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Dabbling in Pedagogy: A Series of Serious ELearning Research Results


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Title: Dabbling in Pedagogy: A Series of Serious ELearning Research Results

  • Dabbling in Pedagogy A Series of Serious
    E-Learning Research Results
  • Curtis J. Bonk

Indiana University and CourseShare.com http//php.
indiana.edu/cjbonk http//CourseShare.com cjbonk_at_
Brains Before and After E-learning
And when use synchronous and asynchronous tools
Problems and Solutions
  • Tasks Overwhelm
  • Confused on Web
  • Too Nice Due to Limited Share History
  • Lack Justification
  • Hard not to preach
  • Too much data
  • Communities not easy to form
  • Train and be clear
  • Structure time/dates due
  • Develop roles and controversies
  • Train to back up claims
  • Students take lead role
  • Use Email Pals
  • Embed Informal/Social

Benefits and Implications
  • Shy open up online
  • Minimal off task
  • Delayed collab more rich than real time
  • Students can generate lots of info
  • Minimal disruptions
  • Extensive E-Advice
  • Excited to Publish
  • Use async conferencing
  • Create social tasks
  • Use Async for debates Sync for help, office
  • Structure generation and force reflection/comment
  • Foster debates/critique
  • Find Practitioners/Experts
  • Ask Permission

New Theories
  • Situated Learning--asserts that learning is most
    effective in authentic, or real world, contexts
    with problems that allow students to generate
    their own solution paths (Brown, Collins,
    Duguid, 1989).
  • Constructivism--concerned with learner's actual
    act of creating meaning (Brooks, 1990). The
    constructivist argues that the child's mind
    actively constructs relationships and ideas
    hence, meaning is derived from negotiating,
    generating, and linking concepts within a
    community of peers (Harel Papert, 1991).

Asynchronous Possibilities
  • 1. Link to peers and mentors.
  • 2. Expand and link to alternative resources.
  • 3. Involve in case-based reasoning.
  • 4. Connect students in field to the class.
  • 5. Provide e-mail assistance.
  • 6. Bring experts to teach at any time.
  • 7. Provide exam preparation.
  • 8. Foster small group work.
  • 9. Engage in electronic discussions writing.
  • 10. Structure electronic role play.

Pedagogical Actualities
  • Teacher-Created Cases
  • Student-Created Cases
  • Online Mentoring
  • Starter-Wrapper Discussions
  • Field Reflections
  • Reading Reactions
  • Debates (Teacher and Student Created)
  • Critical Friend Activities
  • Web Buddies
  • Synchronous Group Problem Solving

What Are the Goals?
  • Making connections through cases.
  • Appreciating different perspectives.
  • Students as teachers.
  • Greater depth of discussion.
  • Fostering critical thinking online.
  • Interactivity online.
  • Understand different ways to foster interaction.

Electronic Conferencing Quantitative Analyses
  • Usage patterns, of messages, cases, responses
  • Length of case, thread, response
  • Average number of responses
  • Timing of cases, commenting, responses, etc.
  • Types of interactions (11 1 many)
  • Data mining (logins, peak usage, location,
    session length, paths taken, messages/day/week),
    Time-Series Analyses (trends)

Electronic Conferencing Qualitative Analyses
  • General Observation Logs, Reflective interviews,
    Retrospective Analyses, Focus Groups
  • Specific Semantic Trace Analyses, Talk/Dialogue
    Categories (Content talk, qing, peer fdbk,
    social acknowledgments, off task)
  • Emergent Forms of Learning Assistance, Levels of
    Questioning, Degree of Perspective Taking, Case
    Quality, Participant Categories

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Chong, 1998
Cooney, 1998
Cooney, 1998
Research on Electronic Cases
  • 1. RT vs. Delayed Collab
  • Groups Preset by Major
  • Tchr Generated Cases
  • Local/Univ. Networks
  • Limited Instructor Mentoring
  • 2. Web-Based Conference
  • Grps Formed on Interest
  • Student Gen. Cases
  • World Wide Web
  • Extensive Instructor and Peer Mentoring

  • Delayed Collaboration gt Elaboration
  • 1,287 words/interaction vs. 266 words/interaction
  • Real-time Collaboration gt Responses
  • 5.1 comments/person/case vs. 3.3 comments/person
  • Low off-task behaviors (about 10)

Example of real-time dialogue
  • Come on Jaime!! You're a slacker. Just take a
    guess. (October 26, 1993, Time 110857, Ellen
    Lister, Group 5).
  • How might he deal with these students? Well, he
    might flunk them. He might make them sit in the
    corner until they can get the problem correct...I
    don't know. (Um...hello...Jaime where is your
    valuable insight to these problems?) (October 26,
    1993, Time 111937, Ellen Lister, Grp 5).

