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The Rise of Democracy 11

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Andrew Jackson. No candidate has a majority of the popular or electoral votes. House decides the race between Andrew Jackson & John Quincy Adams ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Rise of Democracy 11


1
The Rise of Democracy (11)
  • Preview In the 1820s and 1830s a new democratic
    political culture championed the wisdom of the
    people and the need for political parties.
  • The Highlights
  • Equality and Opportunity
  • The New Political Culture of Democracy
  • Jacksons Rise to Power
  • Democracy and Race
  • The Nullification Crisis
  • The Bank War
  • Van Buren and Depression
  • The Jacksonian Party System

2
Learning Outcomes Democracy
  • Understand how a new political culture emerged in
    the 1820s and 30s
  • Be able to account for the difference between the
    views of Calhoun and Jackson
  • Explain in what ways democratic policies are
    thought to have intensified racism
  • Be able to describe the Triumph of the Market
    Economy

3
Equality and Opportunity
  • The Tension between Equality and Opportunity
  • Widespread opportunity will inevitably produce
    inequality of wealth
  • Americans promote equality of opportunity, not
    equality of condition

4
Popular political parties provided an essential
mechanism for peacefully resolving the
differences among competing interest groups,
regions, and social classes.
  • The Acceptance of Parties
  • Rise of the professional politician
  • Acceptance of parties as sources of checking
    abuse
  • The Politics of the Common Man
  • New style of politics
  • Limitations of the democratic political system

5
Jacksons Rise to Power
  • Election of 1824
  • The New Men
  • John Quincy Adams
  • John C. Calhoun
  • Henry Clay
  • Andrew Jackson
  • No candidate has a majority of the popular or
    electoral votes
  • House decides the race between Andrew Jackson
    John Quincy Adams
  • Adams wins, prompting calls of a corrupt
    bargain with Henry Clay, Secretary of State

6
Jacksons Rise to Power
  • John Quincy Adamss Presidency
  • March 4, 1825 Inaugural
  • Intent to open expand
  • trade relationships with
  • South America
  • the Caribbean colonies
  • Promote Manufacturing
  • the arts
  • Defeated in 1828
  • Serves 9 terms in Congress
  • from 1830 to 1848

7
The New Political Culture of Democracy
  • Anti-Masonry and the Defense of Equality
  • Freemasons reach 150,000 members in 1826
  • Anti-Masonic movement emerges as an
    anti-aristocracy phenomenon
  • 1830s emergence of the Whig (National
    Republican) party
  • Social Sources of the New Politics
  • New attitudes toward government prompt democratic
    reforms
  • Male suffrage expands in Europe Latin America

8
Jacksons Rise to Power
  • President of the People
  • 1828-Jackson,
  • Democrat, beats Adams
  • Jackson reflects the
  • common persons
  • attitudes values ?
  • Jackson defends the
  • emerging spoils system

Andrew Jackson, 1829-1837
9
The Hermitage Jacksons home
10
Jacksons Image
11
Jacksons Image
12
Democracy Race
  • Accommodate or Resist?
  • New, aggressive attitudes of white Americans
    placed Indians in the Old Southwest in a
    precarious position
  • Changing nature of Cherokee society

Ironically, at the same time that white racial
attitudes toward Indians were deteriorating, the
Cherokees racial attitudes toward blacks were
also hardening, paralleling the increased racism
among white Americans.
13
Democracy Race
  • Trail of Tears
  • Jackson pressures Congress for Indian removal
  • Jackson ignores Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
  • Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws
    removed from the Southeast
  • Removal sparks military resistance by Indian
    groups in other regions

14
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15
The Cherokee Trail of Tears Robert Lindneux
16
Georgia Historical Marker, 1985
17
Democracy Race
  • Free Blacks in the North
  • 171,000 free blacks in the North in 1840
  • Discrimination on the rise
  • Black poverty high
  • The African American Community
  • Black community was not as diversified as white
    society because of limited economic opportunity
  • The Minstrel Show
  • Appeal of minstrelsy rested on prevalent racial
    stereotypes
  • Deepening racism during the Jacksonian era

