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Sea Power and Maritime Affairs

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Know the impact of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 on Soviet naval policy. ... Cuban Missile Crisis 'Conventional engagement' involving small ships ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sea Power and Maritime Affairs


1
Sea Power and Maritime Affairs
  • Lesson 17 The Navy in the Early Cold War,
  • 1945-1953

2
Learning Objectives
  • Comprehend the development of new strategies and
    weapons systems, in terms of competition for
    resources within the DOD and within the Navy., in
    the High Cold War.
  • Massive Retaliation, Rollback, and
    Liberation will be defined and their
    applicability as strategic slogans will be
    assessed by examination of major crisis of the
    Eisenhower Presidency.
  • Comprehend how the threat of limited naval
    presence was used to influence international
    affairs during the 1950s.

3
Learning Objectives
  • President Kennedy's Flexible response will be
    defined and its applicability as a strategic
    slogan will be assessed by examination of the Bay
    of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • Know the impact of the Cuban Missile Crisis of
    1962 on Soviet naval policy.

4
NSC 68 Blueprint for Cold War Strategy
  • National Security Council Report - April 1950
  • Based on the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, and
    George Kennans Containment Strategy.
  • Threat from Soviet Union
  • Leads the global advance of international
    communism.
  • Korean War - National Security Council believes
    the perception of the communist threat is
    confirmed.

5
NSC 68
  • NSC 68 We must, by means of a rapid and
    sustained build-up of the political, economic,
    and military strength of the free world, and by
    means of an affirmative program intended to wrest
    the initiative from the Soviet Union, confront it
    with convincing evidence of the determination and
    ability of the free world to frustrate the
    Kremlin design of a world dominated by its will.

6
Korean WarNavy
  • Naval decline reversed.
  • Accelerated shipbuilding.
  • Personnel strength doubled.
  • Reactivation of mothballed World War II ships.
  • Development begins on a new generation of ships
  • Forrestal-class carriers with jet aircraft.
  • Nuclear-powered submarines USS Nautilus.
  • Power-projection capabilities of the U.S. Navy.
  • Close Air Support
  • Interdiction
  • Amphibious Operations
  • Logistics
  • Strategic bombing/massive retaliation theory
    disproved.

7
USS Nautilus (SSN 571)
  • Commissioned September 1954.
  • First nuclear-powered submarine.
  • First submarine to cruise under the North Pole.

8
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9
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10
PresidentDwight D. Eisenhower
  • Elected 1952
  • Administration increases military funding after
    the Korean War.

11
Struggle for Funding
  • Air Forces Strategic Air Command (SAC) - 1946
  • Controls U.S. strategic deterrence mission.
  • Navy funding determines nature and mission of
    forces.
  • Naval nuclear capability and strategic mission
    developed.
  • Ensures future funding for naval forces.
  • Internal Navy competition for funding.
  • Elimination of new weapons except carriers and
    submarines.
  • Small carrier-based nuclear weapons.
  • New tactical nuclear mission in addition to
    strategic mission.
  • Single Integrated Operations Plan (SIOP) - 1960.
  • Attack plans for strategic bombers, ICBMs, and
    SSBNs.
  • Carriers lose strategic role - maintain tactical
    nuclear weapon.

12
Regulus Missile
  • - Program cancelled by 1964.

13
Forrestal-class Attack Carrier (CVA)
  • USS Forrestal (CVA 59)

14
Ballistic Missile Submarines (SSBNs)
  • USS George Washington (SSBN-598)

15
Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW)
  • Soviet submarine threatens U.S. and NATO sea
    lines of communication.
  • Hunter Killer Groups (HUKs) established.
  • One older fixed-wing support carrier (CVS) with
    aircraft.
  • Five to six destroyers (DDs)
  • U.S. nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs).
  • Most effective ASW weapons eventually replace
    HUKs.
  • Albacore hulls and improved sonar and
    torpedoes.
  • Long-range land-based maritime patrol aircraft.
  • Underwater Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS).
  • Passive sonar located at strategic chokepoints.
  • GIUK Gap - main chokepoint for Soviet submarines.

16
U.S. Naval Presence in the Cold War
  • Worldwide U.S. interests.
  • Strategy of containment must be backed by threat
    of force.
  • Naval deployments - worldwide.
  • Influence international affairs.
  • Threat of either limited or unlimited naval
    force.
  • Numbered fleets deployed in different regions.
  • Second Fleet Atlantic
  • Third Fleet Eastern Pacific
  • Sixth Fleet Mediterranean
  • Seventh Fleet Western Pacific and Indian Ocean
  • Fifth Fleet Arabian Gulf (1995)

17
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18
Forward Deployed Forces Containment Strategy
  • Navy
  • Naples (Gaeta), Italy
  • Commander, Sixth Fleet
  • Yokosuka, Japan
  • Commander, Seventh Fleet
  • Subic Bay, Philippines
  • Marine Corps
  • Okinawa
  • Third Marine Division
  • Army and Air Force
  • Permanent bases established overseas.
  • Germany, Japan, and South Korea.

