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Qualitative Analysis

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Title: Qualitative Analysis


1
Qualitative Analysis
  • Workshop 5
  • ESRC Workshops for Qualitative Research in
    Management

2
Identification of training need
  • Current literature places great stress upon the
    methods used to go out and collect or generate
    the data, but there is much less written about
    the actual analytical techniques/ process.
  • There is much more training available for
    quantative software packages (eg SPSS) than for
    qualitative software packages).

3
Workshop aim
  • To provide an introduction to the process of
    qualitative analysis and to use step by step
    examples to provide an idea of how to the process
    of qualitative analysis actually works.
  • To provide an introduction to Computer Aided
    Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) and
    signpost further information sources.

4
Workshop objectives
  • By the end of this workshop participants should
  • Be familiar with the process of qualitative
    analysis may be conducted.
  • Be able to source further information on
    different approaches to analysis
  • Understand the basic function of qualitative
    software.
  • Be able to source further information on a
    variety of software packages.

5
Workshop outline
  • Introducing different approaches to qualitative
    data analysis
  • Grounded Theory
  • Discourse Analysis
  • Computer Aided Qualitative Data Software Analysis
    (CAQDAS).
  • Further sources on CAQDAS
  • Further information on qualitative data analysis

6
Approaches to qualitative data analysis.
  • Approaches to be covered
  • Grounded Theory
  • Discourse Analysis

7
Grounded theory is.
  • Theory which is derived inductively from the data
    which were systematically gathered and analyzed
    throughout the research process (Strauss and
    Corbin 1998).
  • Data collection, analysis and theory stand in a
    reciprocal relationship with each other. A
    researcher does not begin with a pre-conceived
    theory in mind, rather the researcher begins with
    an area of study and allows the theory to emerge
    from the data.

8
Grounded theory involves.
  • 1. An initial attempt to develop categories
    which illuminate the data.
  • 2. Saturation of these categories with many
    appropriate cases in order to develop their
    relevance.
  • 3. Developing these categories into more general
    analytical frameworks with relevance outside the
    setting.
  • Glaser and Strauss (1967).

9
Glaser/Strauss split
  • Glasers (1978, 1998) position assumes an
    objective external reality, a neutral observer
    who discovers data and an objectivist rendering
    of the data. Therefore Glasers position is often
    perceived as close to traditional positivism
    (Charmaz 2000 ).
  • Strauss and Corbin argue for unbiased data
    collection, a set of technical procedures and the
    need for verification -therefore they also imply
    an objective external reality.
  • However, Strauss and Corbin also move away from
    traditional positivism through the acknowledgment
    that respondents views of reality may conflict
    with their own (See Strauss and Corbin 1998).

10
Glaser and Strauss (and Corbin)
  • Both realist in ontology and epistemology
  • Both follow the canons of objective reportage and
    engage in silent authorship and usually write
    about their data as distant experts (Charmaz
    1994) thereby contributing to the objectivist
    stance.

11
Skills needed for the grounded theory research
approach
  • Important to minimise subjectivity by
  • Maintaining an open disposition, a willingness to
    be surprised
  • Think comparatively comparing incident to
    incident
  • Study multiple viewpoints of the phenomena in
    question
  • Researcher should periodically step back and ask
    what is going on here?

12
Phase 1 - Initial attempt to develop categories
which illuminate the data.
  • Conceptual ordering / creating basic codes
  • Internal aspect- they must be meaningful in
    relation to the data
  • External aspect- they must be meaningful in
    relation to other categories
  • (Dey 1993 96-97).

13
Phase 1 - Initial attempt to develop categories
which illuminate the data.
  • Open coding the analytic process through which
    concepts are identified and their properties and
    dimensions discovered in the data (Strauss and
    Corbin 1998).
  • Microanalysis of the data
  • Progressive refocusing in light of the data

14
Phase 1 - Initial attempt to develop categories
which illuminate the data.
  • Categories
  • 1. Perceptions of management
  • 2. Customer Aggression
  • Put about how customer aggression is defined as
    anything frontliner or researcher perceives as
    such. Put about problems of definition and how
    this workshop does not aim to deal with this.

15
Phase 2- Saturation of categories with many
appropriate cases and further development of
categories
  • Axial Coding further analysis and linking of the
    codes
  • Creating subcategories in categories
  • Linking categories according to properties and
    dimensions.

16
Axial coding creating subcategories
  • Perceptions of management subcategories
  • Perceived in a positive way.
  • Perceived in a negative way
  • Perceived as neither positive or negative.

