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Introduction%20to%20Reading%20First

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Title: Introduction%20to%20Reading%20First


1
Introduction to Reading First
  • Martin Kozloff David Gill December, 2004

2
This module describes the main features of
Reading First.
  • Five major reading skills, or Big Ideas.
  • Three kinds of curricula.
  • Four kinds of assessments.
  • Systematic and explicit instruction.
  • Scientific validation of all aspects of
    instruction (the first four items in this list).
  • Reading as a school-wide endeavor.

3
Five Major Reading Skills, or Big Ideas
  • Reading First gives educators a clear picture of
    reading.
  • Proficient reading consists of five major
    skills, or big ideas.
  • When these five skills are taught in a logically
    progressive sequence, early skills help students
    to learn and use the later-taught skills.
  • This leads to accurate, rapid reading with
    comprehension and enjoyment.
  • More information is on the IDEA website, at
    http//reading.uoregon.edu/big_ideas/trial_bi_inde
    x.php
  • Now lets look at the five main reading skills,
    or big ideas.

4
Five Major Reading Skills, or Big Ideas
  • The five major reading skills are
  • Phonemic awareness
  • The Alphabetic principle
  • Letter-sound correspondence
  • r says rrr
  • Sounding out, or decoding, words
  • rim -gt rrriiiimmm -gt rim
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension

5
Big Idea 1. Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonemic Awareness Is
  • The Ability to Hear and to Manipulate Sounds in
    Words.
  • There are a dozen ways to hear and manipulate
    sounds in words.
  • These ways are best taught from easier to harder.
    For example,
  • 1. Identify words that sound the same and
    different.
  • run fun sit mouse hat
    house
  • 2. Rhyme. can, man, fan, rrr__
  • 3. Count the number of words in a sentence.
  • The dog sat by the cat 6 words

6
Big Idea 1. Phonemic Awareness Continued
  • 4. Count the number of sounds (phonemes) in a
    word. sat /s/a/t/ 3 sounds
  • 5. Blend (make) words from separate syllables
    and sounds.
  • Listen. ice..cream. What word?
    icecream
  • Listen. mmmaaannn. What word? man
  • 6. Segment words by identifying the first,
    last, and middle (medial) sounds.
  • Whats the first sound in rrrruuuunnn?

7
Big Idea 1. Phonemic Awareness Continued
  • 7. Say what a word would be if one sound were
    removed (phoneme deletion).
  • Listen sssaaaat. Take out ssss. What
    word now?... at
  • 8. Say what a word would be if a sound were
    replaced with another sound.
  • Listen. ssssiiiit. Take out ssss and put in
    fff. What word now?... fit

8
Big Idea 1. Phonemic Awareness Continued
  • Caution!
  • Its best to work on only three or so kinds of
    phonemic awarenessnot all of them.
  • 2. The best choices are rhyming, segmenting, and
    blending.

9
Big Idea 1. Phonemic Awareness Continued
  • Connect skill at phonemic awareness with
    instruction on the alphabetic principle
  • a. letter-sound correspondence
  • m says mmm
  • b. sounding out words
  • raaannn -gt ran
  • Specifically

10
Big Idea 1. Phonemic Awareness Continued
  • Dont work on phonemic awareness by itself for
    weeks and then work on letter-sound
    correspondence and sounding out.
  • Instead, in close succession, when you teach
    students to hear and manipulate sounds in words,
    teach them the letters that go with those sounds
    and then to sound out words made of those
    letters.

11
  • Big Idea 1. Phonemic Awareness
    Continued
  • Phonemic awareness helps students to read and to
    do other literacy skills.
  • How?
  • Students who hear and manipulate sounds
    (phonemes) and syllables in words, and words in
    sentences, can more easily do the following
  • Remember which sound goes with which letter.
  • Sound out words. cat k/aaaa/t
  • Say and read sentences smoothly.

