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Coffee Production:


... friskier than usual after consuming the red cherries of a wild coffee shrub. ... laden with bright red coffee cherries. Ripe coffee cherries are cranberry. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Coffee Production:

  • Coffee Production
  • Sustainability
  • Eco-Friendly Practices
  • Social Impacts

info. taken from


The History of Coffee
  • Dates back more than a thousand years
  • The first coffee plants are said to have come
    from the Horn of Africa on the shores of the Red
  • Originally coffee beans were taken as a food and
    not as a beverage
  • East African tribes would grind the coffee
    cherries together, mixing the results into a
    paste with animal fat
  • The mixture was said to give warriors much-needed
    energy for battle
  • Later, around the year 1000 AD, Ethiopians
    concocted a type of wine from coffee berries,
    fermenting the dried beans in water
  • Coffee also grew naturally on the Arabian
    Peninsula, and it was there, during the 11th
    century that coffee was first developed into a
    hot drink.

The Legend of the Coffee Bean
  • Two prominent legends emerged to explain the
    discovery of this magic bean
  • A goat-herder noticed that his herd became
    friskier than usual after consuming the red
    cherries of a wild coffee shrub. Curious, he
    tasted the fruit himself. He was delighted by its
    invigorating effects, and was even spotted by a
    group of nearby monks dancing with his goats.
    Soon the monks began to boil the bean themselves
    and use the liquid to stay awake during all-night

The Legend of the Coffee Bean
  • Muslim dervish who was condemned by his enemies
    to wander in the desert and eventually die of
    starvation. In his delirium, the young man heard
    a voice instructing him to eat the fruit from a
    nearby coffee tree. Confused, the dervish tried
    to soften the beans in water, and when this
    failed, he simply drank the liquid. Interpreting
    his survival and energy as a sign of God, he
    returned to his people, spreading the faith and
    the recipe

  • Coffee began sometime in the fifteenth century,
    and for many centuries to follow, the Yemen
    province of Arabia was the world's primary source
    of coffee
  • Although restrictions existed on exportation of
    the coffee plant from Yemen, Muslim pilgrims from
    across the globe during their pilgrimages to
    Mecca managed to smuggle coffee plants back to
    their homelands, and coffee crops soon took root
    in India
  • Coffee also made its way into Europe around this
    time through the city of Venice, where fleets
    traded perfumes, teas, dyes and fabrics with
    Arabic merchants along the Spice Route

  • By the middle of the 17th century the Dutch
    dominated the world's merchant shipping industry,
    and they introduced large-scale coffee
    cultivation to their colonies in Indonesia on the
    islands of Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi and Bali
  • Coffee arrived in Latin America several decades
    later, when the French brought a cutting of a
    coffee plant to Martinique.
  • But when a rare plant disease spread through the
    coffee fields of Southeast Asia in the mid 19th
    century, Brazil emerged as the world's foremost
    coffee producer, an honor the country still holds

  • The coffee bean begins its life as the prize
    inside a bright red coffee cherry
  • It takes about five years before a coffee tree
    produces a harvestable crop of cherries, and each
    tree only produces the equivalent of a pound of
    roasted beans per year
  • To prepare the pebble-like green coffee beans for
    roasting, growers process them using either the
    natural or the washed method
  • Through the natural method, ripe coffee cherries
    are allowed to dry on the tree or on the ground
    before the beans are removed by hulling

  • Through the washed method, the beans are
    immediately separated from the cherries,
    submerged in a vat of water, and then dried on
    large patios or with modern equipment.
  • Green coffee beans are heated in a large rotating
    drum, then their transformation begins
  • After about 5 to 7 minutes of intense heat, much
    of their moisture evaporates
  • The beans turn a yellow color and smell a little
    like popcorn
  • After about 8 minutes in the roaster, the "first
    pop" occurs. The beans double in size, crackling
    as they expand they are now light brown