Example of Delayed Dialogue
  • Joyce's new system offers a wide variety of
    assessment forms. These different forms
    complement the diverse learning and test taking
    abilities of her students. Joyce seems to cover
    the two goals of classroom assessment with her
    final exam--to increase learning and increase
    motivation. Students will increase their
    learning because they will not just remember
    information to regurgitate on an exam, but
    instead they will store these items in their
    long-term memory and later may be able to make a
    general transfer. Joyce will increase student
    motivation because she has deviated from the
    normal assessment method expected by her
  • Joyce's test will probably be both reliable and
    valid considering that she implemented three
    different forms of tests. Joyce's test also
    might reduce test anxiety. If her students know
    what to expect on the test (they even wrote the
    questions) they more than likely will be less
    anxious on exam day... (January 31, 1994, Time
    1928, Sarah Fenway, Language Group.)

  • Entertaining,
  • Creative and controversial,
  • Indirectly intimidating,
  • One who set own agenda,
  • Very articulate and witty.

Sample of Larrys Comments....
  • Peace, dude, hop off the return key, save me
    some stress.
  • I am currently preparing my anti-groupwork
    support group.
  • Ive noticed several people writing and saying
    that they would have done this or that brilliant
    or intuitive thing. I personally am brilliant or
    intuitive and I think other could use a little
    humility. This Karens made some mistakes, but
    we all make mistakes, and when (dare I say), we
    are in her shoes, we should expect to make some
    of the same ones that confound her.

Conferencing on the Web(1996-2000)
Purpose of COW Project
  • Students in field experiences write cases
  • Teachers and students from around the world
    provide electronic mentoring
  • Authentic cases and mentoring transform learning
  • Helps preservice teachers understand the role of
    technology in education

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Problems Solved By COW
  • Student isolation in field experiences
  • Lack of community/dialogue among teacher
    education participants
  • Disconnectedness between class and field
  • Limited reflective practices of novice teachers
  • Need for appreciation of multiple perspectives

Quantitative Methods
  • Average results for prior to TITLE (TITLE)
  • Participants per semester 130 (gt300)
  • Cases per semester 230 (624)
  • Cases per student 1.75 (same 1.80)
  • Average responses per case 4.5 (3.9)
  • Average words per case 100-140 (198)

Frequent Case Topics
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Peer Talk (Bonk, Malikowski, Supplee, Angeli,
Transcript Results
  • A. Peer Content Talk
  • 31 Social Acknowledgments
  • 60 Unsupported Claims and Opinions
  • 7 Justified Claims
  • 2 Dialogue Extension Qs and Stmts
  • B. Mentor Scaffolding
  • 24 Feedback, Praise, and Social
  • 24 General Advice and Suggestions
  • 20 Scaffolding and Socratic Questioning
  • 16 Providing Examples and Models
  • 8 Low Level Questioning
  • 8 Direct Instruction Explanations/Elab

Qualitative Themes(Note 10 students interviewed)
  • COW was good because
  • it involved real-life scenarios
  • it connected textbook concepts
  • feedback from multiple sources was available
  • COW wasnt always a priority because...
  • other assignments had earlier due dates
  • it wasnt always emphasized
  • lengthy submission time procrastination

Still More Qualitative Themes...
  • Mentor feedback was
  • appreciated motivating
  • Mentor feedback could be better by
  • having more of it
  • using it to prompt and push
  • The international perspective was
  • intriguing and interesting way to see cultural
  • a way to see how technology can be used
  • Students were attracted to cases that
  • were interesting, familiar, controversial

Overall Major Findings
  • COW enhanced student learning
  • provided a link between classroom and field
  • encouraged learning about technology
  • COW extended student learning
  • students got feedback from outside their
    immediate community
  • students saw international perspective
  • COW transformed student learning
  • students took ownership for learning
  • students co-constructed knowledge base

Study 4 COW, Spring 1998(Bonk, Malikowski,
Supplee, Dennen, 2000)
  • Two Month Conference (One Condition)
  • 3 discussion areas (IU, Finland, and Cultural
  • Subjects 110 students
  • (80 US and 30 Finnish students)
  • Mentors 2 AIs, 1 supervisor, 4 coop tchrs, 3
    conference moderators.
  • Videoconferences Web Conferences