12
Big Idea 1. Phonemic Awareness Continued
  • 4. Spell.
  • How do you spell cat?
  • kaaaat. /k/ is c. /a/ is a. /t/ is t. c
    a tcat.
  • 5. Detect and correct errors in reading and
    spelling. The houno hhoorrrhorse ran fast.

13
Big Idea 1. Phonemic Awareness Continued
  • See http//reading.uoregon.edu/pa/index.php
    for more information on phonemic awareness.

14
Big Idea 2. Alphabetic Principle
  • The Alphabetic Principle is
  • The Ability to Associate Sounds With Letters and
    to Use
  • This Knowledge to Read Words.
  • The alphabetic principle (sometimes called
    phonics) has two
  • skill-parts.
  • 1. The student knows letter-sound (sound-symbol)
    relationships
  • m says /mmm/, i says /iii/, and r
    says /rrr/.
  • 2. The student uses letter-sound knowledge to
    sound out or decode wordsperhaps letter by
    letter at first and then quickly.
  • The bike has a bent
    rrrriiiimmm.rim.

15
Big Idea 2. The Alphabetic Principle Continued
  • When students use letter-sound knowledge to
    sound out words (the alphabetic principle, or
    phonics), they know exactly what the written word
    says.
  • However,
  • Many students are not taught to use phonics
    knowledge as the first and most reliable strategy
    for identifying words.
  • Many students are not taught phonics in a
    systematic way.

16
Big Idea 2. The Alphabetic Principle Continued
  • Many students are (wrongly!) taught to guess
    using context cues. What word fits there?
  • So, instead of reading words as written (The
    bike has a bent rim) these mistaught students
    guess
  • The bike has a bebe..bellbelt.riririp.
    The bike has a belt rip.

17
Big Idea 2. The Alphabetic Principle Continued
  • When students cant read words as written (cant
    read the letters), they try to guess or predict
    what a word is, using
  • Pictures on the page. A cat picture. Billy put
    on his cat. The word is hat.
  • The shape of a word. That word looks like it
    says baby. The word is maybe.
  • A few letters in the word. The child says kite
    instead of kit.
  • What seems to fit the meaning of a sentence.
    The lamp felldown. The word is over.

18
Big Idea 2. The Alphabetic Principle Continued
  • Using these context cues is NOT readingany
    more than guessing answers to math problems is
    the same as solving problems.
  • Show your work.
  • I cant.
  • Why not?
  • I guessed.

19
Big Idea 2. The Alphabetic Principle Continued
  • Students who guess what words say (because they
    were taught to do this, or because they were not
    taught phonics systematically, and therefore have
    to guess), may never become skillful readers.
  • Thats why Reading First stresses thorough,
    systematic, and explicit instruction in the
    alphabetic principle.
  • Read more at http//reading.uoregon.edu/au/index
    .php

20
Big Idea 3. Fluency With Text
  • Fluency is
  • The Effortless, Automatic Ability to Read Words
    in Connected Text.
  • Fluency means reading with accuracy, speed, and
    prosody (pitch, emphasis).
  • Fluency is important for enjoyment and
    comprehension.
  • If a person struggles with words such as
    guilty (guquguilquil), the person will
    also struggle to figure out the meaning
    of sentences.
  • In fact, dysfluent readers spend so much time
    and effort trying to figure out what the
    separate words say, they can barely pay
    attention to the meaning of the sentence.
  • The ju..jur.jury found her gu..quguilquil)
    In other words, they learn very little (e.g.,
    vocabulary, ideas) from reading.

21
Big Idea 3. Fluency With Text Continued
  • To help students read connected text (e.g.,
    story passages) accurately, quickly, and with
    prosody, it is important to
  • Teach students to decode separate words (regular
    and irregular) accurately and quicklywhich means
    (1) using knowledge of letter-sound
    correspondence (not guessing) and (2) blending
    the sounds into words.
  • 2. Teach students to self-correct.
  • ssiiib No sssiiipsip.