  • After 10-11 minutes in the roaster, the beans
    reach an even brown color, and oil starts to
    appear on the surface of the bean
  • At this roasting time (different for each
    coffee, but usually somewhere between 11 and 15
    minutes), the full flavor potential begins to
    develop in the beans, bringing all of their
    attributes into balance
  • The "second pop" signals that the coffee is
    almost ready

Growing Regions
  • Three main regions exist Africa and Arabia,
    Latin America, and the Pacific

Growing Regions
  • Latin America
  • Central and South America produce more coffee,
    by far, than any other growing region. The beans
    grown here are generally light- to medium-bodied
    with clean, lively flavors. They are prized for
    their tangy brightness and consistent quality.
    Both these features make them ideal foundations
    for blending. Single-origin coffees from this
    region typically include coffees from Mexico,
    Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia.

Growing Regions
  • The Pacific
  • Often called Indonesian coffees because most of
    the beans from this region are grown in that
    country. These coffees are on the opposite end of
    the taste spectrum from the Latin American
    coffees. They are typically full-bodied, smooth,
    earthy, and occasionally feature herbal flavor
    notes. These are the 'heavyweights' of the coffee
    world, providing deep, sturdy 'low notes' when
    used in blends. As single-origin coffees, they
    are perennial favorites.

Coffee Trees Beans
  • Like many other fruits, coffee cherries grow on
  • Some coffee trees have the potential to grow to a
    height of 30 to 40 feet
  • However, most are kept much shorter for ease of
  • The average coffee tree bears enough cherries
    each season to produce between 1 and 1½ pounds of
    roasted coffee
  • The soil, climate, altitude, and surrounding
    plants that a coffee tree is exposed to during
    growth affect the flavor of the beans it produces.

Arabica vs. Robusta Coffee Beans
  • There are two commercially important coffee
    species coffea arabica and coffea canephora
  • Arabica coffee (about 75 percent of world
    production) grows best at high altitudes, has a
    much more refined flavor than other species, and
    contains about 1 percent caffeine by weight
  • As the name indicates, robusta coffee is a
    robust species, resistant to disease, with a high
    yield per plant
  • It flourishes at lower elevations and produces
    coffee with harsher flavor characteristics
  • Starbucks buys only the highest quality arabica
    coffees available, beans whose flavor develops
    fully through the Starbucks Roast.

Harvesting Coffee
  • At harvest time, coffee trees are laden with
    bright red coffee cherries. Ripe coffee cherries
    are cranberry. An unroasted coffee bean is
    simply the pit of the coffee cherry.
  • The skin of the coffee cherry is very thick, with
    a slightly bitter flavor. The fruit beneath the
    skin, however, is intensely sweet. The texture of
    this layer of fruit is similar to a grape.
  • Beneath the fruit is the parchment, covered with
    a thin, slippery, honey-like layer called

Harvesting Coffee
  • The parchment of the coffee cherry serves as a
    protective pocket for the seed, much like the
    small pockets that protect the seeds of an apple
  • Removing the parchment, two translucent bluish
    green coffee beans are revealed, coated with a
    very thin layer called the "silverskin
  • While most coffee cherries contain two beans, 5
    to 10 percent of the time, only one bean is
    produced in the cherry. This is called a "peaberry

Buying Coffee for Starbucks
  • The coffee we buy is truly special,
    spectacular coffee. The coffee buying team
    evaluates over one thousand "offer samples" each
    year. The evaluation process includes roasting
    small batches of coffee and tasting these batches
    in a process called "cupping." Only a very few of
    these sampled coffees make it into our
    warehouses. Starbucks coffee buyers spend
    approximately 18 weeks per year traveling to
    countries of origin. The purpose of these travels
    is not to directly buy coffee. The goal is to
    continue to learn about coffee and to strengthen
    relationships with growers and suppliers. These
    relationships are critical to our future success
    - they solidify our role as champions of quality
    and progress at every level of the coffee
    business. It is because of these relationships
    that Starbucks gets the first pick of the best
    crops worldwide.

