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SpanishEnglish Crosslinguistic Transfer Through Biliteracy Instruction

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Title: SpanishEnglish Crosslinguistic Transfer Through Biliteracy Instruction


1
Spanish/English Cross-linguistic Transfer Through
Biliteracy Instruction
  • Jill Kerper Mora, Ed.D.
  • San Diego State University
  • http//edweb.sdsu.edu/people/jmora

2
A Meta-Model of Biliteracy Instruction
Reading Comprehension
L1/L2 Language Competencies
Knowledge of the World
Instruction
Explicit Direct Systematic Structured
Scaffolded Facilitated Applied Practiced
Telling
Discovery
Metalinguistic Knowledge (How Language
Works) Phonology Morphology Syntax
Grammar Orthography Semantics Lexicon
Metacognitive Knowledge (How Thinking
Works) Communicative Functions/Pragmatics Monitor
ing Repair Strategies Text Structure Patterns
of Exposition Conceptual Cultural
Knowledge Adjusting for Reading
Purpose/Task Literary Genre Analysis
3
What the Research Says about Bilingual Readers
  • Bilingualism enhances metalinguistic awareness.
  • The learning curve in their L2 is different from
    L1 reading, with a higher level of miscues in
    syntax as L2 decoding is established.
  • Their biggest obstacle in reading is lack of
    vocabulary in L2.
  • Background knowledge for specific texts is
    essential to comprehension.
  • They utilize translation familiarity with
    cognates to support comprehension.

4
Metalinguistic Transfer (MT) in
Bilingual/Biliteracy Learning
  • MT is the application of particular
    metalinguistic awareness knowledge in L1 to
    language learning literacy achievement in L2
    English.
  • Knowledge skills that transfer across languages
    include phonemic awareness phonological
    processes, knowledge of phoneme-grapheme
    relationships in the L1/L2 orthographic systems
    recognition of syntactic features of both
    languages.
  • Some reading strategies are common to both
    languages, while others are specific to the
    phonetic graphic systems of L1 or L2. Explicit
    instruction in these features is productive.

5
Stages of Metalinguistic Learning(Bialystok
Bouchard, 1985)
  • Realizing that print conveys meaning in much the
    same way as speech
  • Attending to printed features (e.g. letters,
    letter combinations, spaces between words,
    capitalization, punctuation) of linguistic
    elements interpreting them
  • Incorporating attention to forms with the goal of
    extracting meaning.

6
How Metalinguistic Knowledge is Acquired
  • 1. Implicit unarticulated awareness is present
    in L1 developing in L2.
  • 2. Awareness is made explicit through structured
    experiences direct teaching, as well as
    discovery experiences with discussions of
    students insights understandings
  • 3. Which lead to explicit articulated knowledge
    of language forms functions
  • 4. Resulting in increased self-regulatory control
    enhanced language use performance in a
    variety of increasingly cognitively-demanding
    literacy task.

7
A Balanced Biliteracy Program(Halliday, 1983)
  • The effective biliteracy classroom is designed
    and structured to guide and support students as
    they
  • Learn language
  • Learn about language
  • Learn through language

8
Learning Language
  • A progression of linguistic and communicative
    competencies through identifiable stages of
    development
  • Interrelationship between linguistic and
    cognitive development
  • Occurs through structured opportunities for
    language acquisition as well as explicit
    teaching/learning experiences
  • Depends on comprehensible input at one level of
    complexity beyond the learners level of
    linguistic competence

9
Learning About Language
  • Develops metalinguistic awareness in the three
    cueing systems
  • Builds a knowledge base in phonology, morphology,
    grammar syntax, and semantics in both languages
  • Makes explicit contrasts and comparisons between
    language systems
  • Focuses on acquisition of problem-solving
    strategies in literacy tasks
  • Involves on-going assessment of learners growth
    and development