17
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18
Axial coding creating subcategories.
  • Customer Aggression Subcategories
  • Verbal aggression
  • Physical aggression
  • Substance abuse and customer aggression
  • Lack of understanding and acknowledgement of
    customer aggression

19
Phase 3 - Developing categories into general
analytical frameworks with relevance outside the
setting.
  • Selective coding the process of integrating and
    refining categories.
  • Major categories are finally integrated to form
    a larger theoretical scheme.

20
Phase 3 - Developing categories into general
analytical frameworks with relevance outside the
setting.
  • In certain public sector workplaces, which deal
    with face to face interaction with potentially
    violent customers, the physical presence of
    management is desired by frontliners.

21
Phase 3 Developing categories into general
analytical frameworks with relevance outside the
setting
  • use of literature in this final stage of analysis
    in order to confirm findings and to illustrate
    where the research differs from the literature.

22
Criticisms of grounded theory
  • Failure to acknowledge theories which guide work
    at an earlier stage.
  • Rejoinder Recognition of impossibility of
    tabular rasa. However, Strauss and Corbin
    acknowledge that every piece of research
    (quantitative or qualitative) has an element of
    subjectivity. Instead they stress the importance
    of taking appropriate measures to minimize the
    subjectivity in their analyses

23
Criticisms of grounded theory
  • Concentrating on the generation of theories at
    the expense of their quality and usefulness. A
    major problem of grounded theory is that if the
    researcher has no knowledge of the literature,
    they risk re-inventing the wheel.
  • Rejoinder Strauss and Corbin (1998) argue that
    these procedures are supposed to be followed with
    creativity, flexibility and intelligence. They
    explain that it is the construction of new
    insights and understanding which are significant
    and useful that is at the heart of this method.

24
Criticisms of grounded theory
  • Postmodernists and poststructuralists dispute
    obvious and subtle positivistic premises assumed
    by grounded theorys major proponents and within
    the logic of the method itself
  • Response Creation of constructivist grounded
    theory which stresses emergent, constructivist
    elements such as an interpretive understandings
    of individuals meanings

25
Further sources on Grounded Theory
  • Charmaz, K., (1994) Grounded Theory Objectivist
    and Constructivist Methods in Denzin, N. and
    Lincoln, Y. (ed.) Handbook of Qualitative
    Research, Thousand Oaks, CA Sage.
  • Glaser, B. and Straus, A. L. (1967) The Discovery
    of Grounded Theory Strategies for Qualitative
    Research, Chicago Aldine
  • Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1998) Basics of
    Qualitative Research Techniques and Procedures
    for Developing Grounded Theory, Thousand Oaks
    Sage Publications.

26
Workshop outline
  • Introducing different approaches to qualitative
    data analysis
  • Grounded Theory
  • Discourse Analysis
  • Computer Aided Qualitative Data Software Analysis
    (CAQDAS).
  • Further sources on CAQDAS
  • Further information on qualitative data analysis

27
Discourse analysis
  • Discourse analysis focuses on language as a
    social practice in its own right and is concerned
    with how individuals use language in specific
    social contexts
  • Enables researcher to gain an understanding of
    how individuals use language to construct
    themselves and the world around them
  • Enables researcher to understand why individuals
    use language to construct themselves and the
    world around them
  • Enables researcher to understand the ideological
    effects of individuals constructions.

28
Discourse analysis
  • Huge variation in types of discourse analysis
  • the only thing that commentators are agreed on
    in this area is that terminological confusions
    abound
  • (Potter and Wetherall 19876)
  • In approaches such as ethnomethodolgy and
    conversation analysis discourse is concerned
    with the more linguistic concerns of the
    structure of talk and the processes used by
    speakers to construct their worlds (Schwandt
    2001).
  • Foucauldian approaches consider discourses as
    systems of power/knowledge which are socially and
    culturally located and which construct subjects
    and their worlds (Gubrium and Holstein 2000).

29
Levels of discourse
  • Analysis at the micro, context specific level of
    discourse and the more macro level of Discourse.
  • Analysis of discourse as reflecting meaning or
    analysis of discourse as constructing meaning.
  • (Alvesson and Karreman 2002).

30
Dimensions in discourse studies. Taken from
Alvesson and Karreman (2002)
31
Critical discourse analysis
  • Language plays an active, constructive role.
  • Unit of analysis is language and not the
    individual.
  • Anti-essentialist -individuals draw on
    alternative versions of reality according to the
    situation.
  • (Marshall 1994).

