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The Crisis Over Slavery


On the eve of the Civil War, militant abolitionist John Brown and a few followers crept into a pro slavery settlement outside of Lawrence, Kansas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Crisis Over Slavery

The Crisis Over Slavery
  • 1848-1860
  • (Chapter 13)

  • 1848 U.S.-Mexican War over, and Treaty of
    Guadalupe-Hidalgo extended U. S. borders to the
    Pacific Coast
  • 1849-1859 California Gold Rush brought thousands
    of new migrants as well as immigrants to
  • Known as the Forty-Niners
  • 1850 California joined Union as a free state
    after controversy over issue of slavery
  • Controversy and debate over slavery became so
    important in Congress, that some compromise was
    needed to pacify southern slave states

Compromise of 1850
  • Southern slave states were enraged that
    California would join the Union as a free state,
    since the balance would be tipped in favor of the
    North in Congress
  • Many issues were addressed in the Compromise of
  • California was to join the Union as a free state
  • Territories of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and
    Nevada would decide to be free or slave states,
    when they joined the Union
  • Texas border issue was to be settled in exchange
    for 10,000,000 to Texas in exchange for the land
  • Washington D.C. would ban slave trade, but
    slavery was still legal in the district
  • 1852 Fugitive Slave Act passed with the idea of
    pacifying angry slave states about the now,
    majority free states in the Union

Fugitive Slave Act of 1852
  • A very controversial Act
  • Favored whites and was completely unfair to
    blacks, free or slave
  • It required citizens to assist in the recovery of
    fugitive slaves
  • It denied a fugitive's right to a jury trial
  • There would be more federal officials responsible
    for enforcing the law
  • Free blacks entering free states were rounded up
    and returned into slavery
  • Act resulted in many blacks fleeing to Canada
  • The Underground Railroad became very popular
  • Abolitionists of the North also felt that the Law
    was unfair, and were even more determined to
    remove slavery
  • Act brought slavery issue to the forefront and
    set the path to the Civil War

Regional Economies Conflicts
  • U.S. was going through rapid change in the
    mid-19th century
  • Lots of different people were living in the U.S.,
    and each region had its unique economy
  • Regional economies
  • California Gold
  • Midwest Food (Bread-basket of the Nation)
  • Northeast Textile Mills
  • South Cotton
  • These regional economies were being molded into a
    national economy with
  • Railroads
  • Factories
  • Farm Equipment

Territorial Expansion in the 19th C.
Native American Economies
  • The Five Southern Tribes (Creek, Choctaw,
    Chickasaw, Cherokee, Seminole) relocated to
    Oklahoma, struggle initially, but eventually set
    up schools, churches, and newspapers
  • Plains Indians (Sioux, Arapaho, Kiowa) use horses
    to carry on trade and daily life
  • U.S. signed 2 treaties with Plains Indians
  • Treaties were to assure settlers to move through
    area without being attacked, and to allow
    building roads and forts along the way towards
    the west coast, in exchange for food and supplies
  • Inconsiderate and selfish attitude towards
    Indians by white settlers

Conflicts in the Southwest
  • 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
  • Lots of territory gained from Mexico in
    U.S.-Mexican War
  • 1853 Gadsden Purchase added more land to U.S.
    territory, and ended U.S. continental expansion
  • Tejanos and Euro-Americans clash over land in
  • Tejano land titles were disregarded by U.S.
  • 1859 Cortinas Wars (led by Juan Cortina) broke
    out between Tejanos and the U.S.
  • Cortinas group lost and Cortina was imprisoned

Ethnic Economic Diversity in the Midwest
  • Main economy in the Midwest based on agriculture
  • Soon came to become the bread-basket of the
  • Upper Midwest (Northern Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
    Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota) known as the
    Yankee Strip Germans, Belgians, Swiss, and
  • Lower Midwest (southern Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
    had people who had moved from the South
  • People were mostly farmers, dependent on weather
    for their livelihood
  • Invention of machinery boosted grain production
  • John Deere invented steel plow
  • Cyrus McCormicks horse-drawn reaper

Regional Economies of the South
  • Four groups of people living in the South Rich
    planters Slaves Poor, white, tenant farmers
    Yeoman farmers
  • Slavery discouraged immigrants
  • Ethnic diversity in Southern Coastal Cities

Free Labor Ideology of the North
  • Free Labor Ideology was direct contrast to slave
  • Followed in North-east and Mid-Atlantic States by
  • Farmers believed in self-reliance, and were not
    dependent on answering to anyone but himself
  • By 1850s this changed with increased competition
    from the Midwest, and poor growing conditions
  • Rural farmers moved to urban areas to work in
    textile and shoe-making factories
  • They joined all groups of people in the work
  • Indentured servitude/apprenticeship became common
  • Wage Slavery became rampant
  • Each region dependant on another for economic
    growth of their local area

