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Building Bridges: Accessible Technology for ALL Students


In general, we have not yet leveraged technology to make a profound difference in education. ... by Cher Ping LIM (2006) Funding ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Building Bridges: Accessible Technology for ALL Students


Reinventing Technology in K-12 Education to Make
a Difference Tempe, AZ State Nets,
NET_at_EDU Keith Krueger CEO of CoSN February 7,

About CoSN
  • Mission
  • A U.S. nonprofit organization that serve as the
    premier voice for K-12 technology leaders who use
    technology strategically to improve learning.
  • Audience
  • School district Chief Technology Officers (CTOs)


Major Premise
In general, we have not yet leveraged technology
to make a profound difference in education.

This mornings topic

Why has most technology in K-12 education had
minimal impact?   Why is the U.S. no longer
setting the pace globally around education
technology? and, what can we do to change this

Critical Question
Are we trying to improve current model of
education or trying to transform
education. Are we building a horseless carriage,
or are we trying to build something completely


Call to Action
We need to reinvent technology in education
strategies so it makes a real difference. We
must reframe the policy discussion around
technology in education and show its value.

Weak Impact in Asia Pacific

When UNESCO examined use of technology in
education in nearly 30 countries throughout Asia
and Pacific it concluded The integration of
ICT in the teaching of subjects has been
weak. UNESCO report of the South-East
ICT Advocacy Planning Workshop Dec. 2003

No profound improvement in Europe

Most schools in most countries, however, are in
the early phase of ICT adoption, characterised by
patchy uncoordinated provision and use, some
enhancement of the learning process, some
development of e-learning, but no profound
improvements in learning and teaching. The ICT
Impact Report A Review of Studies of ICT
Impact on Schools in Europe Dec. 2006

Same is True Most of the World, including the

Typically technology has a separately defined
mission which is not integral to the overall
educational mission. Technology is used to
marginally improve education rather than do
something profoundly different/better.

U.S. Education Technology Experience
Typically the person responsible for educational
technology (we call them the CTO) is not part of
the district leadership team. This is a recipe
for making sure that technology has marginal


This Was Also True In Business
In the 1980s the economist Lester Thurow
concluded technology in most businesses had no
or even negative impact on productivity. He
changed his conclusion in the 1990s after
business reengineered its processes and used
technology for that transformation.


History of Education Technology in U.S.
Phase I 1995 Wires Boxes ? Creation of
E-Rate Phase II 2000 Professional Development
for Teachers ? NCLB (Requires 25 of every
federal ed tech dollar to be used for PD) Phase
III NOW Leadership

Are We Making Progress?
63 of US teachers self-evaluate their technology
skills as somewhat advanced or
advanced. CDW-G Teachers Talk Tech Survey
2006 but in most cases technology is being used
for email Internet research, not to change how
they teach.


Meta Study of Impact
  • Recent study by Metiri group examined all the
    U.S. research on impact of technology in
    education. It came to two important conclusions
  • Technology Advocates had largely OVER PROMISED


Meta Study of Impact
Even with that warning, it goes on to say 2)
When appropriately vision, adequate professional
development implemented (clear, leadership, etc)
technology can be a powerful tool for


What do Students Think?
  • Major Findings
  • Students are strong believers in the power to
    enrich their learning experiences.
  • Students (and teachers) want access to
    up-to-date technology tools at schooland are
    frustrated when it is not available.
  • Read the NetDay Speak Up Surveys


The Customer is Unhappy
Our studentsDigital Nativesarrive at our
schools doorsteps and find the typical school
environment does not reflect the rich technology
environments they have outside of school.
Growing frustration that schools are

Current U.S. Policy Environment
1) Great anxiety that U.S. is increasingly not
competitive. 2) Concern that our schools are not
preparing kids with 21st Century Skills. 3)
Growing sense by policymakers that we have spent
huge sums on ICT in education and gotten little
return on our investment.


Competitiveness is THE Hot Topic
Commission on The Skills of the American
Workforce Tough Choices or Tough Times December
2006 A swiftly
rising number of American workers at every skill
level are in direct competition with workers in
every corner of the globe.The core problem is
that our education and training systems were
built for another era.


