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A Brief Overview of Music & Music Education in the History of Ideas ... about Mozart being piped into Bloomingdale's for democracy and consumerism are concomitant. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Music

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  • A Brief Overview of Music Music Education in
    the History of Ideas
  • --from Antiquity to the Present
  • James F. Daugherty, Ph.D.
  • University of Kansas

  • What do Stadium Australia and the 2001Sydney
    Olympics have to do with the history and
    philosophy of music education?

Film Clips
  • Opening Ceremonies
  • Advance Australia Fair

Doctrine of Ethos
  • Music contributes to
  • Character formation
  • Moral education
  • Citizenship
  • eqos
  • Ethics
  • Ethnic
  • Ethnology

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  • mousike
  • for the Greeks, a combination of music,
    poetry(text), and dance
  • broadly, any human activity
  • governed by the Muses

  • arete
  • virtue, excellence

Some Examples of Ethos
  • Platonic Tradition
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
  • Allan Bloom, Closing of the American Mind
  • Censorship of Contemporary Rock Lyrics
  • Debate over religious music in public schools

Letter to the Editor
  • --from THE TALLAHASSEE DEMOCRAT (March 6, 1995)
  • My daughter was thrilled to try out for Sable
    Palm Chorus that fourth-and fifth-graders only
    are allowed to participate. She approached me
    with the idea a week ago about tryouts, in which
    I encouraged her. I thought chorus would improve
    her self-esteem.
  • Unfortunately, she and others were not accepted
    for chorus, and she was heartbroken. Im not
    aware of the criteria for acceptance in chorus,
    except for singing abilities. Lets be
    reasonable. These are 9- and 10-year old
    students with singing voices that have not
    developed, as opposed to teen-agers.

  • Years ago, when I was in school, whomever was
    interested in joining the chorus would simply
    sign up. There wasnt any such of a thing as
    tryouts. Chorus is a school activity, which
    enhances kids to become sociable, to build
    self-confidence and to learn team effort. Any
    and every student who desires to join the
    elementary chorus should be able to, regardless
    of their singing abilities.
  • If the issue is about limitation on students in
    the chorus, then there should be two groups, in
    addition to other types of activities for
    students that would perhaps build their
  • Carmelita M. Williams

The Music Man
  • Whats the solution to trouble in
  • River City?

From ethos to symbolism
  • Plato, although an exemplar of ethos, was also
    influenced by his 6th century predecessor,
  • Platos thought is also indebted to Pythagoras
    and especially his mystical numerology (e.g.

Doctrine of Symbolism
  • Idealism
  • Music as metaphysical or cosmological a
    reflection of supernatural truth
  • Dualism

Pythagoras of Samos (6th c B.C.)
  • His influence on the ideas, and thereby on the
    destiny, of the human race was probably greater
    than that of any single man before or after him.
  • --Arthur Koestler, The Sleepwalkers

Pythagorean Thought
  • Mysticism and Science
  • The Great Theme (James) the cosmos is a
    sublimely harmonious system guided by a Supreme
  • Music and the human soul are both aspects of the
  • Inter-relatedness of all human knowledge

Pythagorean Table of Opposites
  • Limited
  • Odd
  • Right
  • Male
  • Rest
  • Straight
  • Light
  • Good
  • Square
  • Unlimited
  • Even
  • Left
  • Female
  • Motion
  • Curved
  • Dark
  • Bad
  • Oblong

Importance of Number
  • The Pythagorean system expressed these concepts
    with numbers

Music and number
  • The Pythagoreans, as they are called, devoted
    themselves to mathematics they were the first to
    advance this study, and having been brought up in
    it they thought its principles were the
    principles of all things. Since of these
    principles numbers are by nature the first, and
    in numbers they seem to see many resemblances to
    the things that exist and come into being
    since, again, they say that the attributes and
    ratios of the musical scales were expressible in
    numbers since, then, all other things seemed in
    their whole nature to be modeled after numbers,
    and numbers seemed to be the first things in the
    whole of nature, they supposed the elements of
    numbers to be the elements of all things, and the
    whole heaven to be a musical scale and number.
  • --Aristotle, Metaphysics

