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Weight Management


... not the only or the best ways to determine a person's health level. ... to Lose Weight? ... your diet is the best way to ensure safe, continued weight loss. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Weight Management

Weight Management
Factors Contributing to Obesity
  • Genetics
  • While there is not a specific gene that causes
    obesity, current research suggests an
    individuals genetic profile may predispose an
    individual to becoming obese.
  • Prenatal Factors
  • Mothers weight gain during pregnancy can have a
    direct link to obesity in her child. Some women
    develop gestational diabetes while carrying their
    children to term.
  • Childhood
  • Physical education classes are decreasing in
    frequency and duration across the country.
    Parents work weeks are increasing leaving less
    time for healthy eating and increasing the time
    children are in environments not conducive to
    physical activity.

Factors Contributing to Obesity
  • Increased Caloric Consumption
  • More processed foods are more readily available.
    Media advertisements bombard us to eat products
    that are high in calories. We dont see many
    commercials for oranges and bananas.
  • Increased Portions
  • Jumbo, Biggie, Super Size are now entirely normal
    adjectives for our food. Even our dishes that we
    buy for our homes are bigger today than in
    previous generations.
  • Inactivity
  • Folks just dont move as much. More white
    collar jobs, more time spent working equate to
    less time being active.

Factors Contributing to Obesity
  • Modernization
  • We dont even have to push open doors!
  • Passive Entertainment
  • TV, Internet, Video Games. We spend more time
    doing these activities. Often times while we do
    them we are eating so it becomes a double whammy.
  • Socioeconomics
  • It takes more money to eat healthy. Buying a gym
    membership or quality running shoes can be quite

Factors Contributing to Obesity
  • Emotions
  • Eating can be a major source of happiness for
    folks. Instead of grabbing a drink or a drug,
    many folks turn to ice cream or other snacks.
  • Fast Food
  • Ever-present and increasing. The variations are
    huge. While this type of food is not always bad
    for you, it can become a habit of convenience
    that becomes debilitating.

Weight Management Basics
  • Consuming more calories than expended results in
    weight gain.
  • Not a 1 for 1 exact match, there are other
    factors at work. Meaning that drinking a Pepsi
    for 150 calories and then using an elliptical to
    burn 150 calories does not equal zero.
  • Vomiting and giving yourself an enema similarly
    do not negate calories you have already ingested.

Weight Management Basics
  • Basal Metabolic Rate or BMR, is your baseline
    metabolic rate. That is roughly the amount of
    calories you need to function as a human.
  • Fat vs. Muscle Metabolism
  • 1 pound of fat burns about 2 calories a day.
  • 1 pound of muscle burns about 50 calories a day.
  • That difference is one of the primary arguments
    for resistance training for weight management.
    Increasing lean body mass promotes a higher
    metabolism rate which in turn can lower body

DQ 9 If a diet is designed to get you to lose
weight… Should it include exercise? What
type(s)? Be specific to the outcome of losing
Weight Management Basics
  • Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption, or EPOC
  • This is what is happening in your body after you
    exercise. The result is that your metabolism
    rate is elevated following an exercise session.
  • Of the factors associated with EPOC, the majority
    of them are influenced greater by anaerobic
    training, such as resistance training, than by
    aerobic training.
  • When you combine EPOC data with the lean body
    metabolism information it becomes apparent how
    important resistance training is to maintain a
    healthy weight.

Weight Management Basics
  • Water storage
  • When you begin to exercise your body will adapt
    and store more CHO as glycogen. Glycogen stores
    2-3 grams of water with it so after initially
    beginning an exercise program, especially a
    resistance training program, you may notice an
    increase in body weight. That is normal and
    good, but if you arent ready to see the scale go
    up initially it may scare you into stopping your
    resistance training program.

Weight Management Basics
  • Yo-Yo Dieting
  • Many times when folks diet they lose weight. The
    problem is that some-to-most of that weight loss
    is lean body mass (muscle). As described
    earlier, that loss in lbm will result in a lower
    metabolism rate. The person lost weight to the
    point they wanted to get to, then went back to
    their old habits, only this time with a lower
    metabolic rate b/c of the lower metabolism rate.
    Weight gain ensues quicker and the process

How do you know if you are overweight?
  • The best indicators of weight-related health
    risks are BMI, WC, WHR. pg. 143.
  • This statement is not entirely true. Those
    measures do not adequately represent body
    composition which takes into account lean body
    mass. Those specific measures are some tools but
    are not the only or the best ways to determine a
    persons health level. Notice how not one of
    those measures was in the 5 Components of Fitness?

