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Origin of Man and the Races

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So God created (bara) man in his own image, in the image of God he created (bara) ... Small population of men. Single location (Africa) 34. Linkage Disequilibrium ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Origin of Man and the Races


1
Origin of Man and the Races
  • Richard Deem, M.S.
  • Reasons To Believe

2
General Outline
mtDNA Mitochondrial DNA A small piece of DNA
that codes for a small number of proteins within
the energy-producing sub-cellular organelle known
as the mitochondrion
  • Biblical data and scientific data
  • Origin of man
  • Molecular and genetic data mtDNA and Y
    chromosome

  • Neandertals and humans
  • Bipedal primates and chimpanzees
  • Origin of the races

3
Why All the Biology?
  • And to the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might
    win Jews to those who are under the Law, as
    under the Law, though not being myself under the
    Law, that I might win those who are under the
    Law to those who are without law, as without
    law, though not being without the law of God but
    under the law of Christ, that I might win those
    who are without law. To the weak I became weak,
    that I might win the weak I have become all
    things to all men, that I may by all means save
    some. (1 Corinthians 920-22)

4
Origin of Man Classic Hypothesis
Neandertals
5
Origins of Mammals
  • Soulish (nephesh) creatures created on days 5 and
    6

Nephesh The Hebrew word most often translated
soul, referring to both man and animals,
including mind, will, and emotion
  • Creation of specific mammals (cattle, rodents,
    and carnivores) described for day 6.
  • Though not specifically mentioned, probably
    included the creation of bipedal primates

6
Origin of Man Biblical Data
  • Genesis 126
  • Then God said, Let us make (asah) man in our
    image, in our likeness…

7
Origin of Man Biblical Data
  • Genesis 127
  • So God created (bara) man in his own image, in
    the image of God he created (bara) him male and
    female he created (bara) them.

8
Origin of Man Biblical Data
  • Genesis 27
  • Then the LORD God formed (yatsar) man of dust
    from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils
    the breath of life and man became a living
    being. (Genesis 27)

9
Man Part New, Part Old
  • Bara created new, probably refers to the
    spiritual qualities, self-awareness, moral
    understanding
  • Asa, yatsar made or formed from pre-existing
    material, probably refers to body and soul

10
Biblical Data Garden of Eden
  • Genesis 210, 14
  • Now a river flowed out of Eden to water the
    garden and from there it divided and became four
    rivers.

11
Origin of Man Biblical Data
Dating human origins
  • Adequate, but incomplete genealogies
  • Ben and ab
  • 10,000 - 50,000 years ago

12
Incomplete Genealogies
13
Incomplete Genealogies
14
Direct Descent?
  • ben son, grandson, etc.
  • ab father, grandfather

Harris, R.L., G.L. Archer, and B.K. Wilke. 1980.
Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Vol.
1. Moody Press, Chicago, IL, pp. 5-6, 113-114.
15
Direct Descent?
16
How Many Generations?
  • Deuteronomy 79
  • 1 Chronicles 1615
  • Psalms 1058

1,000 gen x 40 yr/gen 40,000 yr
He has remembered His covenant forever, The word
which He commanded to a thousand generations,
(Psalms 1058)
17
Scientific Predictions for the Origin of Humans
  • Creation Model

18
Scientific Predictions
Similarities with Other Animals
  • Anatomical basic body plan
  • Physiological the way the body works
  • Biochemical the chemical pathways and machines
    that underlie everything

19
Scientific Predictions
  • Sudden appearance…
  • Human fossils
  • Human culture
  • Spiritual activity

20
Scientific Predictions
  • Origin of man
  • Traceable to a single man and a single woman
  • Recent origin

21
Scientific Predictions
Origin of man
  • All males directly related to Noah
  • All females directly related to Eve
  • ? Females should be more genetically diverse

22
Scientific Data for Human Origins
23
Molecular Anthropology
Compare DNA sequences among modern human groups
  • Similarities and differences
  • Extent of differences