Pythagoras Discovery
  • an exact correspondence between the abstract
    world of musical sounds and the abstract world of
  • the musical intervals produced by the hammers
    were exactly equivalent to the ratios between the
    hammers weights

Musical Intervals
  • Once as Pythagoras was intently considering
    music, and reasoning with himself whether it
    would be possible to devise some instrumental
    assistance to the sense of hearing, so as to
    systematize it, as sight is made precise by the
    compass, rule, and surveying instrument, or touch
    is made reckonable by balance and measure--so
    thinking of these things Pythagoras happened to
    pass by a braziers shop, where he heard the
    hammers beating out a piece of iron on an anvil,
    producing sounds that harmonized, except one.
    But he recognized in these sounds the concord of
    the octave, the fifth, and the fourth. He saw
    that athe sound between the fourth and the fifth,
    taken by itself, was a dissonance, and yet
    completed the great sound among them.
  • ---Iamblichus biography

  • X
  • X X
  • X X X
  • X X X X
  • 1--gtunity, identity, equality
  • 2--gtdyad principle of dichotomy
  • 3--gtemblem of beginning, middle, end
  • 4--gtnumber of points required to construct a
    pyramid, the simplest of the perfect solids
  • Adding together these four numbers10, the basis
    of Pythagorean and our mathematics

3 Types of Music in Pythagorean Thought
  • ordinary music (made by plucking the lyre,
    blowing the pipe, etc.)
  • the continuous but unheard music made by each
    human organism, especially the harmonious/inharmon
    ious resonance between soul and body
  • the music made by the cosmos itself (later known
    as Music of the Spheres)

  • In Pythagorean thought, music exists quite
    independently of human beings
  • If a tree falls in the forest and there is no
    one around to hear it, is there sound?

Music as healer
  • since ordinary music and music made by resonance
    of the human organism are of the same essence,
    plucking the strings of a lyre could arouse
    sympathetic vibrations in the human instrument
  • Roots of Music Therapy

  • A young man from Taormina had been up all night
    partying with friends and listening to songs in
    the Phrygian mode, a key well known for its
    ability to incite violence. When the aggravated
    lad saw the girl he loved sneaking away in the
    wee hours of the morning from the home of his
    rival, he determined to go burn her house down.
  • Pythagoras happened to be out late himself,
    star-gazing, and he walked in on this violent
    scene. He convinced the piper to change his tune
    from the Phrygian mode to a song in spondees, a
    tranquilizing meter. The young mans madness
    instantly cooled, and he was restored to reason.
  • --from a biography of Pythagoras by Iamblichus

Pythagoreanism in ongoing language
  • Perfect Intervals
  • Unison
  • Fourth
  • Fifth
  • Octave
  • Tritone
  • diabolus in musica, the devil in music

Music of the Spheres
  • Pythagoras believed that the motion of bodies
    that size must produce a noise, since on our
    earth the motion of bodies far inferior in size
    and speed of movement has that effect. Also,
    when the sun and the moon, they say, and all the
    stars, so great in number and in size, are moving
    with so rapid a motion, how should they not
    produce a sound immensely great? Starting from
    this argument, and the observation that their
    speeds, as measured by their distances, are in
    the same ratios as musical concordances, they
    assert that the sound given forth by the circular
    movement of the stars is a harmony.
  • --Aristotle, On the Heavens

  • Musica speculativa
  • Musica practica
  • Musica speculativa reflected still today in
    curricula of such institutions as
  • Harvard University
  • University of Virginia

  • A Case Study of Interactions Between Ethos

  • Ars gratia republicae art for the sake of the
  • Beauty is not that which induces a pleasurable
    sensation, but that which enobles and leads a
    person to a just and temperate life

  • Supremacy of Reason
  • Doctrine of Forms
  • Doctrine of Recollection

  • Allegory of the Cave

  • Music is so powerful that it can mislead, or
    corrupt the path to reality, the true or ideal
  • Music must be regulated, censored
  • Music itself is not a path to the ideal, but
    properly guarded, can prepare the soul to journey

