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Differentiating Instruction

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Title: Differentiating Instruction


1
Differentiating Instruction
2 2 4
Regional Training Nov. 28, 2007
2
  1. Make a list of all the students in your class. If
    you teach more than one section, you may select
    one section. You may not use any notes.
  2. When you have to push to remember, draw a line.
    Write down any additional names you can now
    remember.
  3. When you cant remember any more, draw another
    line. Ask yourself why some students are
    invisible.

Do this again a week later. Think about what you
have done that has brought kids above the line.
See who still falls below a line. Ask yourself
why.
3
A Fable
  • One time the animals had a school. The curriculum
    consisted of running, climbing, flying and
    swimming, and all the animals took all the
    subjects.

4
  • The duck was good in swimming, better than his
    instructor, and he made passing grades in flying,
    but was practically hopeless in running. He kept
    this up until he was only average in swimming.
    But, average is acceptable, so nobody worried
    about that but the duck.

5
  • The eagle was considered a problem pupil and was
    disciplined severely. He beat all the others to
    the top of the tree in the climbing class, but he
    had used his own way of getting there.

6
  • The rabbit started out at the top of his class in
    running, but had a nervous breakdown and had to
    drop out of school on account of so much makeup
    work in swimming.

7
  • The squirrel led the climbing class, but his
    flying teacher made him start his flying lessons
    from the ground instead of the top of the tree,
    and he developed charley horses from overexertion
    at the takeoff and began getting Cs in climbing
    and Ds in running.

8
  • The practical prairie dog apprenticed their
    offspring to a badger when the school authorities
    refused to add digging to the curriculum.

9
  • At the end of the year, an eel that could swim
    well, run, climb, and fly a little was made
    valedictorian.

- Printed in The Instructor, April 1968
10
Assumptions
  • Find a partner (someone dressed similarly to you)
  • You and your partner will read the statement you
    receive
  • Discuss your feelings or classroom implications
    about the statement
  • Share your comments with the group

11
Seasonal Partners
  • Step 1 With your Seasonal Partners paper,
    circulate the room to greet people you do not
    already know well.
  • Step 2 As you greet your colleagues, identify
    one who will sign up as your Winter partner.
  • Step 3 You then sign up as that persons Winter
    partner. Be sure that both of you record the
    appointment on your page.
  • Step 4 Repeat the previous steps for Spring,
    Summer and Fall partners.
  • Step 5 Return to your seat when you have
    appointments for each season. Everyone should
    have four appointments.

12
Objectives
  • Participants will
  • Define and give meaning to differentiated
    instruction
  • Discuss the importance of routines for classroom
    management
  • Consider various grouping options when
    implementing differentiation
  • Create a differentiated lesson/unit for use in
    your classroom

13
The Big Picture
  • Differentiation is not about individualization
    But it is about individuals.

14
Why Differentiate?
  • One size fits all instruction does not address
    the needs of many students.
  • Kids come in different shapes and sizes as well
    as interests, learning profiles, and readiness
    levels.

15
When I skate, I go where the puck is. Wayne
Gretsky
When we teach, we should go where the student is.
16
Why do we need to differentiate?
  • When a teacher tries to teach something to the
    whole entire class at the same time, chances
    are, one-third of the kids already know it
    one-third will get it and the remaining third
    wont. So two-thirds of the children are wasting
    their time.
  • Lillian Katz

Willis, S (November 1993). Teaching Young
Children Educators Seek Developmental
Appropriateness. Curriculum Update, 1-8.
17
Students Speak about Learning
  • Handouts Dear Miss Brin Students Respond
  • What do kids say about your classroom? What do
    they look forward to? What do they dread?

18
Whats Behind the Idea of Differentiated
Classrooms?
  • If a student learns faster than a prescribed pace
    or is ready for greater depth and breadth of
    knowledge than is planned, there should be plans
    for adapting the pace and scope of learning for
    that student.

19
Too often, teachers are like bowlers they
throw the ball down the middle and hope to hit
some pins.
20
Whats Behind the Idea of Differentiated
Classrooms?
  • If a student has difficulty learningfor whatever
    reasonthere should be provisions made to ensure
    that the student masters essential knowledge and
    has an active support system both to fill in gaps
    in knowledge and to move ahead.

21
Let me get this straightIm behind the other
kids, and Im going to catch up by going slower.
22
Whats Behind the Idea of Differentiated
Classrooms?
  • If a student is just learning to speak English,
    there should be mechanisms in place to help the
    student manage critical elements of subject
    matter as well as practice continually with the
    new language.

23
Whats Behind the Idea of Differentiated
Classrooms?
  • If a students culture, gender or economic status
    results in learning preferences that vary from
    those typically addressed in the classroom, the
    range of learning modes should be expanded to
    support effective and efficient learning for each
    learner.

