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Rhino Nutrition Update AAZK, 2005

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Ellen Dierenfeld, Chair (Sumatran) Marcus Clauss, Univ Zurich (Black) ... Busch Gardens diet with increased soluble CHO, beet pulp (n=3 blacks) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rhino Nutrition Update AAZK, 2005


1
Rhino Nutrition UpdateAAZK, 2005
2
Rhino TAG Nutrition Advisory Group
  • Ellen Dierenfeld, Chair (Sumatran)
  • Marcus Clauss, Univ Zurich (Black)
  • Michael Schlegel, Disney (White)
  • Kerrin Grant, Utah State (Asiatic)

3
Q/A from Zookeeper Survey (thanks to Dawn
Strasser!!)
  • New nutritional concerns
  • Doses of vitamin E how often evaluate
  • Update on White Oak pellet feed study
  • Tannins for binding iron feed study
  • Forages timothy vs. Alfalfa
  • Browse length of time to feed out and still
    maintain nutritional/enrichment value if root on
    plant, degrades less?

4
Q/A from Zookeeper Survey (thanks to Dawn
Strasser!!)
  • Specific foods NOT to feed?
  • Perennial ryegrass staggars
  • D toxicity?
  • Pregnancy changes in diet

5
Diseases with Possible Nutritional Links - Black
Rhino
  • Hemosiderosis - mineral imbalances
  • Hemolytic anemia - vitamin E, antiox
  • Ulcerative dermatitis - glucose, amino acid,
    fatty acid, mineral imbalances
  • Peripheral vasculitis (IHV) - vitamin C, antiox,
    minerals, fatty acids
  • Overall impaired immune function

6
Research Updates
  • Mineral Survey, Tissues Blood
  • Novel Antioxidant Metabolism
  • Tannin Binding Salivary Proteins
  • Intake trials in Indian Rhinos
  • Field Studies
  • Vitamin E Fatty Acids in Native Browses
  • Serum Vitamin E in Rhinos in South Africa
  • Field Ecology Studies South Africa, Namibia
  • New Initiatives

7
Minerals in Rhinos
  • E.S. Dierenfeld (St. Louis), S. Atkinson
    (Muskingum College), A.M. Craig (Oregon State),
    K.C. Walker (Oregon State), W.J. Streich (Berlin)
    M. Clauss (Zurich)
  • Zoo Biology 2451-72 (2005)

8
Mineral Highlights
  • Serum/plasma
  • Zoo blacks (n34) Free-ranging (n27)
  • Zoo whites (n3-16) Free-ranging (n5)
  • Indian (n3), Sumatran (n3)
  • Liver (21 blacks, 6 whites, 2-4 Indian
    Sumatran)
  • Horse a good model of metabolism
  • Rhinos er blood Ca Se (captive only) low Na
    compared to equids
  • Browsers high Fe (blood liver)
  • Browsers low Cu (liver) grazers high
  • Liver K, Mg, Co, Mo with age

9
Iron Issues Browsing rhinos
  • Captives females higher

10
Iron Issues Browsing rhinos
  • Females higher, both sexes increase with age

11
Iron Issues Browsing Rhinos
  • Linked with low tannins? Antiox, increased
    availability of iron but not solely diet
  • Lack of fiber? Also can increase Fe bioavail
    again, soluble CHO may be important
  • Influence of dietary vitamin C? (citrus effect
    doubtful - native browses likely high)

12
Mineral Interactions
13
Elevated Free Tyrosine in Rhinoceros Erytrhocytes
  • Weber, B.W., D.E. Paglia, E.H. Harley

Comp Biochem Physiol 138105-109 (2004)
14
  • Tyrosine in rhinoceros RBCs (but not plasma)
    50-fold higher than humans
  • Also elevated in other Perissodactyla
  • Captives significantly lower compared to
    free-ranging also variation across species
  • Function as antioxidant?

