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AMNIOTES

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4. Breeding program at Saint Louis Zoo. LEPIDOSAURIA ... Popular in Pet and Zoo Trades. Both Endangered by Over collection. Eat Mostly Vertebrates ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AMNIOTES


1
AMNIOTES
Probably Also Evolved From Lepidospondyl or
Temnospondyl Separation from Lissamphibian prob
ably 340 MYA Includes Following Groups Reptil
es Birds Mammals Monophyly Supported By Ex
traembryonic Membranes Skeletal Characters Singl
e Penis

2
Most Temnospondys
Lissamphibia
Amniotes
3
What is a Reptile
Iguanas, Geckos,Snakes
Skinks, Glass Lizards
Birds and Dinos and Crocs
Tuatara
Turtles and Anapsids
Modern Mammals and Kin
Amphibian incl Rep Ancestors
4
What is a Reptile
Iguanas, Geckos,Snakes
Skinks, Glass Lizards
Birds and Dinos and Crocs
Tuatara
Turtles and Anapsids
Modern Mammals and Kin
Modern Amphibians
5
Origin and Relationships of Modern Reptiles
Modern Reptiles Birds/Crocs (By Craggy)
Mammals)
Modern Amphibians
Lungfish
Coelocanths
Ray-finned Fish
6
(No Transcript)
7
MODERN REPTILES
1. Paraphyletic if birds are excluded
2. United by ecology (and sympleisiomorphies)
a. exothermic b. amniotic eggs c. left ove
rs of Mesozoic 3. Three major groups a. Test
udines--Turtles b. CrocodiliansBirds c. Lep
idosaura 1) Rynochoccephalia-- Tuatara 2) S
quamata--Lizards and Snakes 4. About 15,800 sp
ecies world-wide (includes 8700 birds)
8
TESTUDINES--TURTLES
1. Morphology a. Shell b. Anapsid skull
c. Keratinous beak d. Long-lived e. Former
commercial importance is reduced
1)Turtle soup 2) Fresh meat on ships 3)
Tortoise shell as a material 2. Cosmopolitan in
wet areas 3. Extensive radiation in Mesozoic
4. 260 species world-wide 5. Relationsh
ip to other reptiles is problematic
9
ChelydridaeSnapping Turtles
3 Monotypic Genera Asia and North America Si
t and Weight Predators of Slow Water
Economically Important Game Animal Chelydra s
erpentina Macroclemys temminckii
10
EmyidaeBasking Turtles
3 12 Genera, 40 Species Mostly N/A (except Trac
hemys) Mostly Freshwater Omnivores Some Terr
estrial (Terrapene) Economically Important Game
/Pet Animal Chrysomys picta
11
TETUDINIDAE Tortoises
11 Genera 40 Species Southern US to SA, Souther
n Eurasia Africa Truly Terrestrial High Domed
Shells Gravipodal Legs Body Pulls Into Shell 2
Gopherus in US are on Endangered Species List
12
TRIONYCHIDAE Softshell Turtles
14 Genera 27 Species NA, Sub-Saharan Africa, Ch
ina, Japan, SE Asia Highly Aquatic Little Ossif
ication of Shells Webbed Feet Very Long Necks F
lat Bodies 2 Apalone spinifer A. mutica Remain
an Important Food Item
13
KINOSTERNIDAE Mud Musk Turtles
3 Genera 22 Species Eastern NA through SA Terr
estrial Within Water? Fairly Small (Local Ones)