22
Big Idea 3. Fluency With Text Continued
  • 3. Provide practice reading words enough times
    that its almost automatic that is, the words
    become sight words.
  • 4. Provide practice reading text with which
    students are already accurate.
  • 5. Encourage students (and model how) to read
    faster and faster without making errors (i.e.,
    more words correct per minute, or wcpm).

23
Big Idea 3. Fluency With Text Continued
  • Note!
  • Sight words are not words a student memorizes.
    The student still knows how to decode words
    letter by letter. The student has simply read
    the words so often that decoding takes only an
    instant.
  • Learn more about fluency here.
    http//reading.uoregon.edu/flu/

24
Big Idea 4. Vocabulary
  • Vocabulary is
  • Understanding (receptive) and Using (expressive)
    Words to Gain and Express Meaning.
  • The first three reading skills
  • Phonemic awareness
  • The alphabetic principle--letter-sound
    correspondence and the strategy for sounding out
    or decoding words
  • Fluency
  • have to do with the mechanics of reading.
  • The last two skillsvocabulary and
    comprehensionhave to do with making sense of the
    written word.

25
Big Idea 4. Vocabulary Continued
  • Vocabulary and comprehension cant be taken for
    granted.
  • Many students wont pick up these skills.
  • Students should be taught systematically and
    explicitly how to get and express the meaning of
    words and passages.
  • This is especially important for students from
    low socioeconomic backgrounds. These students
  • Are read to less often.
  • Hear fewer vocabulary words, and therefore
  • Understand and use far fewer words than children
    born to working class or professional class
    families.

26
Big Idea 4. Vocabulary Continued
  • Here are important methods of vocabulary
    instruction.
  • 1. Read storybooks to children.
  • 2. Provide direct instruction of new
    vocabulary words by
  • Selecting important words in a story.
  • Explaining or defining the words.
  • Giving students many chances to discuss and use
    the new words.

27
Big Idea 4. Vocabulary Continued
  • 3. Teach older students morphemic analysis
    (analysis of word parts) to determine meaning.
    For example,
  • Bisect. Bi means two. Sect means part.
  • So, bisect means divide into two parts.
  • 4. Teach contextual analysis--inferring the
    meaning
  • a word from the context in which it occurs.
  • The fans oscillations cooled everyone in the
    roomSometimes fans move back and forth. If
    everyone was cooled, it probably means the fan
    blew on everyone. So, oscillate probably means
    to move back and forth.
  • Find more on vocabulary here.
    http//reading.uoregon.edu/voc/

28
Big Idea 5. Comprehension
  • Comprehension is
  • Reading and Reflecting on a Text to Gain Meaning
  • Sentences dont tell you what they mean. 
  • Students must interact with the textfor
    example,
  • 1. Ask questions. When did Huck see that Jim
    was more than a slave?
  • 2. Check to see if the text gives answers.
  • 3. Reread, and modify interpretations.
  • 4. Connect one sentence with later sentences to
    get the flow of the argument or the flow of
    events in time. 

29
Big Idea 5. Comprehension Continued
  • These comprehension strategies are learned best
    when taught explicitly.  This means
  • 1. Setting comprehension objectives.
  • For example, students will answer specific
    literal (who, what, when), inferential (why), and
    evaluative (what might have happened if?)
    questions.
  • 2. Focusing on main ideas in a story or
    informational text.

30
Big Idea 5. Comprehension Continued
  • 3.Preteaching vocabulary words important for
    comprehending the material.
  • 4. Reading (with students) the material in
    manageable chunks, and asking literal,
    inferential, and evaluative questions on each
    chunk.
  • 5.Using a KWL strategy students think about and
    discuss what I know what I want to know and
    what I learned.
  • Learn more about comprehension here.
    http//reading.uoregon.edu/comp

31
A Comprehensive Set of Curriculum Materials
  • No set of curriculum materials (program) is
    adequate for teaching all five main reading
    skills to all beginning readers. Materials may
    have the following weaknesses.

32
Weaknesses in Curriculum Materials
  • There are two main weaknesses in curriculum
    materials.
  • The scope and sequence (what is taught and in
    what order) may not adequately cover all five
    skills.
  • For example, there is too little instruction on
    phonemic awareness some skills are taught in the
    wrong order there is too little review and
    practice.

