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Wind%20Hybrid%20Systems

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Title: Wind%20Hybrid%20Systems


1
12.4 Wind Hybrid Systems
Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space
Technology, LS IEEE 3/15/2010, Rev. 2.1 fleslie
_at_fit.edu (321) 674-7377 www.fit.edu/fleslie
2
In Other News . . .
  • Wind Turbines in Chicago Tribune
    3/14/10http//www.istockanalyst.com/article/viewi
    StockNews/articleid/3946002
  • (Source Chicago Tribune) By Julie Wernau,
    Chicago Tribune
  • Mar. 14--Months have passed since anyone has
    waved hello to one another in Waterman or
    Shabbona in rural DeKalb County. Some people
    claim they've even stopped going to church to
    avoid having to talk to former friends.
  • "It's gone. The country way of living is gone,"
    declares Susan Flex, who lives in Waterman with
    her husband and their nine children.
  • The animosity stems from the greenest of energy
    sources a wind farm.
  • Complaints of noise and light flicker

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3
12.4 Overview Wind/Solar Hybrid Systems
  • Erratic energy sources like wind and solar are
    not dispatchable, that is, available on command
    of utility dispatchers
  • Sometimes or often, the wind blows when it is
    cloudy, or the sun shines when the wind is calm
  • A system that combines various energy sources is
    called a hybrid system
  • Diesel generators are often used for reliable
    power, and wind or solar are used to decrease the
    fuel costs
  • Studies of a site can indicate the optimal
    combination of wind, solar, and diesel (or
    gasoline) to provide power at the lowest overall
    annual cost

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4
12.4 About This Presentation
  • 12.4.1 Energy Mixture Availability
  • 12.4.2 Hybrid Mixes
  • 12.4.3 Economics of System Combination
  • 12.4.4 Hybrid System Design
  • 12.4.5 Balance of System (BOS)
  • 12.4.6 Power Control
  • 12.4.7 Power Availability
  • 12.4.8 Hybrid System Examples
  • 12.4 Conclusion

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5
12.4.1 Energy Source Mixture Availability
  • Assessment of wind vs. solar for a specific site
    uses a small representative turbine or anemometer
    and a PV module
  • The energy ratio plotted throughout a year
    indicates the relative energies available, which
    can then be compared with system cost (/kWh)
  • The actual energies available can then be
    compared with longer-term climate data to
    estimate annual variations
  • Life-cycle costs of the two systems must be
    included to get a comprehensive determination of
    an optimal system design
  • One of the systems might be omitted if the energy
    contribution is less than 5 of the total
  • Why bother if /kWh is too high?

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6
12.4.1 Energy Source Cost Choices
HypotheticalCost Line

0
100
http//dna-view.com/triangle.htm
Wind

50
50

33.3S, 33.3W, 33.3 F
Solar

0
100


50
0
100
0S, 100 F
Fuel
100W, 0 F
  • Assess cost of various mixes of energy, enter
    total costs, sketch contours to seek lowest cost
    region

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7
12.4.2.1 Wind/Diesel
  • Wind/diesel systems work well where sunlight is
    limited, as above the Arctic Circle or below the
    Antarctic Circle
  • Wind turbines have worked well at the South Pole
    Station, but diesel generators are also hard at
    work there
  • Gasoline engines also can be used, but may lack
    the life of a heavy diesel engine
  • Diesel fuel costs 2.90 gasoline 2.77 as of
    3/15/2010

www.renewableenergyaccess.com
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8
12.4.2.1 Wind/Diesel
  • 3/15/2010 diesel prices

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9
12.4.2.1 Wind/Diesel
  • 1970-2009 crude oil vs. production million
    barrels per day