32
Doing discourse analysis
  • Identification of interpretive repertoires
  • Identification of social constructions which have
    regulatory effects.
  • Consistency in discourse is not seen to
    illustrate some underlying reality, but is used
    to signpost a particular repertoire.

33
Doing discourse analysis
  • Discourse can be confirmed by
  • Referring to instances of its use in other texts
  • Illustrating its dominance in any specific
    socio-cultural context.

34
Doing discourse analysis
  • Analysis will focus on
  • Force
  • Context
  • Hegemonic Struggle

35
Doing discourse analysis
  • Force of the text
  • Understanding what it is trying to achieve
  • Relationship between repertoires

36
Doing discourse analysis
  • Importance of context of text production.
  • Interview transcripts usually involve an
    indication of previous comment or question.

37
Doing discourse analysis
  • Example of context of extract
  • Request from the researcher for a story about a
    difficult customer.
  • Neo-liberalist trend of service/customer
    orientation in the public sector.

38
Doing discourse analysis
  • Analysis of hegemony- extent to which a
    proposition is challenged or anticipated to be
    challenged.
  • Hegemonic struggle when different ideologies
    compete for dominance.

39
Criticisms of discourse analysis
  • Accusation of moral nilhism unethical acts are
    dismissed as having no material reality
  • Countered by argument that discourse analysis
    does not deny material reality, but focuses on
    the way our understandings of such practices are
    constructed through discourse.

40
Criticisms of discourse analysis
  • Voicing concerns for groups who do not consider
    themselves to be oppressed or disadvantaged.
  • Subversion of oppressive discourses may lead to
    alternative suppressive discourses for other
    social groups.
  • Difficulty of identifying interpretative
    repertoires when research is not independent of
    linguistic resources needed to construct
    discourse.

41
Further sources on Discourse Analysis
  • Discourse Analysis
  • Dick, P., (2004) Discourse Analysis, in Cassell,
    G., and Symon, G., (eds) Essential Guide to
    Qualitative Methods in Organizational Research,
    London Sage
  • Alvesson, M., and Karreman, D., (2002) Varities
    of Discourse On the study of organizations
    through discourse analysis, 53(9) 1125-1149
  • Fairclough, N., (2003) Analysing Discourse,
    Textual analysis for social research, New York
    Routledge

42
Workshop outline
  • Introducing different approaches to qualitative
    data analysis
  • Grounded Theory
  • Discourse Analysis
  • Computer Aided Qualitative Data Software Analysis
    (CAQDAS).
  • Further sources on CAQDAS
  • Further information on qualitative data analysis

43
CAQDAS Data organisation
  • An indispensable tool for storage retrieval and
    manipulation of the text (Kelle 1995).
  • Allows the researcher to sort the data into
    easily accessible categories to enable quick
    retrieval of data
  • Comparison of segments
  • Refinement and development of codes
  • Examples include NVivo, Atlas, ethnograph,
    hypersoft and code-a-text

44
What does CAQDAS actually do?
  • Aids mechanical data management techniques such
    as
  • Cutting and pasting into codes
  • Creating subcategories
  • Notes in the margin

45
Additional uses of CAQDAS
  • Atlas also allows the storage of audio
    recordings.
  • Code-a-text allows the researcher to work with
    sound, video and transcript concurrently.
  • Atlas also allows pictures to be scanned in and
    used as data, allowing handwritten notes to be
    scanned in this way.

46
Additional uses of CAQDAS
  • Hypersoft strives to avoid decontexualisation of
    data through hyperlinks.
  • Use of CD ROM to record research which could
    provide the opportunity for multiple readings of
    the text.

47
Debates surrounding CAQDAS
  • Assertion that software packages seem more suited
    for objectivist grounded theory than more social
    constructivist approaches (Charmaz 2000).
  • Accusations of overemphasis on coding and promote
    a superficial view of qualitative research
    (Coffrey et al 1996).
  • Use of computer fragments data

48
Debates surrounding CAQDAS
  • The central analytic task in qualitative research
    understanding the meaning of text cannot be
    computerised. Using CAQDAS is no substitute for
    thinking hard about the meaning of data. (Seale
    2000).
  • Only the more mechanical task of data management
    can be aided by a computer.
  • Use of software package reflects choices of the
    researcher.

49
In summary
  • Choose software to fit research not research to
    fit software!!
  • Overall CAQDAS tends to be used as tool for
    intelligent management of research data.