Interaction of Ethos Symbolism Some Examples
  • Judaeo-Christian Tradition
  • Psalmody Psalters
  • Augustine
  • Luther
  • Calvin
  • Singing Schools
  • Vatican II

1837 Statement of the special committee on music
of the Boston School Committee
  • Let vocal Music be examined by this standard.
  • Morally There is,-- who has not felt it--, a
    mysterious connection, ordained undoubtedly for
    wise purposes, between certain sounds and the
    moral sentiments of man.It is an ultimate law of
    mans nature.Now it is a curious fact, that the
    natural scale of musical sound can only produce
    good, virtuous, and kindly feelings.And, if such
    be the case,, if there be this necessary
    concordance between certain sounds and certain
    trains of moral feeling, is it unphilosophical to
    say that exercises in vocal Music may be so
    directed and arranged as to produce those habits
    of feeling of which these sounds are types.These
    qualities are connected intimately with the moral
    government of the individual. Why should they
    not, under proper management, be rendered equally
    efficient in the moral government of the school?

Letter to the Editor
  • --from THE NEW YORK TIMES (February 9, 1997)
  • To the Editor
  • Bernard Holland in Listening Is Either/Or. Or
    Is It? (Feb. 2), asks, Does one turn the pages
    of A Man Without Qualities while making love?
    Perhaps this would indeed require being in a
    sexual position unknown to Masters and Johnson,
    but where is the lover who is not carried away,
    whose ardor is not enhanced, by the sound of a
    violin or a guitar? Where is the soldier who is
    not encouraged by the military march or patriotic
    anthem? Where is the pious man unmoved by the
    sound of the organ or choir?
  • Music has always been an accompaniment to other
    activities, and, far from lowering the status of
    music, this situation has usually raised it.

  • Old governments that understood their purpose to
    be the formation of human character rather than
    the protection of rights knew that certain kinds
    of music lend themselves to certain kinds of
    activities and to certain forms of soul or
    character. Therefore, they took music seriously
    and even practiced censorship.

  • Mr. Hollands real complaint is that classical
    music is now an accompaniment to shopping rather
    to other, more serious activities, and, with
    this, Mr. Holland makes a fair point about the
    silliness of modern life. But I wonder if he
    would prefer to return to political orders in
    which the question of character (and, therefore,
    music) is of primary importance and in which
    consumerism does not exist. If Mr. Holland likes
    liberal democracy, then he must stop whining
    about Mozart being piped into Bloomingdales for
    democracy and consumerism are concomitant.
  • John Coumarianos
  • Brookline, Mass.

Music as Science
  • Music as Art
  • Music as Fine Art

Seven Liberal Arts Martianus Capella
  • Quadrivium
  • Geometry
  • Astronomy
  • Music
  • Arithmetic
  • Trivium
  • Language
  • Rhetoric
  • Logic


Music and Science
  • Pythagoras discovery of the arithmetical basis
    of musical intervals was not just the beginning
    of music theory it was the beginning of science.
    For the first time, man (sic) discovered that
    universal truths could be explained through
    systematic investigation and the use of symbols
    such as mathematics.
  • -J. James, The Music of the Spheres

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Music as Art
  • Renaissance Humanism Back to the Greeks, but
  • Literary Model Music as human expression (On to
    man as the measure of all things)
  • Vitality of Texted Music
  • Music begins shift from the quadrivium to the

Today St. Johns College Curriculum
  • Based on Hellenistic principles and Renaissance
  • All students take chorus as a required subject
    their sophomore year

Music as Fine Art
  • Emergence of aesthetic philosophy

  • Opposite of anaesthetic, or non-feeling
  • Aesthetic not a term in the human vocabulary
    until Baumgarten in the mid 1700s.

Music as Fine Art
  • Fine Arts music, painting, architecture,
    sculpture, poetry
  • Ars gratia artis art for arts sake
  • Focus on pure Form of the musical Work
  • Vitality of Absolute Music
  • Increasing marginalization of music in schooling
  • More dramatic shift to music as individual
    rather than social

  • Is the Music Education Division at the University
    of Kansas better lodged in the School of
    Education, or the School of Fine Arts?
  • Is the Department of Music more appropriately
    lodged in the School of Fine Arts or the College
    of Arts and Sciences?

