medical Anthropology
  • Falls under BOTH biological and cultural
    anthropological domains
  • Biological study of disease variation across
    populations
  • Cultural study of cultural interpretation of
    disease (How humans react to their own sickness)

25
What is Culture?
26
What is Culture?
  • Culture set of learned behaviors, beliefs,
    attitudes, values, and ideals that are shared by
    a particular society

27
Major Cultural Characteristics
  • Learned
  • Shared
  • Symbolic

28
Culture is Learned
  • Learned culture is learned through other members
    of group
  • Socialization process internalizing meanings and
    symbols used to interact and express thought
  • Learned by language, objects, reactions, etc.

29
Culture is Shared
  • Shared through social interactions of groups-
    learn from each other
  • Cooperative enterprise

30
Culture is Symbolic
  • Symbolic meaning given to objects, events, and
    concepts
  • Holidays (Halloween)
  • Rituals (Sweet Sixteen)
  • Behaviors (Sporting events)
  • Objects (Computer)
  • Food (Birthday cake)

31
What is Cultural Anthropology?
32
Cultural Anthropology
  • Study of recent/ contemporary societies and
    cultures in order to understand cultural
    diversity
  • Explain behavioral variation within a culture and
    across cultures
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