Individual vs. Group Identity
  • People of different backgrounds were treated
  • Nationality, religion skin color were common
    biases in society
  • Race decided what jobs they held
  • Many held an optimistic view of Individualism,
    which in reality, did not do much for most people

Racial tendencies
  • Ideas of racial inferiority barred people from
    rights of citizenship, landownership and better
  • Texas Anglo laws facilitated the seizure of land
    by U.S. law enforcement agents and the courts
  • California U.S. officials justified exclusion of
    blacks, Indians, Chinese, and Mexicans from
    citizenship rights
  • Patterns of work CAChinese laundries and
    domestic servants TX Mexican cowboys,
    freighters MA African Americans confined to
    kitchens, and menial jobs
  • Chinese, African-American, and Mexican people
    were pigeon-holed as less intelligent,
    promiscuous, and slier than people of white

A Teeming Nation
  • Transcendentalism and its followers became
    popular in the 1850
  • Thoreau, Emerson, Melville, Whitman and their
    writings encouraged people to connect to the
    external world as well as their inner spirit, in
    order to gain personal growth
  • Thoreau supported abolition of slavery
  • Thoreau criticized American materialism and
    encouraged people to connect with nature and her
  • Walt Whitman believed in individualism

Challenges to Individualism
  • Collective Identities
  • Native Americans celebrated kinship and village
    life over individual
  • African Americans Northern and Southern blacks
    destiny linked joined mutual-aid societies to
    help people of their kind
  • Women compared their plight to slaves
  • Self-sacrifice, family obligations, pride in
    being nurturer, and loving wife
  • Seneca Falls Convention (1848) encouraged women
    to look upon themselves as equal to men and get
    same privileges as men

Party System in Disarray
  • New party now in existence called Free-Soil Party
  • Free-Soilers favored Wilmot Proviso of 1846
  • Wilmot Proviso Amendment added to a
    congressional appropriations bill, prohibiting
    slavery for ever existing in any territories
    acquired from Mexico in the U.S.-Mexican War
  • Proviso passes in House, fails in Senate
  • Democrats and Whigs followed a policy of
    avoidance of any issue that proved controversial

Election of 1848
  • Whig Candidate Zachary Taylor
  • Taylor won election and became President
  • Taylor died after a year and a half in office,
    and replaced by VP, Millard Fillmore
  • Democrat Nominee Lewis Cass
  • Cass was the father of popular sovereignty
  • Popular Sovereignty The idea that individual
    territories applying for statehood should decide
    the issue of slavery for themselves idea
    supported by many antislavery forces
  • Free Soil Party nominee Martin Van Buren

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Compromise of 1850
  • California entered the Union as a free state
  • Territorial governments were organized in New
    Mexico and Utah to apply the principle of popular
  • The slave trade was abolished in the District of
  • A new Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
  • Taylors death permits passage of slightly
    altered Compromise as separate measures

Compromise of 1850
Consequences of Compromise
  • Political alignment along party lines grew
  • Previously unheard, Americans were now discussing
    ideals of higher law than the Constitution
  • Abolitionists stepped up work on the Underground
    Railroad and several states prohibited elected
    officials and organizations from participation in
    slave hunting

The Party System in Crisis
  • Parties need new issues after 1850
  • Democrats succeed
  • claim credit for the nation's prosperity
  • promise to defend the Compromise of 1850
  • Whigs fail, become internally divided
  • 1852--Whig Winfield Scott loses a landslide to
    Democrat Franklin Pierce

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The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
  • 1854 Stephen Douglas introduces Kansas-Nebraska
    bill organizing the Nebraska Territory which
    included Kansas
  • apply popular sovereignty to Kansas, Nebraska
  • repeal Missouri Compromise line
  • Southerners opposed the organization of the
    territory unless slavery was permitted Act passes
    on sectional vote
  • Northerners outraged
  • Issue inflamed all sides of the slavery issue,
    dragging the country closer to war

The Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
  • Whig indecision causes party to disintegrate
  • Mass defection among Northern Democrats
  • Anti-Nebraska candidates sweep North in 1854
    congressional elections
  • Democrats become sole Southern party
  • President Pierces effort to acquire Cuba
    provokes antislavery firestorm

The Know Nothings
  • Nativist political action party comprised mostly
    of former Whigs who were dedicated to staunching
    the tide of foreign immigrants to the United
  • Know-Nothings (American Party) appeals to
    anti-Catholic sentiment
  • If asked about their affiliation with the group,
    members were told to respond, I Know Nothing.
  • 1854 American party surges
  • By 1856 Know-Nothings collapse
  • Probable cause no response to slavery