19
AdmiralArleigh Burke
  • Chief
  • of
  • Naval Operations
  • 1955-1961

20
AdmiralHyman G. Rickover
  • Father of the Nuclear Navy
  • and
  • Naval Reactors
  • USS Nautilus (SSN 571)
  • USS Enterprise (CVAN 65)
  • USS Long Beach (CGN 9)

21
Indochina
  • Former French colony.
  • Japanese occupation - WW II.
  • 1945 Ho Chi Minh founds Democratic Republic of
    Vietnam.
  • Communist government.
  • Reoccupied by French forces.
  • 1947 Vietnamese war for independence begins.
  • Vietnamese rural population supports Vietminh
    communists while French control cities.
  • France appeals to U.S. for support.
  • Truman approves military aid to French forces.
  • 1954 Dien Bien Phu - French surrender to
    Vietminh.
  • Eisenhower refuses to aid French with carrier
    strikes.
  • Operation Passage to Freedom
  • SEATO established
  • Vietnam divided between communist North and
    South.
  • U.S. military advisors to South Vietnam.

22
Suez Crisis
  • 1956 Egyptian President Nasser nationalizes Suez
    Canal.
  • Britain and France
  • Attacks on Egypt with Israel to regain control of
    canal.
  • Soviet Union - aligned with Egypt.
  • Hungarian uprising.
  • Naval inferiority to U.S. fleet.
  • U.S. diplomatic pressure on Britain, France, and
    Israel.
  • U.S. controls sea lines of communication in
    Mediterranean.
  • U.N. cease-fire brokered.
  • Soviets begin to increase power in Middle East.
  • Eisenhower Doctrine - 1957
  • U.S. will defend Middle East from Communist
    aggression.

23
Lebanon Crisis
  • 1957 Soviets launch Sputnik shaking U.S.
    confidence
  • 1958 Lebanese Civil War
  • Communists supported by Syria.
  • Ally of Soviet Union.
  • Amphibious Landing of 6,000 Marines.
  • Control of Beirut secured.
  • Army and Air Force units unable to react.
  • Demonstrated flexibility of U.S. naval forces.
  • Sixth Fleet dominates the Mediterranean.
  • Soviet Navy unable to influence events.

24
The George Washington, launched June 9, 1959, was
the Navy's 1st submarine in Nov. 1960 to deploy
the solid-fuel Polaris missile with one-megaton
warhead
25
PolarisSubmarine-LaunchedBallistic
Missiles(SLBMs)
  • Strategic Deterrence
  • Nuclear Triad
  • With strategic bombers and ICBMs.
  • Eventually replaced by Poseidon and Trident
    missiles on newer submarines.

26
First Nuclear powered carrier commissioned (CVAN
65)Enterprise
27
JohnFitzgerald Kennedy
  • Elected President over Eisenhowers Vice
    President Richard Nixon in 1960.
  • Navy PT boat commander in WW II as a Lieutenant.

28
Nikita Khrushchev
  • Succeeded Stalin as Soviet premier after his
    death in 1953.
  • Proposed peaceful competition between the
    superpowers.
  • Challenged U.S. to meet Communist challenges in
    third world countries.

29
The Cold War Heats Up
  • The Space Race
  • Sputnik First man-made satellite - 1957.
  • Yuri Gagarin - First man in space - 1961.
  • Kennedy - Apollo Program will land a man on the
    moon before the decade is out.
  • Naval aviators chosen among first astronauts.
  • The Missile Gapdebate in 1960 U.S. Presidential
    election.
  • U-2 Incident - 1960
  • Francis Gary Powers shot down over Soviet Union.
  • Khrushchev's We will bury you! speech at the
    United Nations - 1960.
  • Berlin Wall - 1961
  • Kennedy Ich bin ein Berliner. - 1963.

30
U-2
31
Fidel Castro
  • Leader of Cuban Revolution against U.S.-supported
    President Batista in 1959.
  • Establishes Communist government aligned with the
    Soviet Union.

32
CastroandKhrushchev
33
Cuban Missile Crisis
34
Cuban Missile CrisisOctober 1962
35
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1961 - Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • CIA-trained Cuban rebels landed by U.S. Navy.
  • Defeated by Castros communists.
  • 1962 Soviet nuclear missiles move to Cuba.
  • Located by Air Force U-2 reconnaissance plane.
  • Options for President Kennedy
  • Air strikes or invasion too risky - may start
    war.
  • Blockade or Quarantine of missiles established
    by Navy.
  • 22 Oct 62- fleet directed to block military
    shipments from Cuba.
  • 24 Oct 62- Soviet Ships reverse course, only one
    boarded
  • Khrushchev agrees to remove missiles.

36
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Conventional engagementinvolving small ships
  • No attack carriers directly involved, but global
    U.S. alert including carriers world-wide
  • Soviet had no symmetrical, opposing forces
  • No fleet action no hostilities
  • Khrushchev and Kennedy played crucial roles!
  • Soviet naval policy reviewed.
  • Need a more balanced Navy of surface, subsurface,
    and air forces to challenge U.S. for command of
    the seas.

37
Discussion
Next time The Navy, Vietnam and Limited
Warfare 1965-1975
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