24
Molecular Anthropology
Gives
  • Date of humanitys origin
  • Original population size

25
Molecular Anthropology
  • Gives
  • Pattern for humanitys spread
  • Geographic location of humanitys origin

26
Genetic Diversity
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Male sperm contribute
only genetic material and no cellular organelles.
Therefore, all mtDNA comes from the egg, being
passed down exclusively by females.
Y chromosome A small chromosome that determines
the sex of an individual. Embryos that posses a Y
chromosome become male. Therefore, the genetic
information on the Y chromosome is passed down
only by males.
Linkage disequilibrium The non-random association
of alleles at different loci (or regions within
DNA sequences), not expected from the law of
independent assortment.
  • Evidence

Microsatellites Microsatellites" are loci where
short sequences of DNA are repeated in tandem
arrays (one right after the other).
  • Mitochondrial DNA
  • Y chromosomal DNA
  • Linkage disequilibrium
  • Microsatellites

27
Genetic Diversity
  • Humanity had a recent origin
  • African origin
  • Small population that rapidly expanded recently

28
Human Chromosome 21 Diversity
Haplotype A combination of alleles (alternate
forms of the same gene) of closely linked loci
that are found in a single chromosome and tend to
be inherited together
  • Three haplotypes describe 80 of human population
  • Far fewer haplotypes than expected

29
Mitochondrial DNA
  • Humanity originated less than 150,000 ya
  • Small population of women
  • Single location (Africa)

30
Y Chromosome Mapping
31
Y Chromosome Data
CI (Confidence Interval) A statistical measure of
the certainty of a value. 95 CI means that there
is a 95 probability that the result lies between
the CI values.
32
Male vs. Female Divergence
Whitfield, L.S., J.E. Suston, and P.N.
Goodfellow. 1995. Sequence variation of the human
Y chromosome. Nature 378 379-380.
33
Y Chromosome Summary
  • Humanity originated less than 50,000 ya
  • Small population of men
  • Single location (Africa)

34
Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Humanity originated less than 50,000 ya

35
Origin of the Malaria Parasite
  • Originated less than 120,000 ya
  • Resistance alleles appeared 3,000-12,000 ya

36
Scientific Data
1500
  • Sudden appearance of modern humans in the fossil
    record

1000
Cranial Capacity (cc)
500
0
1
2
3
Time (MYA)
37
Scientific Data
Sudden appearance of human culture
  • Sophisticated tool kit
  • Socioeconomic organization
  • Art work
  • Spiritual expression

38
Sophisticated Tool Kit
  • A shift from predominantly rake to blade
    stone tool technology
  • Increased variety and complexity of stone tools
    involving a higher degree of imposed form
  • Complex and extensively shaped bone, antler, and
    ivory artifacts
  • Increased regional diversification of tool forms

39
Socioeconomic Organization
  • Specialized patterns of animal exploitation,
    based on systematic hunting
  • A sharp increase in the overall density of human
    population
  • An increase in the maximum size of local
    residential groups
  • Appearance of highly structured sites,
    including hearths, pits, huts, tents, and other
    habitations

40
Appearance of Modern Art
41
Body Ornaments
  • Dated at 40,000 years ago
  • No food value
  • Unusual designs and color

42
Spiritual Expression
  • Religious relics and altars date to 24,000 ya
  • Artwork containing spiritual content dates to
    5,000 ya

43
Deleterious Mutations
"The deleterious mutation rate appears to be so
high in humans and our close relatives that it is
doubtful that such species, which have low
reproductive rates, could survive if mutational
effects on fitness were to combine in a
multiplicative way."
Eyre-Walker, A. Keightley, P. D. 1999. High
genomic deleterious mutation rates in hominids.
Nature 397, 344-347.
44
Evidence Against the Design of Humans?
  • Pseudogenes present in great apes and humans

Pseudogenes Regions of non-coding DNA (DNA that
does not code for functional protein) that have
been apparently duplicated from functional genes.
  • Beta globin
  • Enolase
  • Vitamin C
  • Assumes that God would never reuse previous
    designs

45
Summary - Scientific Data
  • Humans originated from a small population of
    males and females
  • Recent origin of modern humans
  • 50,000 years ago
  • Humans originated suddenly and dramatically

46
Origin of Man Out-of-Africa Hypothesis
African Humans
47
Who were the Neandertals?
48
Who Were the Neandertals?
  • Lived 150,000 to 30,000 years ago
  • Inhabited Europe and western Asia