33
Weaknesses in Curricula
  • 2. Materials are designed for the average
    student, and may not provide the sort of
    instruction needed by
  • Students with little background knowledge for
    example,
  • small vocabulary
  • little phonemic awareness
  • little knowledge of letter-sound correspondence
  • Students with specific difficulties learning to
    read.
  • For example, some students know how to sound out
    words, but they take too long to do it. As a
    result, they cant keep pace as the teacher
    points to words on the board and asks the class
    to read each word quickly.

34
Weaknesses in Curricula
  • Therefore, a comprehensive reading curriculum
    will have three sets of materials.
  • Reading First recommends three kinds of
    curriculum materials, or what is sometimes called
    the three-tier model--which you can read about
    at the following websites.
  • http//www.utsystem.edu/EveryChild/Presentations/S
    VaughnPDF9-9-02.pdf
  • http//www.texasreading.org/3tier/materials.asp
  • http//texasreading.tea.state.tx.us/readingfirst/3
    tiemodreainsint.pdf
  • http//www.fcrr.org/science/pptpresentations.htm
  • http//www.fcrr.org/science/publications.htm

35
Three-Tiered Model
  • The three sets of materials are
  • Core. For almost all students.
  • Supplemental. To fill gaps in core materials or
    to provide additional instruction to certain
    students.
  • Intervention. Highly focused, intensive
    instruction for certain students.

36
Core Materials in the Three-Tiered Model
  • A core reading program should
  • Cover all five main reading skills, or big ideas.
  • Be designed to be useful for almost all beginning
    readers.
  • Be well-designed, in terms of sequencing of
    skills, practice, and building simpler skills
    into more complex wholes, to name a few features.

37
Core Materials Continued
  • The University of Oregons website states
  • A core reading program is the primary
    instructional tool that teachers use to teach
    children to learn to read and ensure they reach
    reading levels that meet or exceed grade-level
    standards. A core program should address the
    instructional needs of the majority of students
    in a respective school or districtAdoption of a
    core does not imply that other materials and
    strategies are not used to provide a rich,
    comprehensive program of instruction.

38
Core Materials Continued
  • The core program, however, should serve as the
    primary reading program for the school and the
    expectation is that all teachers within and
    between the primary grades will use the core
    program as the base of reading instruction. Such
    programs may or may not be commercial textbook
    series Teaching reading is far more complex than
    most professionals and laypersons realize. The
    demands of the phonologic, alphabetic, semantic,
    and syntactic systems of written language require
    a careful schedule and sequence of prioritized
    objectives, explicit strategies, and scaffolds
    that support students' initial learning and
    transfer of knowledge and skills to other
    contexts.

39
Core Materials Continued
  • The requirements of curriculum construction and
    instructional design that effectively move
    children through the learning to read stage to
    the reading to learn stage are simply too
    important to leave to the judgment of
    individuals. The better the core addresses
    instructional priorities, the less teachers will
    need to supplement and modify instruction for the
    majority of learners. http//reading.uoregon.ed
    u/curricula/core_program.php

40
Core Materials Continued
  • Criteria for evaluating core reading programs,
    and reviews of many core programs, can be found
    here.
  • http//reading.uoregon.edu/curricula/index.php
  • http//reading.uoregon.edu/appendices/con_guide.ph
    p
  • http//reading.uoregon.edu/curricula/or_rfc_review
    _2.php

41
Supplemental Materials in the Three-Tiered Model
  • Supplementary curricula or programs are used in
    two ways.
  • 1. They fill gaps in a core reading program.
  • For example, a core program may have too little
    instruction on rhyming (one aspect of phonemic
    awareness), or it may have too few storybooks
    connected to its instruction on decoding and
    vocabulary. Therefore, a school or district
    would purchase or create materials to give the
    additional instruction.