10
Learning Through Language
  • Making schematic and conceptual connections
    through theme units
  • Eliciting and expanding responses to literature
    through core book units and genre studies
  • Planned for ample opportunities for aesthetic and
    efferent responses to literature
  • Based on an inquiry approach to multicultural
    literature and content themes
  • Content area reading expands vocabulary and
    builds critical thinking skills

11
Communicative Competence
GRAMMAR
phonology
syntax
PRAGMATICS
morphology
semantics
lexicon
12
Teacher Language Use Criteria
  • Relative use of L1 L2 Functions registers,
    proportions of time, as a medium of instruction
    for differentiating instruction
  • Integration of language content thematic
    units, instructional objectives, support
    scaffolding for L2 learning, separation and/or
    consideration of language factor in assessment,
    academic rigor
  • Continuity duration Fidelity to program model
    throughout academic year across grade levels
  • Cultural/interpersonal goals Awareness of
    teachers espoused policy of language use vs.
    platform in use in classroom, purposefulness
    self-monitoring

13
DUAL IMMERSION TEACHER DECISION-MAKING LANGUAGE
FUNCTIONS CONTENT
Learning Language (LL)
Teacher Decisions
Learning Through Language (LTL)
Learning About Language (LAL)
Content Knowledge
Metacognitive Strategies
Language Specific MK
Language Universals MK
L2
L1
Language of Instruction
Language of Classroom Management
Language of Materials/Texts
Language of Teacher/Student Interaction
Expected Student Language Use
MK Metalinguistic Knowledge
14
A Balanced Biliteracy Program(Adapted from
Halliday 1983 Short 2000)
Learn Language
Learn Through Language
Read Aloud Book Share/Book Tasks/Displays Readers
Theatre Choral Reading Buddy Reading Partner
Reading Storytelling Songs, Chants,
Rhymes Independent Reading Independent Writing
Read Aloud Core Literature Units Response to
Literature Inquiry Studies Content Theme
Units Writing to Learn
Literature Circles
Learn About Language Word Study
Guided Reading Modeled-Shared Writing
Interactive Writing Editors
Table Mini-Lessons/Focused Lessons
Teacher/Student Conferences
Genre Studies Multicultural Books Content Reading
INQUIRY
Shared Reading
15
Phonics in Biliteracy Classrooms
  • Spanish L1 Phonics
  • English L2 Phonics
  • Syllabic awareness develops before phonemic
    awareness (PA) since syllables are
    defined-boundary rhythmic sound units.
  • PA involves attention to syllabic stress patterns
    that alter meaning.
  • Spelling patterns within syllables (syllabic
    context) such as with letters c and g determine
    letter-sound correspondence.
  • There is greater consistency in English spelling
    in larger-than-phoneme units.
  • Onset rhyme segmentation abilities are
    precursors to learning analogical decoding
    concepts.
  • English has many monosyllabic words with
    1-phoneme differences.
  • Open vs. closed syllables determine vowel sounds
    in multisyllabic words.

16
What the Research Says about Language Contrasts
  • Some reading strategies are common to both
    languages, while others are specific to the
    phonetic and graphic systems of L1 or L2.
    Explicit instruction in linguistic parallels and
    contrasts is helpful for developing effective
    reading strategies.

17
AMBIENTES Y REFERENTES
MATERIALES EN MEXICO
Mtra. Martha García Rangel San Miguel de
Allende Guanajuato, Mexico
18
SALON DE PRIMER GRADO
INICIOS Y FINALES IGUALES. RELACIONAR GRAFIA CON
SONIDO.
19
(No Transcript)
20
PORTADORES DE TEXTO
CARTELES, ENVOLTURAS, ETIQUETAS.
21
INICIOS IGUALES
CREATIVIDAD EN EL ACOMODO DE REFERENTES
22
DISCOS SILABICOS
23
EL CAMINITO
24
LOTERIA DE ETIQUETAS
25
Phoneme to Grapheme Relationships
One-to-many relations
a
/1/
b
Many-to-one relations
/1/
a
/2/
26
Spanish Phonics
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Letter-sound correspondences
  • Spelling patterns
  • Syllabification
  • Diphthongs and syllable juncture
  • Categorization of words according to stressed
    syllable
  • Rules for the use of written accent marks