49
Who Were the Neandertals?
Physical similarities with modern humans
Bipedal (bipedalism) Ability to walk upright on
two legs.
  • Bipedal
  • Large brain capacity

50
Physical Differences Between Neandertals and
Humans
Brain shape
Receding forehead
Brow ridge
Large eye sockets
Large front teeth
Chin receding
51
Physical Differences Between Neandertals and
Humans
Pterygoid tubercle A small rounded nodule on the
Pterygoid bone in the roof of the mouth
connecting the palatine in front and the quadrate
behind.
  • Elongated foramen magnum
  • Medial pterygoid tubercle
  • Flatter skull base

52
Physical Differences Between Neandertals and
Humans
  • Large nose
  • Large sinuses
  • Structure of the inner ear
  • Higher larynx

53
Physical Differences Between Neandertals and
Humans
  • Thicker bones
  • Barrel chests
  • Shorter limbs
  • Asymmetrical humerus
  • Thicker metacarpals

54
Neandertal Development
Craniodental A fancy word referring to the skull
and teeth
  • Craniodental development of Neandertals and
    humans differs from before birth
  • Differences occur from the time Neandertals first
    appear

55
Molecular Paleontology Neandertal mtDNA
56
DNA 101
  • DNA language
  • 4 letters in the alphabet
  • A Adenine T Thymine
  • C Cytosine G Guanine
  • 20 3-letter words (codons)
  • Each codon codes for one amino acid
  • Unlimited number of sentences (proteins)
  • Unlimited number of novels (organism)

57
Neandertal mtDNA
58
Neandertals Limited Genetic Diversity
59
Ancient Modern Human mtDNA
60
Neandertal mtDNA Summary
  • Neandertals have no genetic (nor evolutionary)
    connection to humans
  • Neandertals displayed limited genetic diversity

61
Origin of Man Classic Hypothesis
African Humans
European Humans
Asian Humans
Neandertals
62
Origin of Man Multi-regional Hypothesis
63
Multiregional Hypothesis Requires
  • Large breeding populations over the entire planet
  • Frequent interbreeding of those populations
  • Genetic roots traceable to millions of years bp

64
Genetic Data Contradicts Multiregional Hypothesis
  • Study 1
  • African and Asian and oceanic peoples originated
    from same population group 35-89 kya
  • Study 2
  • 90 of founding population must come from Africa
    and this population must be small

65
Genetic Data Contradicts Multiregional Hypothesis
  • Study 3 (small population size)
  • Nuclear DNA sequences
  • Alu insertions
  • HLA exons
  • mtDNA mismatch distributions
  • frequency spectra (mtDNA, Y-chr)
  • allele size vs. homozygosity at tandem repeat loci

66
Homo erectus Development
  • Homo erectus developed in a fashion similar to
    great apes not modern humans
  • Homo erectus developed from infanthood to
    adulthood rapidly

67
Descent of Modern Humans
  • Most of the familiar specimens of Homo erectus
    and of archaic humans known from the Pleistocene
    were not members of populations ancestral to us

Harpending, H.C., et al. 1998. Genetic traces of
ancient demography. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
95 1961-1967.
68
Origin of Man Multi-regional Hypothesis
African Humans
European Humans
Asian Humans
?
?
?
?
Neandertals
H. erectus
?
H. antecessor
H. ergaster
69
Scientific Data
Similarities with other animals
  • Anatomical overall structure and body plan
  • Physiological how the body systems work and
    interact
  • Biochemical basic chemical pathways

70
Scientific Data
  • Human Chimpanzee genetics
  • 95-99 Genetic Similarity
  • Base substitutions 1.4
  • Insertions/Deletions 3.4
  • Common Descent (?)

71
Humans and Chimpanzees
  • Chromosome number
  • Human (46)
  • Chimp (48)
  • Chromosome sizes
  • Chromosomal banding
  • 2 equivalent to two smaller chimp chromosomes
  • 4 and 17 different

72
Chromosome 21 Human-Chimp Comparison
HS21 Clone Gaps
PCR Result
Chimp-
Chimp and other primates-
  • Chromosome 21 fully sequenced and annotated
  • Two clusters with significant differences

73
How Different From Chimpanzees?
  • Human problem anthropomorphizing
  • The counting dog
  • What do chimpanzees really understand?