Walk on Bottom Hinged Shells Allow Complete Retra
ction Able to Move Between Ephemeral Pools Relea
se Musk as a Defense Kinosternon Sternothorus
14
CHELONIDAE DERMOCHELYIDAE Sea Turtles
5 Genera 6 Species Monotypic
Temperate and Tropical Water Worldwide
Large Size 70-250cm Leatherbacks are Largest Leg
s modified for swimming Come ashore only to lay e
ggs Most severely reduced in numbers Fresh Meat
Eggs Uses of Shells Disturbance of Eggs Incre
ase in Predation on Beaches Floating Trash (Nets
and Bags) Flagship Species For Beaches
15
CHELIDAE Snake-necked Turtles
11 Genera 50 Species South America, Australia,
New Guinea Long-necked Turtles of Slow Water Eco
logical Equivalents of Apalone, Chelydra
Chelodina rugosa lays eggs underwater
16
Undiscussed Families
Pelomedusidae 2 Genera 18 Species, Africa Simi
lar to Kinosternidae Podocnemidae Flat Shells a
nd Active Swimmers 3 Genera 8 Species Bataguri
dae 23 Genera, 65 Species Mostly Old World, One
in Central America Ecological Equivalents of Emy
idae Dermatemydidae--1 Species in S Mexico Caret
tochelyidae-- 1 Species in New Guinea
17
LEPIDOSAURIA
I. Rynchocephalia--Sphenodon--Tuatara
1. Separated by a. Heterodont dentition b.
Teeth on palentine bone c. Externally resembl
e iguanas 2. 2 Species 3. Restricted to N
ew Zealand 4. Breeding program at Saint Louis
Zoo
18
LEPIDOSAURIA
II. SquamataSnakes, Lizards, Amphisbeanians
1. Highly Kinetic Skulls (Parts Move) 2. Hemi
penes Shed Skin All at Once Dominant Desert Life
Form Dominant Fossorial Vertebrate Limb Reducti
on is Common Snakes Lizards Amphisbeanians
19
MOST RECENT PHYLOGENETIC HYPOTHESIS
Skinks
Geckos Amphisbaenia
Snakes
Tuatara
Iguana
20
SCINCIDAE Skinks
115 Genera 1260 Species Nearly Cosmopolitan De
rmal Bones--Amour Plate Many Are Terrestrial Inse
ctivores Some Similar to Snakes Most are Robust
Limbed Mostly Diurnal 2 Eumeces (fasciatus and l
aticeps) Adult vs Juvenile Color Tail Autonomy
21
IGUANIDAE Iguanas
8 Genera 34 Species Several Families Broken Out
Crotophytidae--Collard Lizards Phrynosomatidae-
-Spiny Lizards Sceloporus, Uta, Phrynostoma Dese
rt NA Lizards Polychrotidae American Chamelions-
-Anolis The generalized Moderate-sized Lizard
22
GEKKONIDAE Geckos
97 Genera 1050 Species Gondewanna Land Nearby
parts of Asia North America Most Lizards in the
Tropics Mostly Arboreal Saxicolous Insectivores
Unique Toe Pads--Can Climb Glass Popular in Pet
and Zoo Trades Commonly Introduced to NA
23
TEIIDAE Racerunners
9 Genera 125 Species NS America Introduced in
Spain Active Diurnal Predators Many are Parthen
ogenic Asexual Reproduction Females Mate with Ou
tside Male Genes From Sperm Not Incorporated Spe
ciation by Hybridization Cnemidophorus
24
ANGUIDAE Glass Lizards
13 Genera 110 Species NA, SA, Eurasia, Africa
Readily Autotomize Tail Limb Reduction is Common
Widespread, but Rare in NA Ophisaurus
25
HELODERMATIDAE Venomous Lizards
1 Genus 2 Species SW USA to Guatemala Venomous
Saliva Must Chew to Envenomate Mexican Beaded L
izard Gila Monster Popular in Pet and Zoo Trades
Both Endangered by Over collection Eat Mostly V
ertebrates
26
CHAMAELEONIDAE Chameleons
6 Genera 130 Species Mostly Madagascar, Africa,
Mideast, India, Sri Lanka Introduced in Spain M
ostly Arboreal Insectivores Pincher-like Hands (Z
ygodactylus--fused fingers) Long Tails Independe
nt Moving Eyes Long, Long Tongues Some Ground-dw
elling Forms (Pigmy) Popular in Pet and Zoo Trade
s
27
Undiscussed Families
Agamidae 45 Genera 380 Species, Africa, S Asia
, Australia Dibamidae--Small Burrowing Lizards, R
educed Limbs 2 Genera 10 Species Gynophthalmid
ae 35 Genera, 150 Species, South America Lacert
idae--1 Species in S Mexico 25 Genera 250 Species
, Mostly African Xantusiidae-- 3 Genera 18 Spec
ies, Central America Cordylidae--4 Genera, 40 Spe
cies--Africa Xenosauridae--1 Genus, 6 Species Sh
inisauridae--Monotypic Varanidae--1 Genus, 40 Spe
cies Lanthanotidae--Monotypic
28
AMPHISBAENIA
Amphisbaenidae-- 19 Genera 135 Species West In
dies, SA, Sub-Saharan Africa Rhineuridae--Rhineur
a floridana Trogonophidae 4 Genera 6 Species
North Africa and Middle East Bipedidae 1 Genus