Competitiveness is THE Hot Topic

In Washington, a major policy topic is the need
for Science, Technology Education Mathematics
(STEM) instruction - except the T seems to have
disappeared. Technology is not seen as a key
element in preparing our students for the future.
U.S. Trends in Reading by Average Scale Scores
Trends in average reading scale scores for
students ages 9, 13, and 17 19712004
Last updated 06 July 2005 (RF)
U.S. Trends in Reading by Average Scale Scores
View data with standard errors for age 9, age 13,
and age 17.

21st Century Skills

The world has gone through a technology
revolution. This revolution has led to the need
for all students to be technology
literate. Partnership for 21st Century
Skills (AOL Time Warner, Apple, Cable in the
Classroom, Cisco, DELL, Microsoft, NEA, SAP)
No Child Left Behind Technology Funds - EETT
  • Presidents FY2008 Budge requests 0



Most important national funding source for
education technology is the E-Rate. The Former
Chair of the House Telcom Committee said he would
have killed the program if he had the votes.
He is no longer Chair, but this is the
federal environment we have been operating.

Where is the Research?
U.S. policymakers are increasingly asking for
causal evidence that investments in technology
make a difference in learning.

Policymakers believe U.S. Schools are Technology
Rich The reality is that K-12 is lagging. The
lowest IT-Intensive industry is
education. Digital Economy 2003 U.S.
Department of Commerce Survey of IT-Intensity
of 55 Industries

Fall 2006 Work Study
From mid-September to end of October 2006 I
traveled to Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and
Australia. These countries generally
acknowledged to be Asia/Pacific leaders in use of
ICT in education. Theory was by examining those
leading countries in ICT in education, we might
discover new paradigms. Spinning the

Country Snapshot Hong Kong
Population 7 million By 2003- All schools
had broadband to the Internet with over 60
having fiber access with 10 to 100 Mbps
bandwidth- Student-to-computer ratios of 7.4
(primary), 4.6 (secondary) and 2.0 (special
schools)- All teachers (about 50,000, plus
4,600 teaching assistants) had completed IT
training at basic level, 77 at Intermediate
level, 27 at Upper Intermediate Level, and 6
at Advanced Level.

Country Snapshot Hong Kong
1st National Plan for IT in Education An analysis
of the 174 case studies found that technology is
supporting significant changes in classroom
teaching learningIn these cases, students were
often actively engaged in what are sometimes
called constructivist activities. At the
school level, the success of applying IT in
education lies mainly with the support of school
heads as visionary leaders and agents for change.
SITES M2 study Hong Kong

Country Snapshot Hong Kong
Current HK Master Plan The focus in coming years
will be on the further integration of IT in the
learning and teaching process. The strategy is a
student-centered one and we look forward to
enhancing community-wide support for a
sustainable development of IT in education.
Future IT Emersion

Country Snapshot South Korea
  • Population 48.5 million
  • 10,676 Korean schools/7.8 mil K-12 students
  • By 2004
  • 86 of teachers use ICT for class
  • - All teachers have a laptop - 98 of schools
    have fiber-optic Ethernet connections.-
    Computers per student at elementary level is 7.2
    at middle school level 6.1 and at high school it
    is 5.6.


Country Snapshot South Korea
  • IBMs Economist Intelligence Unit has ranked
    them 5th worldwide in e-Learning Readiness (and
    first in Asia).
  • Clear and consistent senior policymaker support.


Country Snapshot South Korea
  • Major new national Open Source Student
    Information System, probably K-12 effort the
    largest in the world.
  • Future Ubiquitous e-Learning


Country Snapshot Singapore
Population 4.5 million 316 schools and 300,000
students 2004 paradigm shift Teach Less,
Learn More Shift towards a more self-directed
learning processes and learning environments that
promoted higher level of understanding of subject
matter. The Science Art of Integrating ICT
in Singapore Schools by Cher Ping LIM

Comparison of Direct Funds for ed tech in three
Asian countries and U.S. Total per capita annual
investment in U.S. dollars South
Korea 143 Singapore 53 Hong Kong
43 U.S. 20 - Singapore would be 177
if include School Modernization

Cross Asia Themes
While all three countries have tradition of
centralized education policy/funding and strong
performance on high stakes standardized
testing All are focusing on using ICT to
encourage innovation, collaborative thinking and
21st century skills.