42
Supplemental Materials in the Three-Tiered Model
  • 2. A core program may not provide the amount of
    highly focused instruction some students need on
    certain skills.
  • For example, some students enter school with a
    vocabulary so small that they dont know what the
    stories are about. Therefore, a school or
    district might use a supplementary program for
    accelerating these students vocabulary
    development.

43
Supplemental Materials in the Three-Tiered Model
  • Caution. Its important to select core and
    supplementary materials that are compatible, or
    at least to train teachers to make them
    compatible. For example, a core program might
    tell teachers exactly how to correct errors when
    students misread words. For example, the word is
    made but a student reads mad. He m.mmmmad
    the....
  • Teacher. That word is made. What
    word? Student. made. Teacher. Spell
    made. Student. m a d e Teacher. What
    word? Student. made. Teacher. Yes, made.
    Please start the sentence again,
    Joey.

44
Supplemental Materials in the Three-Tiered Model
  • However, supplementary materials might not tell
    teachers how to correct reading errors, or they
    may suggest a different method (format). This
    will confuse students. So, the school either has
    to use core and supplemental materials that
    correct errors the same way, or the school has to
    decide that teachers will apply to all
    supplementary materials the error correction
    format used in the core program.

45
Intervention Materials in the Three-Tiered Model
  • Intervention programs are designed to meet the
    needs of students with so little background
    knowledge or so much difficulty learning to read
    that they need specially designed instruction and
    special, additional time for instruction.
  • For example, diagnostic assessment may show that
    some kindergartners are falling behind, perhaps
    because their phonemic awareness skills are still
    so weak. Or, some third graders struggle to
    comprehend text because they are still weak on
    basic comprehension skills.
  • In both cases, students would get extra time for
    interventions, using materials that focus on
    their skill weaknesses.

46
Intervention Materials in the Three-Tiered Model
  • Caution. Again, core and intervention materials
    should be compatible e.g., both teach the same
    word identification and comprehension strategies.
  • In addition, teachers must ensure that what
    students learn during intervention instruction is
    transferred to general (core) reading
    instruction. For example, teachers ensure that
    students are taught to use their new phonemic
    awareness and comprehension skills when they are
    with the rest of the class reading storybooks in
    the core materials. Otherwise, intervention
    instruction will be of little benefit.

47
Intervention Materials in the Three-Tiered Model
  • You can read more about supplementary and
    intervention programs at the following websites.
  • http//reading.uoregon.edu/curricula/or_rfc_review
    _si.php
  • http//readingserver.edb.utexas.edu/downloads/prim
    ary/booklets/Essential_Strategies.pdf
  • http//oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu/downloads/S-
    I_Review_Full_06-23-04.pdf
  • http//readingserver.edb.utexas.edu/downloads/prim
    ary/booklets/supplementTutoringGr3-5.pdf

48
Four Kinds of Assessments
  • A rule in Reading First is that instruction
    should be rational and accountable. Teachers
    need solid information on skills students bring
    and do not bring to reading instruction, on
    progress they are making during instruction, and
    how much progress they made during the year.
    Without this information, teachers cant
    successfully
  • Assign students to proper reading groups and to
    properly trained teachers.
  • Decide if the core program is adequate or if
    students need supplemental or intervention
    instruction (and on exactly which skills).
  • Decide at the end of the year if students are
    ready to move to the next year/level of a core
    program.
  • Therefore, Reading First advocates four kinds of
    assessments. Each has a different function.

49
Four Kinds of Assessments Screening
  • Screening assessment is used when students enter
    a beginning reading program or at the start of
    the year.
  • The function is to determine whether a student
    has the entry skills (e.g., knowledge of the
    alphabet, phonemic awareness, and vocabulary)
    that are likely to make instruction in the core
    program alone adequate, or whether the student
    has specific skill deficits and learning
    difficulties that require supplemental and/or
    intervention instruction.

50
Progress Monitoring Continued
  • Progress is monitored on skills worked on.
    These assessments might be done bi-weekly (or
    more often) to see how much students skill at
    decoding (sounding out) words is improving, or
    how much fluency (measured as words correct per
    minute, wcpm) is increasing. This information is
    used to make decisions.

