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Crosslinguistic Transfer in SpanishEnglish Biliteracy

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Title: Crosslinguistic Transfer in SpanishEnglish Biliteracy


1
Cross-linguistic Transfer in Spanish/English
Biliteracy
  • Jill Kerper Mora, Ed.D.
  • San Diego State University

2
Factors in Adequate Progress in Literacy
Achievement
  • A working understanding of how sounds are
    represented alphabetically
  • Sufficient practice in reading to achieve fluency
    with different kinds of texts
  • Sufficient background knowledge and vocabulary to
    render written texts meaningful
  • Control over procedures for monitoring
    comprehension and repairing misunderstandings
  • Interest and motivation to read for a variety of
    purposes

3
Adapting Factors for L2 Reading Achievement
  • A reasonable knowledge of the English language
    and specific vocabulary in the text
  • Knowledge of the phonological and phonemic
    principles of English
  • Knowledge of the alphabetic principle and English
    orthography
  • Adequate reading skills and strategies applicable
    to reading in L2
  • Appropriate background knowledge, including
    cultural knowledge, for reading text by L2
    authors

4
False Assumptions About Bilingual Learners
  • The tabula rasa theory of language learning
  • The oral proficiency is enough hypothesis
  • The phonics first fallacy
  • The storage and retrieval myth

5
Research Questions in Biliteracy and L2 Reading
  • Relationship between competency or proficiency in
    the native language (L1) and reading achievement
    in L1 and/or L2
  • Relationship between overall reading abilities in
    L1 and in L2.
  • Simultaneous versus sequential development of L1
    and L2 literacy
  • Relationship between English language proficiency
    and reading abilities in L2 English

6
Bilingual Learners Biliteracy Classrooms
  • Biliteracy programs classrooms where bilingualism
    and dual language literacy are the goal.
  • Transitional bilingual education classrooms with
    students enrolled under parental waivers.
  • Mainstream classrooms with a few L2 learners at
    intermediate level of English proficiency who
    have received primary language literacy
    instruction

7
Research Questions about Cross-linguistic
Transfer
  • Cross-linguistic transfer of particular
    metalinguistic awareness and knowledge in L2 and
    reading achievement in L2 English, including
    phonemic awareness and phonological development,
    phonemic-graphemic knowledge and syntactic
    feature recognition

8
More Research Questions about Cross-linguistic
Transfer
  • Similarities and contrasts between knowledge and
    employment of particular reading strategies in L1
    and their use in reading in L2 including word
    recognition strategies, cross-linguistic
    processes, intratextual perceptions,
    metacognitive strategies, prior knowledge and
    schema formation

9
Instructional Process for Biliteracy Development
Content Area Instruction (Introduced in L1
reinforced in L2)
Content-area Knowledge
Primary-language Content-area Knowledge
English Language Development
English Language Proficiency Literacy
Primary-language Oral Proficiency and Literacy
Skills
Transfer
Continuation of Primary-language Instruction
for Literacy
Primary-language Literacy
10
What the Research Says about Cross-linguistic
Transfer
  • There is a positive transfer between L1 and L2 in
    several areas phonemic awareness decoding
    through phonics and word recognition strategies
    use of cognates and general comprehension
    strategies.

11
What the Research Says about Language Contrasts
  • Some reading strategies are common to both
    languages, while others are specific to the
    phonetic and graphic systems of L1 or L2.
    Explicit instruction in linguistic parallels and
    contrasts is helpful for developing effective
    reading strategies.

12
Orthographic Transfer in Spanish/English
Biliteracy
  • In developing biliteracy skills, bilingual
    learners apply Spanish spellings to English
    words. Bilingual readers
  • Use Spanish spelling approximations for English
    phonemes that do not exist in Spanish.
  • Collapse English vowels into Spanish vowels,
    diphthongs or consonant blends.
  • Hear English phonemes but not know the English
    spelling patterns, such as vowel and consonant
    digraphs or silent letters.

13
What the Research Says about Bilingual Readers
  • Bilingualism enhances metalinguistic awareness.
  • The learning curve in their L2 is different from
    L1 reading, with a higher level of miscues in
    syntax as L2 decoding is established.
  • Their biggest obstacle in reading is lack of
    vocabulary in L2.
  • Background knowledge for specific texts is
    essential to comprehension.
  • They utilize translation familiarity with
    cognates to support comprehension.

14
The Language-Concept Connection Basic Principles
of Preview-Review
To teach an unknown concept, use the known
language.
To teach an unknown language, use a known
concept.
15
Language-Concept Connection Instructional Model
Domain
Language
Concept
Learning
A
Unknown
Unknown
Limited Modify Instruction
B
Known
Unknown
Concept Development
C
Unknown
Known
Language Development
D
Known
Known
Concept Language Mastery
16
Implications of Research in Cross-linguistic
Transfer
  • Education policy decisions regarding theoretical
    models, types and duration of programs for
    bilingual learners
  • Program design and implementation decisions,
    including student groupings, staffing and
    instructional materials
  • Teachers theoretical orientations toward
    bilingualism and biliteracy and their classroom
    decision-making and instructional practices

17
Approach to Bilingual Second-Language Reading
  • Purpose of Spanish reading instruction
    Transitional vs. dual language skills
  • Reading strategies of bilingual readers in
    English Spanish
  • Importance of differences in the language systems
    of English Spanish in reading
  • Sequence methods for Spanish reading instruction

18
Organizing for Biliteracy Instruction
  • Defining a theoretical orientation to dual
    language reading instruction
  • Assessment for instructional planning
  • Selecting teaching procedures and strategies for
    dual language literacy development
  • Evaluating and selecting appropriate
    instructional materials in Spanish and English

19
Theoretical Models of Dual Language Instruction
  • Affective, cognitive linguistic goals and
    objectives of dual language instruction
  • Cultural, linguistic pedagogical assumptions
    and their research base
  • Purposes and uses of L1 L2 as the medium of
    instruction
  • Use of L2 teaching methodology
  • Grouping and placement procedures based on
    multiple forms of assessment and evaluation

20
The Transitional Model of Bilingual Education
Unknown Concepts -- Known Language Known Concepts
-- Unknown Language
21
Transitional Bilingual Classroom Gr 1-2
Literacy Block
Literacy Block LiteratureStudies Thematic Units
Read aloud Oral Language
IndependentReading-Sp
StructuredWriting-Eng
Guided Reading-Sp
Self-selected S/E Literature
Word Study
GuidedReading-Eng
Reader Response
Writing
Musical-Art-Cultural Activities
Content Areas
Math Science Social Studies

1. Concept Development in Spanish 2. ESL/ELD
Reinforcement
Spanish Dominant
Bilingual Instruction/SDAIE
Bilingual Students
22
Dual Immersion Model
K through 6th Grades
23
Dual language Team-teaching
Bilingual Teacher
Non-Bilingual Teacher
Literacy Block 90 to 180 Minutes
Spanish-English Literacy
English Monolingual Bilingual
Spanish Monolingual
Second Language Instruction
(Spanish)
(English)
Bilingual Guided Independent Reading
Content Area Block 90 to 180 Minutes
Social Studies/Science/Math
Dominant Language Instruction
Alternatives
24
Dual Language Instructional Model-Program
Congruency
  • The chosen model of bilingual education must
    provide guidelines and procedures that are
    congruent with teachers beliefs about effective
    dual language instruction.
  • Teachers beliefs must be congruent with their
    patterns of language use in the classroom.
  • Actual patterns of language use in program
    implementation must be congruent with the
    theoretical principles expressed in the model of
    dual language instruction.
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