Country Snapshot - Australia
  • Population 20 million/10,000 schools
  • Major online focus on developing digital learning
    objects (The Learning Federation)
  • EdNA, their national online education and
    training service (


Country Snapshot - Australia

  • Leaders in ICT in education standards
  • Collaboration between levels of government.


Country Snapshot - UK
  • In 2006, added personalization via ICT as the
    major new overall educational reform strategy.
  • Invested 2-3 billion from 1997-2008 (3.6 -5.4
    billion U.S.)
  • Focused on making educators digitally
    confident.  Vision each individual can maximize
    their potential through personalization of their
    learning and development. 
  • Technology as the fly wheel for
  • education reform.  


Country Snapshot - UK
  • During the Blair investment in reforming
  • From 1997 to 2005 the of pupils achieving level
    4 in literacy went from under 65 to nearly 80
  • And they have moved from being 19th to 3rd in the
    world for 9-10 year-olds.
  • Data from PIRLS 2001 International Report IEAs
  • of Reading Literacy in Primary Schools


International Meta Trends
  • I. Leadership Matters
  • a. Critical that Policymakers provide a Vision
  • b. Essential that Administrators provide


International Meta Trends
  • Rethink Pedagogy with ICT
  • a. Need to move from skills-based professional
    development to new ways of teaching/learning with
  • b. Need to move teachers along a continuum of


International Meta Trends
  • Asian countries have made significant
    investments in broadband infrastructure, and that
    is paying dividends for schools, and especially
    for home connections.
  • All these countries have invested
  • in digital content/learning
  • objects.


Other Important Trends
  • Moving toward immersion or ubiquitous learning
    environment (1-to-1)
  • Focus on personalization and individualizing
    instruction, which requires new forms of
    assessments. (UK, Singapore)
  • Recognition of importance of information literacy
    and new skills. (Critical thinking,
    collaboration, project-based
  • learning)


Other Important Trends
  • D. Providing vision at national level, but
    empowering building level implementation.
  • Focus on Administrative Data Systems. (DDD in the
  • Innovative uses of technology to connect to
  • Calculating Value of Investment is gaining
    attention. (UK/Becta, AU, SITES3,


Call to Action
We need to reframe the U.S. policy discussion
around technology in education and show its
value. What can CoSN State Education Networks

Action 1 Leadership

We need to build the skills as an education
technology leader is an essential component to
powerfully using technology. CoSN believes the
greatest impediment to effective use of
technology in schools is primarily HUMAN, not
technical nor technological.

Action 2 Vision
Education Technology is not a goal in and of
itself. It is, however, a powerful tool that
can (and should be) used in education to
accomplish the core educational mission of the
district. State Networks are in unique
position to help districts, especially small


Action 3 TCO VOI
Education technology leaders need to understand
both the Total Cost of Ownership AND how to
measure the Value of Investment in education

Otherwise, superintendents, school
boards/policymakers and the public will not
support tech funding requests. State networks
can help educate!

Action 4 Community
Parents and the business community can be the
biggest advocates for ed tech. They know that
the typical classroom lacks the technology tools
that are available in nearly every other
setting. Engage them in the process of defining
your state vision. And, help districts connect
with business community.


Action 5 Advocate
Policymakers need to hear why E-Rate and EETT
make a difference. Tell them the U.S. must
invest in education technology the world is
leaving us behind. Join ETAN


Concluding Thoughts

  • Education is the only business still debating the
    usefulness of technology. School remains
    unchanged, for the most part, despite numerous
    reforms and increased investments in computers
    and networks.
  • Former U.S. Secretary of Education Rod Paige
  • Preface to the 2005 National Education Technology


And finally
In times of change, learners inherit the earth
while the learned find themselves beautifully
equipped to deal with a world that no longer
exists. Eric Hopfer


CoSN Leadership Initiatives
K-12 Open Technologies Value
of Investment Taking Total
Cost of Ownership to the Classroom www.classroomt

CoSN Leadership Initiatives
Data-Driven Decision Making Vision to Know and
Do Cyber Security for the
Digital District Accessib
le Technologies for All Students www.accessiblete

K-12 School Networking Conference
Bridging Individualized Learning High Stakes
Accountability March
28-30, 2007 CoSNs K-12 School Networking
Conference is the premier event for education
leaders on technology and learning through the
Internet! The conference attracts over 800
district, state and national education technology

Keith Krueger, CEO Consortium for School