51
Progress Monitoring Continued
  • Decisions based on progress monitoring
  • A student should be moved to a reading group that
    is progressing more quickly (or more slowly).
  • A student might get extra practice at decoding so
    the student reads connected text more accurately
    and quickly.
  • 3. A students progress is so slow that
    intervention instruction is called for. However,
    before that is done, more information is
    neededsupplied by diagnostic assessment,
    discussed later.

52
Progress Monitoring Continued
  • Progress monitoring also says something about
    the quality of a curriculum and/or the quality of
    instruction delivered by teachers. For example,
  • 1. If teachers use the core program exactly as
    instructed but many students make little
    progress, this suggests weaknesses in the core
    program. The core then might be reevaluated with
    the following documents.
  • http//reading.uoregon.edu/curricula/con_guide.php
  • http//people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/Evaluating20a20C
    ore20Reading20Program.pdf

53
Progress Monitoring Continued
  • 2.Students in Ms. Blacks class make excellent
    progress in the core program, but students in Ms.
    Winters class do not. This suggests that Ms.
    Winter is not using the core properly. For
    example, Ms. Winter may not correct errors, or
    she may go to the next lesson before students
    master skills in the present one. In this case,
    Ms. Winters teaching must be assessed. The
    inventory, here, shows how to assess teachers
    reading instruction.
  • http//people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/inventory.doc

54
Diagnostic Assessment
  • Screening assessment may show, for example, that
    a student has little knowledge of phonemic
    awareness.
  • But what does this mean?
  • Does this mean the student is not read to and
    talked with enough at home?
  • Does it mean the student cant easily hear the
    differences between one word and another?
  • Does it mean the student simply has trouble
    producing the sounds?

55
Diagnostic Assessment Continued
  • Likewise, progress monitoring may show that a
    student is not picking up skill at sounding out
    words.
  • Does this mean the students knowledge of
    letter-sound relationships (s says /s/) is weak,
    and therefore the student cant say and blend the
    separate sounds in many words?
  • Or could it be that the student knows
    letter-sound relationships but has a hard time
    retrieving and then using this knowledge quickly
    enough to keep up with the pace of instruction?
  • Clearly, making the right instructional decision
    requires answers to these questions, which are
    supplied by diagnostic assessment.

56
Outcome Assessment
  • Outcome assessment determines how much students
    have learned at the end of a semester or year.
    This information is used to evaluate
  • The quality of the core, supplemental, and
    intervention materials.
  • The quality of instruction.
  • Student motivation, attention, and participation.
  • Students specific reading skills and
    difficultiesleading to decisions about curricula
    (keep, change, modify), instruction (ways to
    improve and how to assist teachers), and
    classroom management.

57
Features of Good Assessments
  • Assessment instruments should
  • Provide valid information (information on the
    skills that need to be measured).
  • Be appropriate for students age and grade level.
  • Be reliable (different users would get about the
    same data with the same students).
  • Be relatively easy to use.
  • 5. Provide objective information (e.g., 100
    correct words per minute) rather than impressions
    (Sally reads pretty accurately and quickly).
  • Therefore, its wise to select instruments with
    a solid track record.

58
Features of Good Assessments
  • Here are sources that describe and evaluate many
    assessment instruments.
  • http//people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/rfassessmentinstru
    ments.pdf
  • http//idea.uoregon.edu/assessment/analysis_result
    s/assess_results_by_test.html
  • http//www.fcrr.org/assessment/
  • http//idea.uoregon.edu16080/assessment/

59
Systematic and Explicit Instruction
  • The most respected scientific research in
    education and psychology shows clearly that
    instruction yields higher and faster achievement
    in more students (with and without learning
    difficulties) when instruction is systematic and
    explicit.
  • Here are some resources you might examine.
  • http//epaa.asu.edu/barak/barak.html
  • http//epaa.asu.edu/barak/barak1.html
  • http//idea.uoregon.edu/ncite/documents/techrep/t
    ech05.pdf
  • http//idea.uoregon.edu/ncite/documents/techrep/t
    ech06.html
  • But what does systematic and explicit mean?