27
English Phonics
  • Consonants and vowels
  • Consonant blends and digraphs
  • Long and short vowels
  • R-controlled vowels
  • Vowel digraphs
  • Diphthongs
  • Homophones homographs

28
The Spanish Alphabet
  • 29 letters spell 24 phonemes
  • Highly regular and rule governed, with a few
    letras difíciles that have multiple
    phoneme-graphic correspondences
  • There are no double letters ch, ll, rr
    represent a single phoneme. The ñ comes from the
    Latin nn.
  • H is silent and u is silent after g unless it
    carries a diérisis (bilingüe, pingüino) and
    after q (queso)

29
Las Dificultades de la Ortografía en Español
  • Letras difíciles (c, s, z b, v g, j r, rr ie,
    ll, y el uso del diéresis sobre la u)
  • Las letras mudas (H/h u después de g, q)
  • Combinaciones de consonantes conjuntas y
    separadas (con l, con r mb de bombero, mp de
    campesino, nv de inventor, nf de enfermera)
  • El acento escrito
  • Uso de letras mayúsculas

30
Spanish Phonemes Spelled Using Multiple Graphemes
  • Vowel phoneme i is written as i and as y (i
    griega) in diphthongs ending a word (soy, muy)
  • Labiodental /b/ is written as either b or v
    (haba, ave)
  • /k/ is written as c before a, o, u, or as k or as
    qu (casa, kiosco, queso)
  • /s/ is written as c before e, i or as s or as z
    (cerro, silla, zorro)
  • /h/ is written as g before e, i or as j (gigante,
    jinete) and as x (México, Don Quixote)
  • /y/ is written as ie, ll or y (hielo, lleno,
    yodo)

31
Spanish Graphemes That Spell Multiple Phonemes
  • The letter b spells the bilabial b as in burro
    and the labiodental b as in arriba
  • The letter c spells /k/ as in casa and /s/ as in
    cita.
  • The letter g spells /g/ as in gallo and /h/ as in
    general
  • The letter y spells the vowel sound i at the end
    of words as in soy and the consonant sound y as
    in yegua

32
Spanish in Spain and Latin AmericaX, Y, Z and
Thee
  • The x has respresents a number of phonemes /h/,
    /x/ and in Mexico /sh/ for words from Náhuatl and
    Otomí.
  • In Latin America, the ll and y in initial
    position are pronounced the same (llama, yerno)
  • In Spain, the z before a, o u represents a soft
    /th/ sound. This sound is also spelled ce ci.
    Words ending in z change to c when forming the
    plural (pez-peces lápiz-lápices)

33
Spanish Spelling Patterns
 
34
English Demons for Spanish Speakers(Thonis,
1983)
  • All the short vowels-hat, bed, hit, top, up
  • The sh of shoes, mission, nation, ocean, chef,
    special, sugar (One sound with 6 different
    spellings!)
  • The th of this the th of thank
  • The j of jello, edge
  • The z of zero, has
  • The v of voice, very
  • The r-controlled vowels-especially the one sound
    (ir, er, ur)
  • The zh of measure, mirage
  • The d of day, ladder, bad
  • The h of home, house, hare

35
English Syllable Patterns
  • Closed Short vowel ending with consonant
  • Open Long vowel, no consonant ending
  • Vowel Digraph vowel spelled with 2 letters
  • C-le at the ends of words
  • R-controlled vowel
  • Vowel-consonant-e long vowel pattern
  • Idiosyncratic

36
Spanish Syllable Patterns
  • A single consonant occurring between vowels is
    joined to the vowel or vowels that follow.
  • Two separate consonants between vowels are
    divided.
  • A strong vowel (a,e,o) combined in a syllable
    with a weak vowel (i, u) forming a diphthong or
    triphthong are not separated.
  • Consonant blends (consonant with l or r) are not
    separated
  • When s is in a prefix, it forms a syllable with
    the prefix