24
Whats Behind the Idea of Differentiated
Classrooms?
  • If a student has given up on school, there
    should be active and continual planning to help
    the student reconnect with the power of learning
    to positively shape his or her life.

25
Table Talk Yesterday Today
  • Read the purple handouts
  • Highlight or jot down two facts you strongly
    agree with.
  • Share and discuss with your Fall Partner.

26
Differentiation is a classroom practice that
looks eyeball to eyeball with the reality that
kids differ, and the most effective teachers do
whatever it takes to hook the whole range of
kids on learning.
27
Differentiated instruction is not individualized
instruction its getting the kid in the
ballpark!
28
Differentiated instruction is not chaos.
29
Differentiated instruction is not just another
way to provide homogenous grouping.
30
Differentiated instruction is not tailoring the
same suit of clothes .
31
Differentiation is not four versions of the
same boring worksheet.
32
Differentiated Instruction IS
  • Proactive
  • More qualitative than quantitative
  • Student centered
  • A blend of whole-class, group and individual
    instruction

33
Bzzzzzz
  • At your table, turn to the person next to you and
    list some of the attributes of differentiation.

34
What is the difference between differentiating
and modifying curriculum?
Share your thoughts with the group. You may want
to create a linguistic or nonlinguistic summary
of your conversation.
Possible products could include an editorial,
oral report, song, skit, poster, game show, comic
strip, flow chart, model, etc.
35
In differentiated classrooms, teachers begin
where students are, not the front of a curriculum
guide.
Carol Tomlinson
Teachers in differentiated classrooms are
students of their students.
36
Movie Time
Handout 20
  • Use these questions to guide your discussion on
    the information you see
  • What are barriers you think exist to teachers
    structuring their classroom routines around a
    commitment to differentiate instruction?
  • How could these barriers be overcome?
  • What are the characteristics of your current
    classroom routine?
  • Questions, concerns, observations

37
What will this look like in my classroom?
  • Individually brainstorm ideas about .
  • What does differentiation involve?
  • Will the change in your classroom?
  • Role of the teacher
  • Role of the student
  • Use of time, space and materials
  • What resources are available?

38
Teachers Can Differentiate
Content
Process
Product
According to Students
39
Differentiated tasks are created based upon a
students
  • Readiness Closely matched to skill
    level
  • Interests Ignites curiosity and/or
    passion
  • Learning Preferences Provides
    opportunities to

  • work in preferred modalities

40
  • How do you determine readiness in your classroom?
  • How do you determine students interests?

41
Differentiation Using LEARNING PROFILE
  • Learning profile refers to how an individual
    learns best - most efficiently and effectively.
  • Teachers and their students may
  • differ in learning profile preferences.

42
Learner Profile Card
Gender Stripe
Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic Modality
Analytical, Creative, Practical Sternberg
Students Interests
By yourself With partner Small group Whole group
Multiple Intelligence Preference Gardner
43
Learning Profile Inventories
  • The Modality Preferences Instrument

44
Parallel Lines Cut by a Transversal
  • Visual Make posters showing all the angle
    relations formed by a pair of parallel lines cut
    by a transversal. Be sure to color code
    definitions and angles, and state the
    relationships between all possible angles.

1
2
3
4
5
6
8
7
Smith Smarr, 2005
45
Parallel Lines Cut by a Transversal
  • Auditory Play Shout Out!! Given the diagram
    below and commands on strips of paper (with
    correct answers provided), players take turns
    being the leader to read a command. The first
    player to shout out a correct answer to the
    command, receives a point. The next player
    becomes the next leader. Possible commands
  • Name an angle supplementary
  • supplementary to angle 1.
  • Name an angle congruent
  • to angle 2.

Smith Smarr, 2005
46
Parallel Lines Cut by a Transversal
  • Kinesthetic Walk It Tape the diagram below on
    the floor with masking tape. Two players stand
    in assigned angles. As a team, they have to tell
    what they are called (ie vertical angles) and
    their relationships (ie congruent). Use all
    angle combinations, even if there is not a name
    or relationship. (ie 2 and 7)

Smith Smarr, 2005
47
Learning Profile Inventories
  • Triarchic Theory of Intelligences (Sternberg)

48
Evaluating Plot
  • Standard Students will evaluate the quality of
    plot based on clear criteria
  • Analytical Task
  • Experts suggest that an effective plot is
    believable, has events that follow a logical and
    energizing sequence, has compelling characters
    and has a convincing resolution.
  • Select a story that you believe does have an
    effective plot based on these three criteria as
    well as others you state. Provide specific
    support from the story for your positions.
  • OR
  • Select a story you believe has an effective plot
    in spite of the fact that it does not meet these
    criteria. Establish the criteria you believe
    made the storys plot effective. Make a case,
    using specific illustrations from the story, that
    your criteria describes an effective plot