60
Systematic Instruction Continued
  • Systematic means that
  • 1. Instruction is given in a planned, logically
    progressive sequence of things to be taught. For
    example, certain letter-sounds (a, s, i, m, r)
    are taught before other letter-sounds (b, n, y,
    sh) because they are easier to learn and are used
    more often.
  • 2. Instruction is guided and assessed with
    clearly defined objectives for everything taught.
    Objectives are stated in terms of what students
    will do.
  • Poor objective. Students read story books
    quickly and get most words right.
  • Good objective. Students are given two minutes
    to read the assigned passage from The bear and
    the hare. They read the passage at a rate of at
    least 100 words correct per minute.

61
Systematic Instruction Continued
  • 3. Instruction is focused precisely on the thing
    (knowledge unit) to be learned, as specified by
    the objective.
  • For example, if students are to read a passage
    at 100 wcpm, then that is exactly what the
    teacher focuses on during the ten minute fluency
    exercise during lessons. She does not work on
    fluency, new vocabulary, and comprehension at the
    same time.
  • 4. Instruction provides planned practice to
    strengthen all of the skills worked on.

62
Systematic Instruction Continued
  • 5. Instruction provides planned work on new
    examples (e.g., words, text) to foster
    application or generalization of previously
    taught knowledge.
  • 6. Instruction includes assessments designed and
    used in a timely fashion to monitor the different
    phases of instruction, or mastery acquisition,
    fluency, generalization, retention, and
    independence.

63
Systematic and Explicit Instruction Continued
  • Explicit means that
  • 1. The teacher reveals in an obvious and clear
    way to students the knowledge she is trying to
    communicate. She does this through
    demonstrations (modeling) and running commentary
    to students. For example,
  • Ill show you how to sound out this word. man
    is written on the board. Listen. I do NOT stop
    between the sounds. Teacher touches under each
    letter as she says the sound. mmmmaaaannn.
    Now, Ill say it fast. Teacher slides her
    finger under the word. man.

64
Explicit Instruction Continued
  • 2. The teacher ensures student attention to
    important features of an example or
    demonstration.
  • Look. points to the word ate Here is a
    vowel, then a consonant, and then an e at the end
    name. So, we do NOT say the e at the end.

65
Explicit Instruction Continued
  • Heres an example of instruction that is not
    explicit. It is implicitor buried in the
    teachers talk.
  • The teacher holds up a big book that has a
    paragraph from a story. She reads the words
    slowly. Occasionally she points to the letter r
    in different words and says rrr. She expects
    that this will be enough for students to get
    the connection between the letter and the
    sound. Of course, many students do not get it.

66
Systematic and Explicit Instruction
  • In contrast, using explicit instruction the
    teacher would hold up the big book and say,
  • New sound. This sound (points to the letter r
    in ran) is rrr. Say it with me And this sound
    (points to r in car) is rrr. Say it with me
    And this sound (points to r in barn) is rrr.
    Lets see if you remember our new sound. What
    sound is this? (points to r in ran) What sound
    is this? (points to r in barn) What sound is
    this? (points to r in car). Now Ill read the
    story. (Teacher points to each r as she reads
    and has students say rrr and then read the
    whole word.)

67
Systematic and Explicit Instruction
  • Explicit instruction of letter-sound
    correspondence, in which
  • The teacher focuses on sounds in isolation to aid
    attention.
  • Points to the letter and says the sound (model).
  • Has students say the sound with her and then by
    themselves.
  • Practices this many times over the next few days
  • is more likely to teach most students quickly.