Finnish Cases Were Longer and more Reflective and
Often Co-Authored
  • 1. Author Maija Date Mar. 4 500 AM
  • Do not leap ahead, do not lag behind
  • Marya Ford Washington has stated that "I often
    find some children leaping and flying ahead and
    others dawdling and lagging behind. At times I am
    faced with the unhappy decisions whether to
    abandon the slower end or ignore the other. If I
    must face this decision regularly in a group of
    seven 'like ability' students, how often, I
    wonder, must regular classroom teachers be forced
    to "lose" one end or the other."
  • (Gifted Child Today, November/December 1997)
  • Is it possible that the pupils could progress
    with their own speed so that only the minimal
    level would be set by the teacher? Often, in
    school there are situations when a pupil has
    already done what is required, and s/he wants to
    go on but the teacher prevents it by saying
    "Wait, until I teach it first! Otherwise you
    might learn it in a wrong way." In small classes
    it is easier for the teacher to let the children
    progress at their own speed and s/he is able to
    guide them even though they would be at different

Vertical Mentoring Examples
  • 9. Author Jerry Cochey ( Mentor) Date Mar. 11
    146 PM 1998
  • To shift from teacher centered classrooms to
    child centered classrooms and learning takes
    time, patience and a commitment...it takes a long
    time to have students change to being responsible
    for their ownTeachers need to continue to
    supervise/coordinate learning...

Horizontal Finnish Mentoring
  • 12. Leena Date Mar. 30 1152 AM 1998
  • This case is something I feel very close to. I
    have been trying struggle with finding ways to be
    a teacher in a new way, trying to think
    everything from the students' perspective, to
    challenge my own old traditions of teaching and
    try to seek ways which the I could find ways of
    studying things together with the students. What
    really puzzles me is that... - Leena

Justified Statement (Finnish)
  • 3. Author Kirsi
  • Date Mar. 6 811 AM 1998
  • Why not let the student study math further by
    himself and the teacher could help him whenever
    the teacher has time. .. If I quote dear mr
    Vygotsky here again, the teacher should be
    sensitive to see where the child's proximate zone
    of development is and to help him 'over' it. The
    teacher's task is not to try to keep the child on
    the level he has reached but to help him learn
    more if he is interested

Unjustified Statements (US)
  • 24. Author Katherine Date Apr. 27 312 AM
  • I agree with you that technology is definitely
    taking a large part in the classroom and will
    more so in the future with all the technological
    advances that will be to come but I don't believe
    that it could actually take over the role of a
    teacherbut in my opinion will never take over
    the role of a teacher.
  • 25. Author Jason Date Apr. 28 147 PM
  • I feel technology will never over take the role
    of the teacher...I feel however, this is just
    help us teachers out and be just another way for
    us to explain new work to the children. No matter
    how advanced technology gets it will never
  • 26. Author Daniel Date Apr. 30 011 AM
  • I believe that the role of the teacher is being
    changed by computers, but the computer will never
    totally replace the teacher... I believe that the
    computers will eventually make teaching easier
    for us and that most of the children's work will
    be done on computers. But I believe that

Spring of 97 Content Analysis of Online
Discussion in Ed Psych Course(Hara, Bonk,
Angeli, 2001, Instructional Science)
  • Social (in 26.7 of units coded)
  • social cues decreased as semester progressed
  • messages gradually became less formal more
  • Cognitive (in 81.7 of units)
  • More inferences judgments than elem
    clarifications and in-depth clarifications
  • Metacognitive (in 56 of units)
  • More reflections on exper self-awareness
  • Some planning, eval, regulation self qing

  • Purpose and Questions of this Study
  • Inter patterns with starter-wrapper roles?
  • What is role of instructor in weekly
  • Degree of social, cog, metacog commenting?
  • Can conferencing deepen class discussions?

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Surface vs. Deep Posts
  • Surface Processing
  • making judgments without justification,
  • stating that one shares ideas or opinions already
  • repeating what has been said
  • asking irrelevant questions
  • i.e., fragmented, narrow, and somewhat trite.
  • In-depth Processing
  • linked facts and ideas,
  • offered new elements of information,
  • discussed advantages and disadvantages of a
  • made judgments that were supported by examples
    and/or justification.
  • i.e., more integrated, weighty, and refreshing.