Kansas and the Rise of the Republicans
  • Republican party unites former Whigs,
    Know-Nothings, Free-Soilers, Democrats
  • Appeals to Northern sectional sympathies
  • Defends West for white, small farmers
  • Bleeding Kansas helps Republicans
  • struggle among abolitionists, proslavery forces
    for control of Kansas territory
  • Republicans use conflict to appeal for voters

Bleeding Kansas
  • On the eve of the Civil War, militant
    abolitionist John Brown and a few followers crept
    into a pro slavery settlement outside of
    Lawrence, Kansas
  • They dragged five men out of their homes and
    hacked them to death with swords
  • This act led to a series of violence in the
    divided territory

Bleeding Kansas
Sectional Division in the Election of 1856
  • Republican John C. Frémont seeks votes only in
    free states
  • Know-Nothing Millard Fillmore champions sectional
  • Democrat James Buchanan defends the Compromise of
    1850, wins election
  • Republicans make clear gains in North
  • Sectional quarrel becomes virtually
    irreconcilable under Buchanan
  • Growing sense of deep cultural differences,
    opposing interests between North and South

Cultural Sectionalism
  • Major Protestant denominations divide into
    northern and southern entities over slavery
  • Southern literature romanticizes plantation life
    (George Fitzhugh)
  • South seeks intellectual, economic independence
  • Northern intellectuals condemn slavery
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin an immense success in North

The Dred Scott Case
  • Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) Supreme Court
    decision regarding the claims of freedom of a
    slave that had been transported into a free state
  • Court refuses narrow determination of case
  • Major arguments
  • Scott has no right to sue because neither he nor
    any other black, slave or free, was a citizen
  • Congress has no authority to prohibit slavery in
    territories, Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
  • Ruling strengthens Republicans

The Lecompton Controversy
  • 1857 rigged Lecompton convention drafts
    constitution to make Kansas a slave state
  • The pro-slavery Lecompton constitution was
    created without a mandate from majority of
    settlers of Kansas it led to an uncertain status
    for Kansas and divided the Democrats further
  • House defeats attempt by Buchanan, Southerners to
    admit Kansas
  • Lecompton constitution referred back
  • People of Kansas repudiate
  • Stephen Douglas splits Democrats in break with
    Buchanan over Lecompton

Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858
  • The Lincoln-Douglas debates held in Illinois
    Lincolns persuasive debates were regarding
  • Debates were to decide who would win the Illinois
    seat in the U.S. Senate
  • Lincoln
  • decries Southern plot to extend slavery
  • promises to work for slaverys extinction
  • casts slavery as a moral problem
  • defends white supremacy in response to Douglas
  • Stephen Douglas accuses Lincoln of favoring
  • Lincoln loses election, gains national reputation

Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858
  • Douglas I care more for the great principle of
    self-government, the right of the people to rule,
    than I do for all the negroes in Christendom.
  • Lincoln …my wish is that the spread of
    slavery may be arrested, and that it may be
    placed where the public mind shall rest in the
    belief that it is in the course of ultimate

Harpers Ferry
  • October, 1859 John Brown raids Harpers Ferry
  • Still on the lose after the Kansas massacre, John
    Brown hoped to provoke a general uprising of
    eastern slaves by attacking the federal arsenal
    at Harpers Ferry, Virginia
  • Brown was captured, tried, executed, and
    eventually became a martyr for the abolitionist/
    Unionist cause

Election of 1860
  • Democrats Party splits
  • Northern Democrat, Stephen Douglas
  • Southern Democrat, John Breckenridge
  • Constitutional Union Party Candidate John Bell
    who promises compromise between North and South
  • Republicans Abraham Lincoln nominated
  • home state of Illinois crucial to election
  • seen as moderate
  • Platform to widen partys appeal
  • high tariffs for industry
  • free homesteads for small farmers
  • government aid for internal improvements
  • Lincoln wins by carrying North
  • Republic of equal rights vs. the Southern way of

Election of 1860
The South's Crisis of Fear
  • Republicans seen as radical abolitionists
  • Southerners convinced they must secede on
    election of Republican president
  • On December 20, 1860, South Carolina seceded form
    the Union by February, six other Deep South
    states had followed her lead
  • A week later a delegation met in Montgomery,
    Alabama to create the Confederacy
  • On April 12, shelling of Fort Sumter signaled the
    start of the American Civil War

  • Rift between North and South widens
  • Major issue SLAVERY
  • Republican Party brought hope of removal of
    slavery from U.S., to blacks as well as
    abolitionists in the North
  • Southern plantation owners were determined to
    preserve institution of slavery as a southern
    way of life, even if it meant going to war
  • Foundation laid for outbreak of Civil War