So You Want to Lose Weight?
  • Increasing your physical activity level without
    any dietary modifications can result in a 2 to 3
    weight loss.
  • Caloric restriction will also promote weight
    loss. However, this type by itself sets you up
    for a yo-yo diet plan.
  • Utilizing a combination of increasing physical
    activity levels and modifying your diet is the
    best way to ensure safe, continued weight loss.

How Much Can I Lose Safely?
  • Losing more than 1-2 lbs. / week will result in
    unsafe weight loss. Any more than 1-2 lbs. means
    a substantial portion of the loss is coming from
    water weight. You need enough water in your body
    to function normally. Additionally, water weight
    is easily replaceable and does not reflect any
    health benefit.
  • This is a good rule of thumb when evaluating a
    diet plan. If it is promoting weight loss
    exceeding 2 lbs. / week you know the plan is not

  • One pound of fat is roughly equal to 3500
    calories. So, to lose 1 fat pound you need to
    remove 3500 calories from your normal routine.
  • You can do this by a combination of exercise and
    dietary modifications. Cutting 250 calories from
    your diet and increasing exercise by 250 calories
    / day for one week would be equivalent to 1 fat
    pound lost for the week.

Marcus Stages of Change Model
  • Precontemplation arent performing the
    self-change behavior and dont intend to start.
    Initial notice of problem.
  • You walk by a mirror and dislike what you see
    staring back at you.
  • Contemplation arent performing the self-change
    behavior but are thinking about starting.
  • You know you dont like your fitness level and
    begin to think about how you will attack the
  • Preparation youve recently started performing
    the self-change behavior but not consistently
    enough to benefit from it.
  • You buy new running shoes or a gym membership and
    you begin to participate infrequently or

Marcus Stages of Change Model
  • Action you have maintained the self-change
    behavior consistently for several months.
  • You now go to the gym 4X / week and have been
    doing so for a time period less than 6 months.
  • Maintenance youve maintained the self-change
    behavior consistently for several months and plan
    to continue doing so.
  • Going to the gym is now expected and you have
    become a regular. Family and friends expect
    that you will go the gym.

Body Image
  • Disordered eating is when eating patterns are
    less than healthy and very inconsistent. Most
    college students have disordered eating because
    schedules are so different from day to day or
    weekday to weekend.
  • An eating disorder is when an individual has a
    serious problem with food and their body image.
    Eating disorders are NOT something to joke about
    and ARE more common than you think. They do not
    affect only women!
  • Muscle dysmorphia is a condition that typically
    affects men. Men see themselves as never being
    big enough and obsess over their physique.

Helpful Hints
  • Do what works for you.
  • If you enjoy exercising and have a terrible time
    monitoring your diet, then concentrate more on
    the exercise portion and less on the dietary
    portion. Most folks find that if they are being
    more active their eating habits also improve
    because they feel wasteful of their time to hit
    up Jack in the Box after a solid workout.

Helpful Hints
  • Live in reality.
  • If you dont have the money to eat ultra healthy
    dont force it. If you dont have time to go to
    the gym for 2 hours, do little things park far
    from doors, use stairs instead of elevators.
  • Utilize those around you.
  • Your friends and family will want you to be more
    healthy because they care about you. Tell them
    about your goals. You might even convince some
    of them to become your workout buddy or could set
    up some sort of friendly competition to maximize

Helpful Hints
  • Cut your liquids.
  • This has two meanings. 1) is to reduce the number
    of calories you consume from liquids. Coffee,
    tea, colas, alcohol (7 cals / g) do not provide
    much in the way of nutrients. Dumping sugar
    and/or creamer in your coffee adds up.
  • The 2nd meaning is for the good liquids. Juice
    is healthy but loaded with calories. Knowing you
    dont need 200 vitamin C, you can fill your 12oz
    glass with 6oz. OJ and 6oz. water. Milk is
    another one work towards skim milk from whole,
    2, or 1.

Helpful Hints
  • Add Mix Exercise techniques.
  • The best piece of exercise equipment is the one
    you will use. If you hate riding a bike, dont
    do it! There are other options. If you need
    something more engaging than a treadmill, join a
    recreation team or an aerobic class.
  • Cant stand 30 minutes on a piece of cardio
    equipment? Do 10 minutes on 3 different pieces.
  • Listening to books on tape is also another
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