15
Tannins Rhinos
  • M. Clauss, Munich (now Zurich) J. Gehrke, J.
    Fickel, M. Lechner-Doll, Berlin E.J. Flach,
    Whipsnade E.S. Dierenfeld, WCS (now St. Louis)
    J.-M. Hatt, Zurich

Comp Biochem Physiol 14067-72 (2005)
16
Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins in 3 Rhino
Species
  • Salivary tannin-binding proteins (TBP) related
    to dietary habits browsers highest
  • Compared saliva samples from grazer (white,
    n9), browser (black, n10), and mixed (Indian,
    n8) feeding habits
  • Used hydrolyzable (tannic acid) condensed
    (quebracho solution) tannin stds

17
Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins in 3 Rhino
SpeciesResults..
  • Black rhino bound both H CT gtgt white
  • Indian bound H black, CT gtgt black
  • Difference between black white expected,
    results from Indian may indicate evolutionarily
    recent switch from browsing

18
Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins Inducible in
Black Rhinos
  • Related to dietary habits browsers highest
  • Black rhinos eat tannins in nature seasonal
    dietary habits might benefit from inducible
    mechanism.
  • Six animals (3 facilities) fed 3 mo
  • Regular diet
  • Diet 5 tannic acid pellet
  • Diet 5 quebracho pellet

19
Induction of Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins .
Cont.
  • Significant in tannic acid-binding capacity
    with both tannic acid and quebracho feeding
  • n.s. trend for change in quebracho-binding
    capacity with quebracho feeding no change with
    tannic acid feeding
  • Hydrolyzable tannins play a greater role in
    native environment of rhino?
  • HT gtgt CT at iron binding? Ongoing trials both in
    Europe the US, with Fe balance

20
Indian Rhino NutritionZoo Study
  • M. Clauss, C. Polster, E. Kienzle, H.Wiesner, K.
    Baumgartner, F. von Houwald, W.J. Streich, E. S.
    Dierenfeld

Zoo Biology 241-14 (2005)
21
Aims of the Study
  • Chronic foot problems, leiomyomas linked with
    excess body weight?
  • Intake, Digestion
  • difference between zoo diets
  • (Nürnberg, n2 München, n2 Zurich, n3 Bronx,
    n4)
  • Diets with or without concentrates
  • Mineral (Ca) metabolism
  • Water intake

22
Zoo Diets
  • Nürnberg
  • Grass hay, grass silage, pellets,
  • Fruit vegetable, mineral biscuits
  • Munich
  • Grass hay, pellets, fruit vegetable, mineral
  • Basel
  • Straw, pellets, hay cobs, fruit vegetable
  • Bronx
  • Mixed hay, pellets, (minimal) produce

23
Particle Passage Dry matter intake
24
Dry Matter Digestibility
25
Dry Matter Digestibility Crude Fiber
26
Results
  • consumed 0.5-1.1 of body weight (DMI) daily
  • digestible energy 0.27-0.99 MJ DE/kg BW0
    .75 (compared with est. reqt. 0.49-0.66)
  • 64 (7 of 11) consumed more energy, even on
    roughage-only diet
  • Water intake 30-49 mL/kg BW daily (equid)

27
Results
  • hay ad libitum diet is possible
  • BUT
  • mineral /or vitamin supplement needed
  • straw concentrate diet
  • energy provision as good as hay only diet
  • May need to restrict both concentrate forage

28
Ca-Metabolism in Rhinos
  • Similar to horses, rabbits
  • not dependent on Vit D (?)
  • Elimination URINE
  • Consequence
  • Ca-stones in bladder kidney
  • (reported in rabbits, horses never in
    rhino)
  • Other minerals, similar to horses

29
(No Transcript)
30
Rhino Browse Free-Ranging
Captive
(n12)
(n4)
(n44)
(n11)
31
FORAGES FOR RHINOS
  • Best nutrient ratio to duplicate browse? More
    grass than legume sol CHO (in grass) impt. ???
    - needs investigation
  • Good quality grass forage proper pellet (61)
    alone can meet maintenance reqts.
  • Alfalfa NOT considered browse.
  • Browse can have enrichment value even if nutrient
    profiles not maintained.
  • Degradation depends on nutrient dont know
    effect of roots worth testing.
  • Keep as palatable as possible.