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10
12.4.2.2 Solar/Diesel Hybrids
  • Solar power has a much more stable short term
    output than wind power the solar energy is less
    volatile than wind to use an economics term
  • As the insolation rises in the morning, the
    diesel engine might be shut down until late
    afternoon or when clouds reduce solar power for a
    certain number of minutes
  • The controller could run the diesel engine only
    when the battery voltage drops below a very low
    set point, such as 10.5 volts
  • The diesel would be stopped when the battery
    voltage rose to approximately 13.9 volts
  • A battery-charging procedure minimizes the number
    of engine starts and ensures full-load engine
    operation

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11
12.4.2.3 Diesel Engines
  • A 9.2 kVA diesel package plant from Genasys
    Systems in a quieting package (top)
  • Multiple large diesel sets (bottom)
  • A small diesel might require 2.5 L/hr at idle and
    7.5 L/hr at 14 kW changing somewhat linearly from
    idle to full load

http//www.eere.energy.gov/windpoweringamerica/
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12
12.4.2.4 Propane Engine Generator
  • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in the United
    States is primarily propane, but also contains
    propylene, butane, and butylene
  • Gasoline-carbureted generators may be converted
    to propane often done in pickup trucks in
    Western US
  • The Onan (Cummins) generator shown below produces
    5.5 kW and costs 2970 (540/kW)
  • One gallon/hour of liquid propane will produce
    10kW

http//www.merequipment.com/Frequently20Asked20Q
uestions/Powergard_Elliott_faq.htm
http//www.emnrd.state.nm.us/ecmd/html/propane.htm
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13
12.4.2.5 Tripartite Systems
  • A wind/solar/diesel system is only somewhat more
    complex than the wind/solar type
  • The system balance between wind and solar is
    determined as in a conventional system, adjusting
    the costs of each to match the available energy
  • If the sun rarely shines, the solar equipment
    would not be cost-effective
  • If the wind rarely blows, the wind equipment
    would not be cost-effective
  • Each of these sources offsets the need for diesel
    consumption, yet including some diesel capacity
    improves the availability and reliability of power

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12.4.2.6 Fuel Consumption
  • The rate of diesel fuel consumption is critical
    to the analysis
  • Diesel fuel costs 20 more than gasoline
  • Biodiesel is even more costly
  • Fuel transportation raises the actual fuel cost
    and must be included in the total price
  • The engine speed must be matched to the
    generator/alternator to optimize efficiency
  • When the generator runs, it should do so at full
    load, charging batteries as necessary, then
    shutting down completely to save fuel

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15
12.4.3 Economics of Plant Combination
  • The location is the prime driver of the
    cost-analysis
  • When the remoteness and lack of roads makes
    fuel-hauling or helicopter transport too costly,
    the wind or solar components must be increased to
    ensure reliable power
  • Mountain-top radio repeaters exemplify the
    inaccessible site, and access may be limited to
    hiking or horseback (pack trains)
  • The handset radio has 5W to reach the repeater,
    the repeater receiver audio is patched to the 50W
    transmitter on another frequency, and the high
    power signal reaches other receivers farther away
  • Matching of the load times to the energy times
    determines the need for storage capacity

Scottish Moor
http//www.windsund.com
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16
12.4.4 Hybrid Installation Design
  • Some rules from Manwell, et al.
  • Without storage, the load limits what energy may
    be used or extracted
  • Load matching for time of day limits output as
    well
  • Diesel engines must be sized for highest load to
    carry the loads in normal operation
  • The savings is never greater than the fuel
    savings

Manwell, et al., 2002
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17
12.4.5 Balance of Systems (BOS)
  • The balance of system must include the necessary
    fuel tanks, piping, transportation support, etc.
  • Local shops may be needed to perform engine
    overhaul, since the distance to civilization may
    be great
  • BOS must include means of transporting fuel to
    the engine
  • If a truck is normally used to travel to a
    location that has fuel, there might not be an
    extra trip or expense
  • With dual truck tanks, one might be used just for
    hauling fuel for the generator
  • The labor (driver) cost is increased slightly for
    getting fuel, but increased greatly if the trip
    would not have been otherwise made