18
White Actors performing in blackface
19
The Nullification Crisis
  • The Growing Crisis in South Carolina
  • 1819 State hit hard by depression
  • Tariff is the central issue
  • 1822 Denmark Veseys conspiracy adds to
    insecurity
  • 1828 Tariff of Abominations passes Congress
    provokes a severe response
  • John C. Calhoun

20
  • Calhouns Theory of Nullification
  • Calhoun argues that states could nullify federal
    laws
  • Minority rights versus majority rule
  • Nationalists theory of the Union
  • The Nullifiers Nullified
  • Jackson threatens military action against South
    Carolina for legislatures tariff nullification
  • Compromise of 1833 ends the crisis by lowering
    the tariff

21
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22
The Bank War
  • The National Bank the Panic of 1819
  • Second national bank exacerbates economic
    problems in 1819
  • Banks become a source of considerable political
    angst
  • Biddles Bank
  • Bank president expands the banks influence
  • Promotes unpopular paper money

23
Nicholas Biddle
24
Jacksons own experiences left him with a deep
distrust of banks and paper money.
  • The Clash between Jackson Biddle
  • 1832 Biddle pushes for the early renewal of
    banks charter
  • Congress passes the recharter bill Jackson
    vetoes it
  • Jacksons veto message secures his position as
    champion of the people

25
Culture of Democracy
  • The Bank Destroyed
  • Jackson tries to cripple the bank after he wins
    re-election in 1832
  • Jackson orders secretary of treasury to remove
    banks deposits

26
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27
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28
Culture of Democracy
  • Jacksons Impact on the Presidency
  • Jackson strengthens authority of executive branch
  • The modern presidency begins with Jackson
  • How Democratic was Jacksonian Democracy?

29
Van Buren and Depression
  • Van Ruins Depression
  • Martin Van Buren, Jacksons Democratic successor,
    associated with the Panic of 1837
  • 1840 Congress creates the Independent Treasury
    to keep the governments funds

30
By 1840 the Whigs had done much to perfect their
partys national organization, and with the
nation stuck in the worst depression of the
century, they approached the election of 1840 in
high spirits.
  • The Whigs Triumph
  • Election of 1840 is the first modern presidential
    campaignimportant use of imagery
  • Women take a new, more public political role
  • Record voter turnout (nearly 80)
  • Harrison defeats Van Buren
  • We have taught them how to conquer us
    Democratic Review

31
Harrison, 1840 campaign poster
32
Harrison Hero of Tippicanoe 1811
33
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34
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35
Harrison dies one month in office Tyler assumes
presidency
36
The Jacksonian Party System
  • Democrats, Whigs, the Market
  • Democratic ideology rests on perceived conflict
    between the people greedy aristocrats
  • Whig ideology rests on belief in continued
    commercial development
  • Democrats key belief is in limited government
    opposition to monopolies
  • Whigs desire an active government
  • The Social Bases of the Two Parties
  • Whigs promote the market economy, Democrats fear
    it
  • Whigs attract high-status native-born religious
    groups
  • Democrats attract more Germans Irish religious
    groups, particularly Catholics
  • The Triumph of the Market
  • Market expansion continues in spite of Jacksonian
    efforts

37
Keywords and Terms
  • Equality and Opportunity
  • Workingmens Party
  • Nicolas Biddle
  • 2nd Bank of United States
  • equality of opportunity
  • Henry Clay
  • John C. Calhoun
  • Theory of Nullification
  • enlightened elite
  • laissez-faire
  • Worster v. Georgia
  • Peggy Eaton
  • hard money
  • Alexis de Tocqueville
  • Democracy in America
  • Van Buren the Whigs
  • Panic of 1837

38
Summary Learning Outcomes Democracy
  • Understand how a new political culture emerged in
    the 1820s and 30s
  • Be able to account for the difference between the
    views of Calhoun and Jackson
  • Explain in what ways democratic policies are
    thought to have intensified racism
  • Be able to describe the Triumph of the Market
    Economy
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