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Week 1
Starter Centered Interaction
Week 4
Scattered Interaction (no starter)
Conferencing Work(2001-2002)
Starter-Wrapper Discussions(Beatty Bonk, 2001)
  • Student-centered discussion
  • Multiple roles for students (30 undergrad
    preservice teachers)
  • Starting a discussion
  • Contributing
  • Wrapping a discussion
  • Instructors role
  • Facilitate
  • Model

Social Cues
  • Post openings Wow, all of this psychology
    stuff just blows right over my head fancy
    mumbo-jumbo eek!
  • Personal statements Im feeling great
  • Apologies Sorry everybody, I am the discussion
    starter and I didnt realize it! Oops!
  • Jokes, compliments, emoticons, verbal support

Referencing Peers
  • Melinda mentions that its easier to
  • I agree with George that incentives can
    definitely do
  • in reply to Nancys comments about teachers

Referencing Experts
  • Formal citations
  • Learners must individually discover and
    transform information if they are to make it
    their own (Slavin, 270)
  • Informal references
  • the different teaching techniques as described
    in Slavin, but

Findings Cognitive Depth
The Pedagogical TICKIT Teacher Institute for
Curriculum Knowledge about the Integration of
  • Curt Bonk, Lee Ehman, Emily Hixon, and Lisa
  • Presented at AERA, 2001, in press, Technology and
    Teacher Education

Overview of TICKIT
  • Year-long school-based program
  • 25 teacher in 5 rural schools
  • Thoughtful infusion of technology
  • Builds teacher cadres in schools
  • Two classroom technology projects taught
  • Action research and reporting
  • Asynchronous conferencing in Virtual U
  • Critical friends
  • Reading reactions
  • Online debates

Findings Overall Frequencies of Online Assisted
  • Most frequent
  • Feedback Praise 28
  • Social Acknowledgement 25
  • Encouraging Articulation 13
  • Questioning 9
  • Modeling/Examples 7
  • Weaving/Summarizing 6
  • Direct Instruction 0

Findings Peer Social Discourse
  • Focus 50 on teaching and school experience
  • Off Task 7 most in critical friend posts
  • 50 more peer praise in critical friend posts
  • Referred to own teaching 3 times gt than others
  • Justification 77 claims unsupported 20
    referenced classroom other experience
  • Not Much Depth 80 surface level

Findings Summary
  • Critical friend dialogue involved more peer
    support, help requests, social acknowledgement
  • Reading reactions/debates more content focus
  • Critical friend postings perceived more
    beneficial to classroom practice
  • Reading reactions debates viewed as just
    another task

Research Study multicultural issues in online
collaboration? (Kim Bonk, 2002)
  • Are there cross-cultural differences in learners
    online collaborative behaviors among preservice
    teachers from 3 diff cultures?
  • If cross-cultural differences are found, what
    factors seem to cause such differences?
  • What are the implications of such cross-cultural
    differences for designing, developing, and
    delivering online learning?

Online Postings Summary (1)
  • Finland and US conferences

Online Collaboration Behaviors by Categories
Differences in Feedback Seeking Giving
  • A U.S. case on disciplinary problems (FBS)

One day I come into teach the class and one of
the twenty students is very quiet. He seemed
alright at the time of teaching, but towards the
end he just starts crying for no reason. Then, I
asked him if there was a problem at home. That is
when he starts to really cry. The questions
that were raised in my head were 1. How involved
should I get?, 2. Should I call the family and
tell them what happened?, 3. Should I tell the
other teachers and see what we all can do?
Differences in Social Interaction Behaviors
  • Social Interactions Among Korean students

- Well, like a cup of coffee, may this new thing
be relaxing (I am praying now). It must be the
beginning, so I am happy now. I wonder whether
someone would reply to me. I am a little bit
nervous cause I am not so familiar with Web
conferencing. - Sister Sunny, take care of
yourself, and I hope your health will be good
soon. Im not accustomed to Web conference,
either, but it is a good chance to participate.
Please, cheer up! - Thank you for your interest
in my health, but Im all right now
Findings from the Qualitative Analysis
  • U.S. students more action-oriented and pragmatic
    in seeking results or giving solutions.
  • Finnish students were more group focused as well
    as reflective and theoretically driven.
  • Korean students were more socially and
    contextually driven.

Last Study The Armor Captains Career Course
(AC3-DL)Problem-Solving Exercises in Military
Training Communication Patterns During
Synchronous (2001-2002) Web-based Instruction
Computers in Human Behavior, Special Issue on
Computer-Based Assessment of Problem Solving
Orvis, Wisher, Bonk, Olson, in press
Three Phases of AC3-DL
  • Asynchronous Phase 240 hours of instruction or 1
    year to complete must score 70 or better on
    each gate exam
  • Synchronous Phase 60 hours of asynchronous and
    120 hours of synchronous
  • Residential Phase 120 hours of training in 2
    weeks at Fort Knox

Overall frequency of interactions across chat
categories (6,601 chats).
Sample Social Interactions
  • Good Morning
  • what up hows the kids
  • Kids are great we made breakfast for Mom (wife)
  • Did you go out for a run last night?
  • tell her I said happy mothers day
  • 3 miles in 24 mins all hills
  • If God had meant for us to run, he wouldnt
    have given us tanks

Social, mechanics, and on-task behaviors in the
chat interactions over time.
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