49
Evaluating Plotcontd
Evaluating Plot
(contd)
  • Practical Task
  • A local TV station wants to air teen-produced
    digital videos based on well known works. Select
    and storyboard you choice for a video. Be sure
    your storyboards at least have a clear and
    believable plot structure, a logical sequence of
    events, compelling characters and a convincing
    resolution. Note other criteria on which you
    feel the plots effectiveness should also be
    judged. Make a case that your choice is a winner
    based on these and other criteria you state.
  • Creative Task
  • Propose an original story you fell has a clear
    and believable plot structure, a logical sequence
    of events, compelling characters, and a
    convincing resolution. You may write it,
    storyboard it, or make a flow chart of it. Find
    a way to demonstrate that your story achieves
    these criteria as well as any others you note as
    important.

50
Thinking About the Sternberg Intelligences
ANALYTICAL
Linear Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential
Show the parts of _________ and how they
work. Explain why _______ works the way it
does. Diagram how __________ affects
__________________. Identify the key parts of
_____________________. Present a step-by-step
approach to _________________.
Streetsmart Contextual Focus on Use
PRACTICAL
Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in their
life or work. Show how we could apply _____ to
solve this real life problem ____. Based on your
own experience, explain how _____ can be
used. Heres a problem at school, ________. Using
your knowledge of ______________, develop a plan
to address the problem.
CREATIVE
Innovator Outside the Box What If - Improver
Find a new way to show _____________. Use unusual
materials to explain ________________. Use humor
to show ____________________. Explain (show) a
new and better way to ____________. Make
connections between _____ and _____ to help us
understand ____________. Become a ____ and use
your new perspectives to help us think about
____________.
51
Learning Profile Inventories
  • The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner)
  • Verbal/Linguistic
  • Logical/Mathematical
  • Visual/Spacial
  • Bodily/Kinesthetic
  • Musical
  • Interpersonal
  • Intrapersonal
  • Naturalist

52
EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING
TYPE CHARACTERISTICS LIKES TO IS GOOD AT LEARNS BEST BY
LINGUISTIC LEARNER The Word Player Learns through the manipulation of words. Loves to read and write in order to explain themselves. They also tend to enjoy talking Read Write Tell stories Memorizing names, places, dates and trivia Saying, hearing and seeing words
LOGICAL/ Mathematical Learner The Questioner Looks for patterns when solving problems. Creates a set of standards and follows them when researching in a sequential manner. Do experiments Figure things out Work with numbers Ask questions Explore patterns and relationships Math Reasoning Logic Problem solving Categorizing Classifying Working with abstract patterns/relationships
SPATIAL LEARNER The Visualizer Learns through pictures, charts, graphs, diagrams, and art. Draw, build, design and create things Daydream Look at pictures/slides Watch movies Play with machines Imagining things Sensing changes Mazes/puzzles Reading maps, charts Visualizing Dreaming Using the minds eye Working with colors/pictures
MUSICAL LEARNER The Music Lover Learning is often easier for these students when set to music or rhythm Sing, hum tunes Listen to music Play an instrument Respond to music Picking up sounds Remembering melodies Noticing pitches/ rhythms Keeping time Rhythm Melody Music
53
EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING, Contd
TYPE CHARACTERISTICS LIKES TO IS GOOD AT LEARNS BEST BY
BODILY/ Kinesthetic Learner The Mover Eager to solve problems physically. Often doesnt read directions but just starts on a project Move around Touch and talk Use body language Physical activities (Sports/dance/ acting) crafts Touching Moving Interacting with space Processing knowledge through bodily sensations
INTERpersonal Learner The Socializer Likes group work and working cooperatively to solve problems. Has an interest in their community. Have lots of friends Talk to people Join groups Understanding people Leading others Organizing Communicating Manipulating Mediating conflicts Sharing Comparing Relating Cooperating interviewing
INTRApersonal Learner The Individual Enjoys the opportunity to reflect and work independently. Often quiet and would rather work on his/her own than in a group. Work alone Pursue own interests Understanding self Focusing inward on feelings/dreams Pursuing interests/ goals Being original Working along Individualized projects Self-paced instruction Having own space
NATURALIST The Nature Lover Enjoys relating things to their environment. Have a strong connection to nature. Physically experience nature Do observations Responds to patterning nature Exploring natural phenomenon Seeing connections Seeing patterns Reflective Thinking Doing observations Recording events in Nature Working in pairs Doing long term projects
54
Multiple Intelligence Ideas for Proofs!
  • Logical Mathematical Generate proofs for given
    theorems. Be ready to explain!
  • Verbal Linguistic Write in paragraph form why
    the theorems are true. Explain what we need to
    think about before using the theorem.
  • Visual Spatial Use pictures to explain the
    theorem.