68
Scientific Validation
  • This is one of the most important contributions
    of Reading First. Every curriculum or program,
    every teaching method (e.g., how to correct
    errors), and every assessment instrument must be
  • 1. Valid (does what it is supposed to do) and
    reliable (works the same way in the hands of
    different people).
  • 2. Based on scientific research. For example,
    the sequence for introducing new letters-sounds
    in a core program must be based on solid
    scientific research that says this is an
    effective sequence.
  • 3. Field tested to ensure that it is valid and
    reliable and effective before it is used.

69
Scientific Validation
  • Teachers will be more confident, and certainly
    will be more effective, if all of their teaching
    methods and materials are known to work.
  • Here are websites with more information on
    scientific validation.
  • http//people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/RigorousEvidence.p
    df
  • http//people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/whatresearchsays.h
    tm
  • http//people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/Research20and20R
    eason.pdf
  • http//www.ecs.org/html/educationIssues/Research/p
    rimer/understandingtutorial.asp

70
Reading is a school-wide Endeavor
  • If teachers in different grade levels and
    classes use different curricula, different
    assessments, different teaching methods, and
    different rules for interpreting assessment data
    and for making instructional decisions, students
    are not likely to benefit as much from reading
    instruction as they would if reading were a
    coordinated school-wide activity.

71
Reading is a School-wide Endeavor
  • Therefore, schools need to
  • 1. Develop a school mission stressing the
    importance of reading, setting high but realistic
    achievement goals for each year, and assuming
    primary responsibility for students achievement.
  • 2. Examine different curricula and assessment
    instruments (using materials at the websites
    listed earlier), and select the ones shown to be
    most effective.
  • 3. Select the right teachers for the right jobs.
    Its essential that the best teachers teach
    students in the early stages of reading and teach
    students who are behind or who need interventions.

72
Reading is a School-wide Endeavor
  • 4. Select specialists to coordinate testing,
    collect assessment information, order curricula,
    obtain outside consultation and training, and
    provide technical assistance to teachers.
  • 5. Ensure principals and other administrators
    know the five reading skills what explicit and
    systematic instruction looks like what effective
    reading instruction looks like what to ask job
    applicants to ensure that they get skilled
    teachers know the criteria that define adequate
    curricula and have the strength to require
    teachers to use curricula faithfully and to
    improve their teaching as needed.
  • 6. Provide professional development on all
    aspects of Reading First, as well as timely
    ongoing assistance.

73
Reading is a School-wide Endeavor
  • Here is the website for an instrument that lays
    out the skills teachers need. It can also be
    used to guide assessment, professional
    development, and ongoing assistance.
  • http//people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/inventory.doc
  • Additional materials on school-wide
    implementation include the following.
  • http//oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu/downloads/Pr
    ogram_Fidelity_Checklist.doc
  • http//www.texasreading.org/utcrla/
  • http//people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/al_jan_02.pdf
  • http//readingserver.edb.utexas.edu/downloads/prim
    ary/guides/2000_word_analysis_SE.PDF
  • http//reading.uoregon.edu/logistics/trial_log_ind
    ex.php

74
Lets Summarize
  • The six features of Reading First discussed
    above amount to an integrated approach to
    reading.
  • There are five main reading skills phonemic
    awareness, the alphabetic principle (letter-sound
    correspondence and using this knowledge to decode
    words), fluency (accuracy and speed), vocabulary,
    and comprehension.
  • Three kinds of curricula ensure that virtually
    all children learn to read core programs,
    supplementary programs, and intervention
    programswith placement determined by assessment
    information.

75
Lets Summarize
  • There are four kinds of assessments screening,
    diagnostic, progress monitoring, and outcome.
    These provide information used to make decisions
    about students curriculum and instructional
    needs, the quality of curricula used, and the
    quality of instruction.
  • The wisest course is to teach all skills
    systematically (in a planned, logical sequence)
    and explicitly (the teacher clearly demonstrates
    knowledge).
  • All of the above are based on the rules and
    procedures of scientific research to ensure
    validity, reliability, and effectiveness.
  • All of the above are part of a coordinated,
    school-wide effort that includes clear mission,
    strong leadership, assignments based on
    expertise, and professional development.
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