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18
12.4.5.1 Balance of Systems (Wiring)
  • An installation in China
  • Please dont do this!
  • Wiring should be neat and well secured to prevent
    fires!

http//www.nrel.gov/international/china/pdfs/vp_wo
rkshop_2002/wallace_undp.pdf
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19
12.4.5.2 Balance of Systems (Diesel)
  • Fueled systems will require tanks, lines, and
    possibly pumps
  • In cold weather, diesel oil thickens, and
    insulation or heating of the lines may be
    required
  • Hot water tubes can be run parallel to the fuel
    lines
  • Small car engines may use 3 liters per 100 km (78
    mpg)
  • If at 78 mph, that would be 3 L/hr, or to avoid
    mixed units systems, approximately 3/4
    gallon/hour
  • A typical 500 gallon tank would hold 500 hours
    of fuel, so replacement fuel must be obtained
    faster than that to keep the tank filled so the
    generator doesnt stop

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20
12.4.5.3 Battery Storage
  • Batteries provide an inexpensive form of
    storage
  • They are required for wind and solar energy, but
    diesel (gasoline) generators could run to carry
    the load
  • For reliability, some diesel service might
    expensively be kept online at all times to avoid
    starting delays
  • Large battery systems require some maintenance
    checks but usually last for many years (7-20)
  • A large Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) can
    carry the load for minutes to hours or longer
    depending upon the amount of battery ampere-hours
    that supports it
  • Adding storage means that the energy available is
    leveled and unnecessary engine starts are
    avoided

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21
12.4.5.3.1 Battery Storage (Australia)
http//www.solarshop.com.au
  • This shipping container contains the controller
    and a very large battery

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22
12.4.6 Power Control
  • System monitoring by computer allows programming
    of automated supervisory monitoring and
    determines actions to take in response
  • The system functions in software might include
  • Start an engine
  • Control battery charging
  • Control energy load dumping for wind turbine
  • Change loads to match available power
  • Engage engine clutch
  • Report alarms to a distant operator

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23
12.4.6.1 Power Control for Backup Engine-Generator
  • The engine-generator starting sequence
    automatically begins when the line voltage sags
    (drops) below perhaps 105 volts
  • A transfer switch changes the load from the
    wind/solar inverter output to the
    engine-generator output
  • The battery is connected to the starter motor and
    the engine is cranked to start under a
    solenoid-controlled choke fuel enrichment
  • As the starter turns over the engine-generator,
    the speed is sufficient to provide voltage to the
    load
  • Once the engine is running, the choke is opened
    to provide a normal fuel mixture
  • The entire sequence is so fast that lights on the
    load side dont noticeably flicker
  • When inverter power returns for thirty seconds,
    the load is switched to the inverter (after a
    delay) and the engine is stopped

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12.4.6.2 Power Control for Continuous Hybrid
System
  • In a full hybrid system, the engine runs
    continuously and the wind/solar sources subsidize
    (add to) the available energy, saving fuel by
    shutting down the engine whenever possible
  • The inverter is synchronously matched to the
    power frequency and voltage, providing more or
    less power as is available

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12.4.7 System Availability
  • As long as the engine works and the diesel fuel
    lasts, system availability is high
  • If the renewable sources are low, the fuel will
    be used faster (and require replenishment more
    often)
  • If the engine fails and there is no storage
    (battery), the system will only have the varying
    renewable energy and might not function at all
    due to voltage variations
  • Solar energy might carry the load until
    mid-afternoon, but the wind system would be too
    variable in many locations