37
Spanish Structural Analysis
  • Word derivations roots, prefixes and suffixes
  • Inflection and agreement (subject-verb,
    adjectives, possessives)
  • Enclisis (combining two classes of words)
  • Contractions (conjunción) shortened forms of
    words (apócope)
  • Compound words
  • Cognates

38
Types of Morphological Units(Birch, 2007)
  • Inflectional Morphemes
  • Derivational Morphemes
  • Dont usually change the words part of speech
  • Are usually suffixes.
  • Are mechanical--They dont result in a new
    different word but a different form of same word.
  • The change in meaning is a predictable
    grammatical detail.
  • EX plurals, possessives, verb endings,
    adjectives, adverbs
  • Result in a change in the words part of speech
    compared to the base they are added to.
  • Can be either prefix or suffix.
  • Make a substantial sometimes unpredictable
    change in meaning.
  • Are creative result in a new different word.
  • EX care, careless, carelessness

39
Word Derivations
immigrate
migration
immigration
migrate
immigrant
migr-move
migratory
emigrate
migrancy
emigrant
emigration
40
Derivaciones de unaPalabra Raíz
inmigrar
migración
inmigración
migrante
inmigrante
migr-mover
migratorio
emigrar
La Migra
emigrante
emigratoria
41
Orthographic Transfer in S/E Biliteracy(Mora,
2001)
  • In developing biliteracy skills, bilingual
    learners apply Spanish spellings to English words
    bilingual readers
  • Use Spanish spelling approximations for English
    phonemes that do not exist in Spanish.
  • Collapse English vowels into Spanish vowels,
    diphthongs or consonant blends.
  • Hear English phonemes but not know the English
    spelling patterns, such as vowel and consonant
    digraphs or silent letters.

42
Word Study In Spanish
  • Cognates
  • Verb tenses, conjugation and agreement
  • Diminutive and augmentation derivitives (ito, ón,
    ote, ísimo)
  • Enclisis apócope (cualquier, cualquiera, gran,
    grande)
  • Letras difíciles
  • Parts of speech changes of function
  • Singular/plural inflections noun/adjective
    agreement
  • Classification by syllable stress written
    accent

43
Dual Language Classrooms
Literacy Block
Literacy Block LiteratureStudies Thematic Units
IndependentReading-Sp
StructuredWriting-Eng
Read Aloud Oral Language
Guided Reading-Sp
Self-selected S/E Literature
Word Study
GuidedReading-Eng
Reader Response
Writing
English/Spanish as L2 Transfer Skills
Content Areas
Math Science Social Studies

Concept Development in L1ESL/SSL
Reinforcement
Sp/Eng Dominant
Bilingual Instruction/SDAIE
Bilingual Students
44
References
  • August, D. Shanahan, T. (Eds.) (2006).
    Developing literacy in second-language learners
    Report of the National Literacy Panel on
    Language-minority Children Youth. Mahwah, NJ
    Erlbaum Associates.
  • Koda, K. (2008). Impact of prior literacy
    experience on second-language learning to read.
    In K. Koda A. Zehler (Eds.) Learning to read
    across languages Cross-linguistic relationships
    in first- and second-language literacy
    development, pp. 68-96. New York, NY Cambridge
    University Press.
  • National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children
    to read An evidence-based assessment of the
    scientific research literature on reading and its
    implications of reading instruction. (National
    Institute of Health Publication No. 00-4769).
    Washington, DC NICHD.
  • RAND Reading Study Group (2002). Reading for
    understanding Toward an RD program in reading
    comprehension. Santa Monica, CA RAND Science
    Technology Policy Institute.
  • Thonis, E. W. (1983). The English-Spanish
    Connection. Compton, CA Santillana.
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