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Cold War History

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1962: Cuban Missile Crisis. 1980: 'Star Wars' 1969: Policy of D tente. 1950: Korean War ... Cuban Missile Crisis. 1962: American spy planes spot rocket sites on Cuba ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cold War History


1
Cold War History
  • An Overview of Major Events

2
The post-war period two streams
  • The end of European imperialism combined with the
    growing sense that self-determination should be a
    guiding principle in international politics led
    to a tremendous wave of decolonization between
    1945-1980.
  • The end of hostilities in 1945 also lead quickly
    to a period of intense hostility between the U.S.
    and Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.)

3
Decolonization
  • The process of decolonization was relatively
    peaceful in many cases it led to revolutionary
    wars in others (e.g., Algeria).
  • The struggle for independence/national liberation
    became embroiled in Cold War conflicts when the
    superpowers and/or their allies became involved
    (e.g. Vietnam).

4
Superpower confrontation
  • There are disagreements about when the Cold War
    started, why, and who was responsible.
  • Misperceptions?
  • Inevitable?
  • The Cold War started in Europe with the failure
    to implement agreements reached at Potsdam and
    Yalta.
  • Conferences focused on issues like free elections
    and democratic institutions in Eastern Europe
    (especially Poland) and the future of a divided
    Germany.

5
The Cold War An Overview
6
Confrontation, 1945-1962
  • Yalta Conference, 1945
  • Soviet troops stationed throughout East Europe
  • Stalin, Roosevelt, Chuchill
  • How should the victorious powers manage Europe?
  • Can the U.S.S.R. be stopped from overrunning
    Europe?

7
Policy of Containment
  • George Kennan
  • Emphasized economic recovery in W. Europe
  • Marshall Plan, 1947
  • NATO, 1949

8
Revising Containment
  • Public military displays by U.S.S.R. make Europe
    nervous press U.S. for more security
  • NSC-68
  • Most important revision of strategy of
    Containment
  • Any substantial further extension of the area
    under the domination of the Kremilin would raise
    the possibility that no coalition adequate to
    confront the Kremlin could be established

9
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10
Korea
  • First application of the new policy of
    containment
  • Domino theory
  • Resulted in U.S. military build-up in Europe
  • End of WWI
  • South occupied by U.S.
  • North occupied by Soviets
  • UN unable to hold elections in 1948

11
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12
Korea
  • U.S. and Soviet forces face off across the 38th
    parallel
  • June 1950, North Korean Army attacks South Korea

13
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1962 American spy planes spot rocket sites on
    Cuba
  • Kennedy demands removal of missiles
  • Russian ships approach Cuba
  • U.S. orders naval quarantine of Cuba
  • Crisis ends when Soviets agree to remove missiles
  • Closest the superpowers came to nuclear war

14
From Coexistence to DétenteVietnam
  • French imperial expansion into Indo-China
  • Includes Laos and Cambodia
  • After WWII
  • Ho Chi Minh dominates north, including Hanoi
  • French intended to recognize Ho Chi Minhs
    republic north of the 18th parallel
  • Set up puppet regime South of Saigon

15
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16
Vietnam
  • 8 May 1953 France defeated at Bien Dien Phu
  • Vietnam partitioned into North and South at the
    17th parallel
  • Vietcong (North Vietnamese forces) attack south
  • By 1963, ¼ of population of South Vietnam under
    control of Northern forces
  • U.S. increases military support for South
  • 1965, U.S. engaged in bombing North
  • 1967, U.S. has 400,000 troops fighting

17
Nixon
  • Failure of U.S. to gain victory in Vietnam forces
    President Lyndon B. Johnson from office
  • Richard Nixon, who promised to bring the troops
    back, takes office in 1968
  • New political reality
  • Soviets achieve nuclear parity

18
Detente
  • Less confrontational policy
  • Aimed at managing U.S.-Soviet relations through
    negotiation
  • Carrots and Sticks
  • Check Soviet expansion by forming alliances with
    states that neighbored the U.S.S.R.
  • 1972 U.S. establishes diplomatic relations with
    Communist China

19
Confrontation to Rapprochement
  • The period of U.S.-Soviet détente is followed by
    a period of renewed confrontation.
  • Second Cold War
  • NATO agreed to deploy land-based Cruise and
    Pershing II missiles in Europe if arms
    negotiations with Soviets did not reduce serious
    what was seen as a serious force imbalance.

20
Afghanistan
  • December 1979, Soviet forces intervened in
    Afghanistan to support its revolutionary allies.
  • Western powers denounced U.S.S.R.s actions,
    leading U.S. President Jimmy Carter to change his
    view of the Soviets.
  • 1980 U.S. Olympic boycott

21
Iran
  • 1978, a series of protests erupts in Iran after
    an inflammatory story about the exiled Ayatollah
    Khoemeini is run in the official press.
  • American Embassy in Tehran captured. U.S.
    Hostages held for 444 days (14 months).
  • Iranian leader, Shah (King) Mohammad Reza
    Pahlavi, a staunch U.S. ally against the Soviets,
    was eventually forced from power in January 1979.
    Islamists take control.

22
Ronald Reagan Inaugurated
  • In the midst of the Iran Hostage Crisis,
    President Jimmy Carter loses his bid for
    re-election to Ronald Reagan.
  • Reagan committed to a more confrontational
    approach with the Soviets.
  • Initiates research on space-based missile defense
    system (Star Wars).

23
The Soviet Leadership
  • The early years of Reagans presidency involved
    few high level contacts with Soviet leaders.
  • One problem three Soviet leaders (Brezhnev,
    Andropov, and Chernenko) die in fairly rapid
    succession

24
Glasnost and Perestroika
  • Mikhail Gorbachev succeeded Chernenko and
    instituted a program of limited reforms known as
    Glasnost and Perestroika.
  • Glasnostopenness
  • Perestroikarestructuring
  • Gorbachev lost control of the reforms.
  • Soviet Union collapsed in 1991.
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