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12.4.8 Example Alaskan Hybrid Site
  • Coast Guard Station in Alaska
  • Wind and solar energy seem to be augmented by
    five large propane tanks near the base of the
    turbine
  • If so, a propane-fueled generator would be used
    instead of diesel
  • There is likely a really long fill hose on the
    supply boat that can connect to the tanks

http//www.uaf.edu/energyin/webpage/pages/other_im
portant_topics/hybrid.htm
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12.4.8.1 Example San Clemente Island, CA
  • US Navy turbine installation to reduce diesel
    fuel use by a navigation light
  • NREL determined that cost of energy (COE) was
    0.193/kWh vs. 0.45/kWh baseline with all diesel
    power

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28
12.4.8.2 PV Installation in Australia
Diesel generator supplies backup power
  • See www.solarshop.com.au for details

060217
http//www.solarshop.com.au/
29
12.4 Conclusion Wind Hybrid
  • Combinations of energy sources will provide more
    reliable power than any one source alone ---
    energy diversity
  • Diesel, propane, or gasoline engine-generators
    produce power on demand, and can self-start when
    the power line voltage is dropping
  • Natural gas can be piped to some areas
  • When wind or solar energy is available, the
    fueled generator will shut down, saving its fuel
    cost
  • Although overall costs are higher, the power is
    more reliable

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30
Olin Engineering Complex 4.7 kW Solar PV Roof
Array
080116
31
References Books
  • Boyle, Godfrey. Renewable Energy, Second Edition.
    Oxford Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN
    0-19-26178-4. (my preferred text)
  • Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. Cambridge MA The
    MIT Press, 1992. 0-262-02349-0, TJ807.9.U6B76,
    333.7940973.
  • Duffie, John and William A. Beckman. Solar
    Engineering of Thermal Processes. NY John Wiley
    Sons, Inc., 920 pp., 1991
  • Gipe, Paul. Wind Energy for Home Business.
    White River Junction, VT Chelsea Green Pub. Co.,
    1993. 0-930031-64-4, TJ820.G57, 621.45
  • Patel, Mukund R. Wind and Solar Power Systems.
    Boca Raton CRC Press, 1999, 351 pp. ISBN
    0-8493-1605-7, TK1541.P38 1999, 621.312136
  • Sørensen, Bent. Renewable Energy, Second Edition.
    San Diego Academic Press, 2000, 911 pp. ISBN
    0-12-656152-4.
  • Texter,

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References Websites, etc.
  • http//www.uaf.edu/energyin/webpage/pages/other_im
    portant_topics/hybrid.htm
  • http//www.sandia.gov/wind/
  • http//gttserv.lth.rwth-aachen.de/sp/tt/gtt-news/
    gttn_13.html triangle plotting of proportions
  • http//www.nrel.gov/international/china/pdfs/vp_wo
    rkshop_2002/wallace_undp.pdf RE systems
  • http//alaska.bp.com/alaska/beyond_petroleum/limev
    illage/limevillage.htm Lime Village, Alaska by BP
  • http//www.eere.energy.gov/windpoweringamerica/pdf
    s/workshops/2002_wind_diesel/san_clemente_californ
    ia.pdf
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________
  • awea-windnet_at_yahoogroups.com. Wind Energy elist
  • awea-wind-home_at_yahoogroups.com. Wind energy home
    powersite elist
  • mailtoenergyresources_at_egroups.com
  • rredc.nrel.gov/wind/pubs/atlas/maps/chap2/2-01m.ht
    ml PNNL wind energy map of CONUS
    windenergyexperimenter_at_yahoogroups.com. Elist
    for wind energy experimenters
  • telosnet.com/wind/20th.html
  • www.google.com/search?q22renewableenergycourse
    22
  • solstice.crest.org/
  • dataweb.usbr.gov/html/powerplant_selection.html
  • http//tonto.eia.doe.gov/oog/info/gdu/gasdiesel.as
    p
  • http//www.pruftechnik.com/fileadmin/user_upload/C
    OM/Condition_Monitoring/Products/Online_Systems/VI
    BROWEB_XP/Brochure/PRUFTECHNIK_WindBrochure2010_en
    .pdf

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Notes hybrid
  • Sorenson p. 851

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