Connection to Farmers
  • Our connection with coffee farmers Purveying
    quality coffees means much more than selecting
    the finest beans on the market. It means
    protecting a way of life for our farmers by
    supporting social, economic and environmental
    issues that are crucial to their livelihood.
    Commitment to Origins is dedicated to creating a
    sustainable growing environment in coffee origin

Fair Trade Certified
  • A fair price  
  • The Fair Trade Certified label certifies that
    the farmers who grew the coffee received a
    premium price above the prevailing market prices.
    Internationally, independent organizations
    provide supervision of the Fair Trade system by
    working closely with small-scale farmers to
    certify their product. By joining cooperatives,
    the farmers can then sell their beans directly to
    importers, roasters and retailers at favorable
    guaranteed prices. The cooperatives, which are
    democratically run by the participating farmers,
    help contribute to the social and economic
    stability of their communities.

  • An international leader As the worlds largest
    private nonprofit international relief and
    development organization, CARE works in more than
    60 developing countries to address the underlying
    causes of poverty and provide emergency relief in
    times of disaster. Starbucks is proud to be one
    of CAREs largest North American corporate
  • Reaching around the globe Our twelve-year
    alliance with CARE has given us the opportunity
    to touch the lives of nearly 3 million people in
    coffee- and tea-origin countries where our
    support has helped to improve the quality of life
    in their communities. In 2002 and 2003, Starbucks
    contributed a total of 300,000 to CARE for an
    emergency response fund

  • Starbucks Emergency Response Fund When a disaster
    strikes in coffee-and tea-origin countries,
    Starbucks support is there. Weve appointed CARE
    as our official agent for disaster response.
    Together, we established the Starbucks Emergency
    Response Fund to ensure our immediate support in
    a crisis.In 1998, Hurricane Mitch swept through
    Central America killing 10,000 people and
    devastating the lives of millions. Starbucks
    responded immediately with a 100,000 cash
    donation to support CAREs relief efforts to
    provide shelter, food, medicines and safe
    drinking water to victims.

What is Shade-Grown Coffee?Sun vs. Shade Coffee

Shade-Grown Coffee
  • The site where Shade Grown Mexico coffee is
    produced The El Triunfo Biosphere Reserve in
    Chiapas, Mexico, where Shade Grown Mexico coffee
    comes from, is a region CI considers to be one of
    the worlds most environmentally sensitive. CI
    and Starbucks support farmers who grow coffee
    under the protection of shade, creating and
    maintaining a forested buffer zone around the
    Reserve. Results so far In 2001, farmers
    producing Shade Grown Mexico received a 60
    percent price premium over local prices for their
    coffee, and exported 50 more than the previous
    year. Since 1998, the number of cooperatives
    involved in the project doubled. Today there are
    nearly 700 farmers and more than 2000 hectares
    involved in the program.

Why choose shade grown-coffeevs. sun-grown
coffee?What does sustainability mean?What
factors influence sustainability?What is
sustainable agriculture?
Tasting Coffee
  • Ultimately, tasting is comparing and
    contrasting. Tasting only one coffee at a time
    does not create any context. But if you taste two
    or three coffees, you can compare them in terms
    of your personal preference, but also in terms of
    aroma, acidity, body, and flavor. (A tip When
    tasting more than one coffee, always taste
    lighter bodied coffees first and work up to
    fuller bodied coffees.) Aroma is the first hint
    of how your coffee will taste. In fact, most of
    your sense of taste actually comes from your
    sense of smell - which is why coffee can taste so
    satisfying and sublime. Acidity, in tasting
    terms, doesn't mean sour or bitter it's a
    lively, tangy, palate-cleansing property, ranging
    from low to high. Think of the range from still
    water to sparkling water, and you'll get the
    idea. Body is the weight or thickness of the
    beverage on your tongue. Body ranges from light
    to full. Flavor is the all important melding of
    aroma, acidity, and body that creates an overall