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Legumes

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Queen of Forages cool season legume, erect, leafy, deep tap root drought tolerant ... Hay, graze, silage good for dairy, sheep and horses ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Legumes


1
Legumes
  • Forage Crops 4310

2
Annual Lespedeza (Korean, Lespedeza stipulacea)
  • Annual, fine-stemmed, leafy, shallow taproot,
    pink flower
  • Zone BCD
  • Pasture, hay, erosion
  • Excellent late summer pasture
  • Feb and March seeding
  • Fertilization generally not needed
  • Pests several listed, but not generally a
    problem

3
Kudzu
  • Introduced widely as erosion control, but now
    mostly volunteer
  • Invasive, low fertility
  • Does not stand grazing pressure
  • Warm season perennial

4
Peanut
  • Perennial and Annual (perennial further south
    zone A)
  • Perennial spread by rhizomes, long-lived
  • High nutrient quality with low fertility input
  • Rotational stocking best for grazing
  • 2-3 hay cuttings per year

5
Sericea Lespedeza
  • Introduced as multi-use, but most popular as goat
    browse and some hay (harvested at low maturity)
  • Perennial, erect (18-40) with long narrow leaves
  • Deep-rooted / drought tolerant
  • Older varieties have tannin that reduces
    digestibility newer varieties have low tannin,
    finer stems
  • Tolerant of low fertility

6
Soybean
  • Widely used as hay in 2007 drought
  • Hairy leaf makes a hay that is very dusty,
    scratchy good yield, difficult to cure (use hay
    conditioner, not tedder)
  • Needs good pH and fertility

7
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)
  • Queen of Forages cool season legume, erect,
    leafy, deep tap root drought tolerant
  • Widely adapted, but needs well-drained soils
  • Hay, graze, silage good for dairy, sheep and
    horses
  • Fall planting in prepared seedbed (15 20 lbs)
  • Fertility critical avoid low pH maintain K, P,
    S and Bo (esp K) Not N

8
More on Alfalfa
  • Long production season
  • Requires more management, but worth it. 4 7
    cuttings per year possible
  • Harvest in early bloom
  • 3 5 years of stand life (sometimes longer)
  • Grazing is possible most success with
    rotational stocking (20-35 day rest). Grazing
    varieties can stand pressure better
  • Needs late fall rest before dormancy to persist
  • Bloat can be problem

9
Alsike Clover
  • Semi-erect, short-lived perennial
  • Cooler (Zones C D)
  • Pasture and hay

10
Arrowleaf clover
  • Late season winter annual, 2-4 stems, hard seed
  • Zone A B
  • Good quality
  • Grazing and hay

11
Birdsfoot trefoil
  • Poor mans alfalfa no bloat
  • Deep-rooted, short-lived perennial, but reseeds,
    12 30,
  • Cooler zones C D
  • Grows will with cool-season grasses
  • Fall planting
  • Responds well to P K, pH gt 5.5
  • Long season production
  • Pests crown and root rot

12
Black medic
  • Winter annual, not much used in Tenn., further
    west

13
Button clover
  • Mostly western Zones ABC
  • Pasture and Hay (one cutting)

14
Crimson Clover
  • Previously highly regarded as winter forage, with
    some renewed interest
  • Winter annual, zones AB, some C
  • Needs well-drained soil
  • Fall-seeding for winter use
  • Pasture, hay, green manure
  • Crown and stem rot can be problem grazing helps

15
Large and Small Hop Clover
  • Low- growing winter annual
  • Widely adapted
  • Pasture
  • Volunteer
  • Short production period

16
Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)
  • Excellent yield, poor persistence
  • Better for hay erect growth, 2-3 tall,
  • Zones CD, mostly, long growing season
  • Goes with grass
  • Responsive to P and K, pH gt 5.5
  • Long-season, cut hay in early bloom
  • Susceptible to powdery mildew and others, but
    resistant varieties available

17
Subterranean Clover
  • Dense, low-growing
  • Zone A some B
  • Pasture

18
Sweetclover
  • Biennial, erect, 4-8 tall, deep-rooted
  • Pasture but bad rep because of coumarin
  • Widely adapted

19
Vetch (Hairy, Crownvetch)
  • Designation different than book
  • Hairy vetch not widely used in Tenn. (expensive,
    need for high P)
  • Crownvetch widely used on roadsides

20
White Clover (Trifolium repens L.
  • Top picture is white dutch, bottom is improved
    Ladino most successful clover in Tenn.
  • White flower, small seed, very leafy.
  • Small varieties re-seed better, hence longer
    stand persistence
  • Giant (Ladino) types reseed less successfully,
    but much more productive
  • Widely adapted, but best in upper south
  • Pasture is major use but most bloat prone

21
More on white clover
  • Seed at low rate 2-3 lbs / A. best in fescue
    during dormancy February top dress
  • 2,4,8 lets renovate!
  • pH gt 6, needs K
  • Avoid allowing grass to overcome clover, so avoid
    too much N

22
Chicory
  • Goat favorite
  • Forb, not legume can be used with grasses
  • Pasture high nutritive quality
  • High fertility requirment, esp. N
  • Good summer growth, rotational stock with mowing
    to remove seedstalks
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