3 Species, Baja California Unusual Snake-Like Li
zards All but Bipes are legless Elongate Multip
le Annulations Right Lung Reduced Skin Moves Ind
ependent of Trunk Tails Do Not Regenerate
29
Remember Snakes Are Just Lizards
No Legs (almost) Long Vertebral Columns (120 Bef
ore Tail) No Eye Lids Focus By Moving Lens In an
d Out Reduced Left. Lung No External Ears Conti
nued Skull Reduction Probably Evolved From Burrow
er Heat Sensing Pits Common 2500 Species
30
COLUBRIDAE Normal Snakes
320 Genera 1800 Species Cosmopolitan Trashcan
Taxon Many Other Families Are Being Split Off M
ost Common Snakes Sensu strictu 150 Genera, 700
Species Cosmopolitan Coluber Masticophis Tanti
lla Elaphe Lampropeltis Opheodrys Pituphis St
ill a Trashcan
31
NATRICIDAE Water Snakes
40 Genera 210 Species Holoarctic, Africa, Austr
alia, India Mostly Aquatic or Semiaquatic Natrix
Nerodia Thamnophis Storeria Regina Virginia
NA Versions are Temperamental Viviparous Many
Actually Do Well With Settlement
Some Eurasian Forms Are Truly Terrestrial
32
XENODONTIDAE Rear-Fanged Snakes
65 Genera 350 Species Mostly South America Nor
th American Forms Are a Problem
Diadophis Ring-necked Snakes Extirpated in India
napolis Masticophis Worm Snakes Heterodon Spe
cialized Toad Eaters Upturned Snout Scale Rear F
anged Defense Displays
33
LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE Blind Snakes
2 Genera 90 Species Africa, Mideast, SA, SW USA
Small Burrowing Snakes Some Populations in Barn
Owl Nests Mostly Myrmecophagus Leptotyphlops d
ulcis and humilis Have Broad Diets
34
VIPERIDAE Vipers
20-27 Genera 228 Species NSA, Africa, Eurasia
US Species are in Crotalinae (Pit
Vipers) Mostly Ambush Predators Rattlesnakes Co
ttonmouths Copperheads Old-World Vipers Most B
ites Are to Academics Amateurs
Venom is Mostly Hemolytic and Cytolytic
Causes Massive Tissue Damage Most NA Species Are
Not Fatal
35
ELAPIDAE Cobra and Kin
62 Genera 300 Species Most of World Except Uppe
r Temperate Zones Mostly Active Predators Cobra
s Coral Snakes Sea Snakes Most Australian Snake
s Brown Snake a Major Pest Venoms Tend to be Ne
urotoxic Frequently Available in Pet Trades
36
BOIDAE Boas, Pythons, and Kin
20 Genera 74 Species All Tropical and Subtropic
al Regions Formerly in Several Families Wide Var
iety of Sizes Eunectes murimus 9m Python retic
ulus 9m Tree Boas Ground-Based Predators Popular in Pet and Zoo Tr
ades Leads to Frequent Introductions
37
Undiscussed Families
Anomalepididae 4 Genera 15 Species, SA small i
nsectivorous species Typhlopidae 6 Genera 200
Species, Gondwanal, Similar to Above
Anomochilidae 1 Genus, 2 Species--Malaysia
Aniliidae 1 Species in Amazonia
Uropeltidae Genera 55 Species India SE Asia
Xenopeltidae2 Species, India Loxocemidae 1 Spe
cies Central America Xenophidiidae 1 Genus, 2 Sp
ecies Malaysia Tropidophiidae 2 Genera, 31 Spe
cies Central SA Bolyeridae--1 Genus, 2 Species
1 Island in Indiana Ocean Arcochordidae--h1 Genu
s 3 Species Australasia Aractaspididae 1 Genu
s 18 Species Africa and Mideast
38
Crocodilians
1. Morphology a. 2 return to sprawling form
b. Large Elongate c. Specialized for Aquati
c Life d. Despite rarity remain commercially im
portant 2. Primarily Tropical and Subtropical
3. Extensive care of young 4. Very
extensive radiation in Triassic
a. Dinosaur Origins/Competition
b. Only surviving Archosaurs
c. Many Lifestyles 5. 22 species world-wide
39
ALLIGATORIDAE Alligators
3 Genera 8 Species NA and China Lower Teeth ar
e Not Visible Alligator mississippiensis Common
in SE US Once Endangered Now a Pest Important L
eather Source Important Meat Source Caimans--Com
mon Pets Dumped Pets Show Up Everywhere
40
CROCODYLIDAE Chameleons
2 Genera 13 Species Caribbean, Central SA, Af
rica, India, Asia, Australia Reputation for Man-E
ating
Deserved by Nile and Saltwater Crocs
41
GAVIALIDAE Gharrials
2 Monotypic Genera India to New Guinea Ichthyfag
ous
Feeding Style
42
MOST RECENT PHYLOGENETIC HYPOTHESIS
Crocodylidae
Gavialidae
Alligatoridae
Morphology Suggests A Close Relationship Between
Crocs and
Gators? How is This possible?
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