55
Multiple Intelligence Ideas for Proofs!
  • Musical Create a jingle or rap to sing the
    theorems!
  • Kinesthetic Use Geometer Sketchpad or other
    computer software to discover the theorems.
  • Intrapersonal Write a journal entry for
    yourself explaining why the theorem is true, how
    they make sense, and a tip for remembering them.

56
Movie Time
  • Use these questions to guide your discussion on
    the information you see
  • How were the students grouped for the lesson?
  • Why is it important to vary the groupings often?
  • Evidence of connections with students
  • Questions, concerns, observations

57
In grade level teams, determine the best way to
profile your students.
58
People Search
  • Find a colleague who can sign on one of the
    squares of your People Search
  • After you have both signed your name to the
    others card, exchange a piece of candy

59
Application
  • Develop a learning preference or intelligence
    preference activity.

60
Differentiated Curriculum should include
  • Respectful tasks
  • Adapted but NOT trivialized or dumbed down
  • Challenging but achievable assignments
  • Always teach UP to students
  • Choices
  • Engaging activities
  • Linked to previous and future learnings

61
Movie Time
Handout 12
  • Use these questions to guide your discussion on
    the information you see
  • What might be some strategies the teachers used
    to keep students engaged in learning?
  • Evidence of connections with students
  • Questions, concerns, observations

62
Strategies to Support Flexible Groupings
  • See handout

63
Weather Reports
Sunny skiesits clear to me!
Low cloudsI understand some, but not all.
Fog/SmogIm lost!
64
Your Choice
  • Watch additional DVDs on Differentiated
    Instruction
  • Look through ESA resources
  • Browse the Internet for resources
  • Work with a colleague to develop another lesson

65
Creating a differentiated classroom is not a
yes/no proposition but rather a continuum along
which teachers move as they develop skills of
responsive teaching.
Carol Ann Tomlinson
66
Start Slowly. . . But Start
  • Involve the students
  • Share your reasoning with them.
  • Watch them work and learn from what you see
  • Give them roles that empower them
  • Ask their advice
  • Talk individually with students for whom school
    isnt going well
  • In one subject or class
  • Where the need is greatest
  • Where you feel the most comfortable

67
Fairness is not everyone getting the same thing.
It is everyone getting what they need.
68
Three Minute Reflect and Respond Exit Card
  • What are 3 things I learned today?
  • What are 2 things I still have questions about?
  • What is 1 action I will take to make my classroom
    differentiated?

69
  • Step back and reflect Our goal is neither to
    mourn what we have done nor to rest on our
    victories, but to look at the reasons we have to
    show up again tomorrow at the classroom door,
    ready to join our students ALL of our students
    in learning.
  • Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999

70
  • The greatest sign of success for a teacher is to
    be able to say The children are now working as
    if I did not exist.
  • Maria Montessori

71
Book and Online Resources
  • Instruction for All Students, Paula Rutherford,
    Just Ask Publications, 2002.
  • Why Didnt I Learn This in College?, Paula
    Rutherford, Just Ask Publications, 2002.
  • How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed Ability
    Classrooms, 2nd Edition, Carol Tomlinson, ASCD,
    2001. This is the basic book, and is widely
    available in all school libraries. This fits an
    overview study best.
  • The Differentiated Classroom Responding to the
    Needs of All Learners, Carol Tomlinson, ASCD,
    1999. This is the next step for teachers who
    already know much about differentiation.
  • Differentiation in Practice, Carol Tomlinson and
    Caroline Eidson, ASCD. Three resource books of
    actual lessons for grades K-6, or 5-9, or 9-12 in
    a variety of subject areas. This represents good
    models, but works best with teachers who are well
    grounded in their understanding of both
    curriculum and differentiation.
  • www.ascd.org A source for books, but also an
    opportunity to see sample chapters, take online
    courses, etc.
  • Access some learner preference assessments at
    www.e2c2.com/fileupload.asp Look for the file
    entitled Profile Assessments for Cards.
  • www.exemplars.com A source for standards-based,
    tiered lessons with rubrics with student
    examples.
  • http//www.internet4classrooms.com/di.htm
    Electronic learning styles inventories,
    definitions, lessons, articles and more

72
Contact Information
  • Education Service Agency, Region 2

Barb Hansen Marge Hauser Pat Hubert Lori
Stoltenburg Vickie Venhuizen 367-7680 esa2_at_edec.o
rg
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