50
Conclusion
  • Qualitative enquiry depends, at every stage, on
    the skills training, insights, and capabilities
    of the inquirer. Qualitative analysis ultimately
    depends on the analytical intellect and style of
    the analyst (Patton 2004 436).

51
Further reading on CAQDAS
  • Fielding, N. and Lee, R. (eds) Using Computers
    in Qualitative Research, Sage Newbury Park
  • Kelle, U., (1995) Computer- Aided Qualitative
    Data Analysis Theory, Methods and Practice.
    Sage London.
  • Richards L. and Richards, T., Using Computers in
    Qualitative Analysis, in N. Denzin, and Y.
    Lincoln (eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research,
    Thousand Oaks. Sage 445-62.
  • Kelle, U. (1995) Computer-Aided Qualitative Data
    Analysis Theory, Methods and Practice Sage
    London.

52
Useful websites
  • AnSWR (www.cdc.gov/hiv/software/answr.htm)
  • Atlas (www.atlasti.de/)
  • Code-a-text (www.code-a-text.co.uk)
  • CDC EZ-Text (www.cdc.gov/hiv/software/ez-text.htm)
  • Decision Explorer (devoted to conceptual mapping)
    (www.banxia.co.uk/banxia).
  • Ethnograph (http//www.qualisresearch.com )
  • HyperResearch (www.researchware.com)
  • QCA (Qualitative Comparative Analysis)
    (www.nwu.edu/IPR/publiations/qca.html)
  • QSR NVivo/Nudist (www.qsrinternational.com

53
Further sources on data analysis
  • General analysis references
  • Bloor, M. (1978) On the analysis of observational
    data a discussion of the worth and uses of
    observational techniques andrespondent
    validation, Sociology, 12, pp. 542-55
  • Becker, H.S., (1998) Tricks of the trade How to
    think about your research while youre doing it.
    Chicargo University of Chicargo Press.
  • Bulmer, M. (1979) Concepts in the analysis of
    qualitative data. Sociological Review, 27,
    651-677
  • Dey, I (1993) Qualitative data analysis a user
    friendly guide for social scientists, London
    Routledge.
  • Miles, M. B. and Huberman, A. M. (1984)
    Qualitative Data Analysis A Sourcebook of New
    Methods, Beverly Hills, CA Sage.

54
Further sources on data analysis
  • General analysis references
  • Miles, M.B. (1979) Qualitative data as an
    attractive nuisance The problem of analysis.
    Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 590-601
  • Ryan, G., and Bernard, R., Data Management and
    Analysis Methods, in Denzin, N., Lincoln, Y.,
    (2000) Handbook of Qualitative Research,
    Thousand Oaks Sage
  • Silverman, D. (2000) Analysing Talk and Text, ,
    in Denzin, N., Lincoln, Y., (eds) Handbook of
    Qualitative Research. London Sage
  • Taylor, S.J. Bogdan, R.C. (1984) Introduction
    to qualitative research methods The search for
    meanings (2nd ed). New York John Wiley

55
  • For further information on similar other
    workshops in qualitative analysis please see our
    web site
  • www.shef.ac.uk/bgpinqmr/
  • There is a space on our website for feedback on
    the training modules. Please use it to record any
    feedback including modifications/ adaptations
    made to the original modules.

56
References
  • Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. (ed.) (2000) Handbook
    of Qualitative Research, Thousand Oaks, CA Sage
  • Foucault, M. (1971) Orders of Discourse, Social
    Science Information, 10 7-30.
  • Harrow, J. and Shaw, M. (1992) The manager faces
    the consumer, in L. Wilcocks and J. Harrow
    (eds.), Rediscovering Public Services Management,
    Berkshire McGraw-Hill.
  • Patton, M. (2002) Qualitative Research and
    Evaluation Methods, London Sage
  • Potter, J. (1992) Constructing Realism- 7 Moves
    (Plus or minus a couple), Theory and Psychology,
    2, 2 167-173.

57
  • Potter, J., and Wetherell (1987) Discourse and
    Social Psychology Beyond Attitudes and
    Behaviour, London Sage.
  • Schwandt, T. (2001) Dictionary of Qualitative
    Inquiry, Thousand Oaks Sage
  • Wilcocks, L. and Harrow, J. (1992) Rediscovering
    Public Services Management, Berkshire
    McGraw-Hill
  • Stubbs, M., (1983) Discourse Analysis. Oxford
    Blackwell
  • Tannen, D. (1984) Coherence in Spoken and Written
    Discourse. Norwood Ablex
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