Peter Kivy
  • No longer is there a convincing rationale for the
    place of music in a liberal arts education

John Butt
  • Conclusion to his study of practical music in
    German elementary schools, 1600-1750
  • the more practical music was cultivating an
    agenda of its own, the more music sowed the
    seeds of its ultimate demise as a fundamental
    element of education
  • John Butt, Music Education and the Art of
    Performance in the German Baroque (Cambridge, UK
    Cambridge University Press, 1994), 13.

Other Basic Ideas/Lenses
  • Largely modern, but with some obvious historical

Music as Trait
  • There exists an indwelling proclivity, either
    innate or due to environmental influence, or
    both, responsible for individual musical activity
  • It is distributed unequally among the population
  • musical talent, aptitude

Music as Communication or Expression
  • Music is fundamentally a mode of human emotional
  • Emotions aroused externally by a musical cause
  • Emotivists sad music makes us feel sad
  • Cognitivists music moves us
  • Reimer absolute expressionism
  • Elliott referential expressionism

Music as Behavior
  • No mentalism at all in music
  • Music is a rewarding behavior learned by
    successive approximation and reinforcement
  • The consequences of music are also its causes

Music as supernatural
  • genesis of music is essentially non human,
    pre-existing in another reality
  • by contrast, cognitivists argue that music is
    naturalistic, an invention of human thought

Contemporary Statement
  • a spark of perfection, just a glimpse, remains
    with man (sic) enough so that he may recognize
    his Creator. It comes in different shapes and
    forms. One of those forms is the gift of music.
    Its the only form of art that will exist in
    heaven. God gave it to us so that we can praise
  • --Eph Ehly, UMKC, as interviewed in Quest for
    Answers, ed. Carole Glenn (Chapel Hill, NC
    Hinshaw, 1991), 125-126.

Music as Perception
  • music is a product of the raw materials of sound
    processed by the ear and brain processing of
    external stimuli

Now on the SceneMusic as Cognition
  • Human intelligence/thought/cognition/knowledge is
    not unitary, but multi-dimensional
  • There exists within the human brain a geography
    of cognitive domains and processes specific to
    the various intelligences available to human
  • Music is a unique type of cognitive human activity

Music as Cognition
  • Music viewed as an evolutionary product of human
  • Cognitivists argue that musical sound is the
    consequence or product of non-discursive thought
  • Music is cognitively generated, not just
    cognitively processed it can occur mentally in
    the absence of physical sound

  • music has to do primarily with internal mental
    processes that have evolved over time
  • Debate among cognitivists music as auditory
    cheesecake (Pinker) versus music as an
    evolutionary development tied to survival needs
    such language, mating/reproduction (Levitson, et

Food for Thought
  • Ideas have consequences for the practice of music
  • Major ideas rarely die. They mate, reproduce,
    and become embedded in newer webs of belief.
  • How do we know what we know? This central
    epistemological question is an ongoing one for
    music educators.

Food for Thought
  • As a discipline, music education entails hybrid
    phenomena. How music and education relate
    (genus/species, dialectic, etc.) remains a
    primary issue.
  • This issue is complicated by no one definition of
    music on which there is widespread agreement.
    Music remains largely an indeterminate concept.

  • For music, despite the saw about its being an
    international language, is many things to many
    people, places, and times.
  • --James R. Oestreich, The New York Times, Sunday,
    January 22, 2001, p 30 Arts Leisure (on why the
    1980 edition of Groves decided not to have an
    entry on music).

Stanley Sadie
  • We could find no one person who could have
    written on music and the changing significance
    of the term through the ages.
  • --Editor of The New Groves Dictionary of Music
    and Musicians

  • the deliberate, systematic, and sustained
    effort to transmit or evoke knowledge, attitudes,
    values, skills and sensibilities
  • --Lawrence A. Cremin

  • Involves configurations of education, e.g.
    family, church, school, community
  • Can involve shifting configurations figurations
    over time, and the impact of one pedagogy upon
  • The history of education is not simply a history
    of institutional schooling