32
Lucerne (Alfalfa) can be Problematic
  • High N, Ca, Mg
  • Increased hindgut pH
  • Very digestible, altered passage rate
  • Salivary buffering issues, acid/base imbalances
    more prevalent


33
Mineral Imbalances Due to Improper Forages?
  • Associated with lucerne (alfalfa) feeding in
    both grazers browsers


34
Grass Also Problematic?
  • Grass staggars reported with perennial ryegrass
    (Bluett et al., NZ Vet J 5248, 2004)
  • Due to fungal endophyte with alkaloids localized
    in leaf base (overgrazing) and seed heads
    (undergrazing)
  • Clinically tremors, lethargy, staggar, collapse
  • Test for lolitrem B (gt1 mg/kg DM) or dont use
    pastures/hay containing perennial ryegrass with
    wild endophyte

35
PREGNANCY DIETS (all rhinos)
  • NO increased need until last trimester during
    lactation
  • Increased
  • Calorie needs (about double)
  • protein reqts. (8-10 to 12-14)
  • Ca (0.3 0.5) and P (0.2-0.3)
  • No other changes recommended with equine model
  • Best to alter digestibility of diet increasing
    browse and/or legume forage (adds protein and
    Ca), possibly targeted concentrates - not double
    quantities per se due to physical limitations

36
Plasma Vitamin E in Free-Ranging Black Rhinos
Mean 0.86 ug/ml similar to other studies
Ndondo et al., 2004 S Afr J Wild Rec 34100-102
37
Plasma Vitamin E in Free-Ranging Black Rhinos
Clauss et al., 2002
38
Plasma Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Black Rhinos
Clauss et al., 2002
39
Vitamin E Concentrations in Black Rhino Browses
Ndondo et al., 2004 Dierenfeld et al.,
1995 Ghebremeskel et al., 1991
40
VITAMIN E
  • Recommended doses (dietary levels) of vitamin E
  • Based on available information, ensure all
    species consume diets containing at least 50
    IU/kg DM up to 200 IU/kg.
  • Not doses per se, but if eat 1 of body mass, a
    2000 kg black will eat 20 kg DM X 50 IU 1000 IU
    minimal.
  • Evaluate at least annually

41
Vitamin D Toxicity an Isolated Problem in 2002
Manufacturer very responsive, no diet problem
isolated
Miller et al., summary, 2003
42
Fatty Acids in Black Rhino Browses (South Africa)
  • Seasonal shift - increased PUFAs (C18) in winter
    vs spring
  • No relationship with vit E levels but essential
    for vit E absorption

Ndondo et al., 2004
43
Evidence of FA Deficiency in Black Rhinos
  • Browse composition (Zimbabwe NA temperate
    spp.)
  • Fresh browse - a-linolenic (n-3) 15X gtgt linoleic
    (n-6) immediate oxidation
  • Zoo vs. free-range diet - linoleic 5X, linolenic
    1/3
  • Grant et al., 2002, J. Wildl. Dis. Wright, 1998

44
Fatty Acid Investigations - Zoo Rhinos Short-
Long-Term
  • Adipose tissue FA as measure of long-term
    diet effects
  • 25 of rhinos (n20) deficient in C182
    (linoleic) gt50 undetectable C183 (a-linolenic)
  • No free-range tissue samples as baseline
  • Clinical response to dietary FA supplementation
  • Adding flax-based supplement altered w-3w-6
    ratios favorably
  • Zoo diet - opposite effects on ratio
  • Suedmeyer Dierenfeld, 1998

Dierenfeld Frank, 1998
45
  • Currently summarizing FA in rhino plasma (US and
    European zoos) vs. Free-ranging
  • Limit foods high in PUFAs unless adequate
    antioxidant (Polyphenolics? Vitamin E? Tyrosine?)
  • Concentrates higher than forages in PUFA

46
Ongoing Captive Nutrition Studies Rhinos
  • White Oak Browsing Rhino pellets added St.
    Louis (n1) others?
  • Busch Gardens diet with increased soluble CHO,
    beet pulp (n3 blacks)
  • Tannin feed additives US and Europe no updates
    submitted
  • Sumatran rhino feeding trial Los Angeles
    seasonal intake/digestion trials
  • Rhino Browse/Diet Database?

47
Ongoing Nutrition Field Studies Black Rhinos
  • Stephane Helary University of Witwatersrand,
    South Africa. N. Owen-Smith, advisor. IRF
    initially funded
  • Earthwatch project Waterberg Plateau, Namibia,
    also examining South African sites
  • Quantifying Fe, tannins, minerals natural
    chelators, possibly ascorbic acid
  • Feed plants, feces
  • Different ecosystems, different seasons

48
IRF RFP 2005 - Priority Target Areas with
Possible Nutrition Component(s)
  • Dietary/Nutritional links with disease or
    susceptibility
  • Dietary links with reproduction
  • Nutritional links with male sex skew
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