74
Human Distinctives
  • Large brain size
  • Bipedalism
  • Advanced culture
  • Decreased size of back teeth

75
Emergence of Bipedalism
  • Driven by habitat change from wood-land to open
    savanna?

76
Bipedalism Theories
77
Advantages of Bipedalism
  • Travel for food
  • Transport food
  • Feed in stationary position
  • Avoid predatory attacks
  • Thermoregulatory advantages
  • Tool use

78
Anatomy of Bipedalism
  • Shorter/broader pelvis

Human
Great Ape
  • Valgus angle
  • Knee
  • Lengthened lower limbs
  • Enlarged joint surfaces

79
Anatomy of Bipedalism
  • Restructuring of ear bones
  • Platform foot

Human
Great Ape
  • Foot arches
  • Relocation of hallux (big toe)

80
Anatomy of Bipedalism
  • Relocation of foramen magnum

Human
Great Ape
  • Lower/upper spine curvature
  • Restructuring of rib cage
  • Rearrangement of musculature

81
Ecology of Bipedalism
  • Early australopithecines lived in mixed woodland
    and savanna
  • A. ramidus (5.8 and 4.5 mya)
  • A. anamensis (4.2 mya)
  • A. afarensis (3.9 mya)
  • A. bahrelghazari (3.5 mya)

82
Natural History of Bipedalism
  • Facultative bipeds
  • A. ramidus (5.8 mya)
  • A. anamensis (4.2 mya)
  • A. habilis (2.5 mya)

83
Natural History of Bipedalism
  • Obligatory bipeds (type I)
  • H. erectus (2 million
    years ago)
  • H. neandertalensis (150,000 years ago)

84
Natural History of Bipedalism
  • Obligatory bipeds (type II)
  • Homo sapiens sapiens (modern humans) (50,000
    years ago)

85
Bipedalism in Hominins
Hominins Superfamily including the hominids
(Genus Homo and Australopithecus) along with the
bipedal apes and chimpanzees.
Time (MYA)
86
Emergence of Bipedalism
  • Minimal driving force/selective pressure
  • Appears suddenly in the fossil record
  • Requires major anatomical rearrangement
  • Rapid change followed by period of no change

87
Origin of Man Creation Model
All Humans
ADAM EVE
88
Origin of the Human Races
  • Biblical and Scientific Explanations

89
Origin of the Races
  • Gods original command And God blessed them
    and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply,
    and fill the earth..." (Genesis 128)

90
Origin of the Races
  • God reissued his command "and as for you, be
    fruitful and multiply Populate the earth
    abundantly and multiply in it." (Genesis 97)

91
World Peace and Unity?
  • Human pride and greed result in oppression of
    people
  • Media-Persia
  • Greece
  • Rome

92
Gods Peace and Unity
  • Do you suppose that I came to grant peace on
    earth? I tell you, no, but rather division
    (Luke 1251)
  • Peace I leave with you My peace I give you. I
    do not give to you as the world gives. (John
    1427)

93
Early Post-Flood Civilization
Biblical data
  • Rapid repopulation of Mesopotamia
  • Nimrod built 8 large cities, including Nineveh

94
Scattering of the Worlds People
Biblical data
  • At the city of Babel, the people began building a
    huge tower
  • God confused their language and scattered them
    over the face of the earth

95
Scattering of the Worlds People
  • Geographic barriers
  • Bering Strait Americas and Asia
  • Strait of Malaca Indonesia and Asia
  • Torres Strait Australia and Asia
  • Land bridges established by the ice age

96
Dividing the Earth
  • Biblical data
  • Two sons were born to Eber One was named Peleg,
    because in his time the earth was divided…
    (Genesis 1025)
  • Scientific Data
  • Land bridges covered by rising oceans 11,000 ya

97
Origin of the Races
  • What the Bible says
  • Moses married a Cushite woman) (Numbers 121)
  • Solomon married a black woman (Song of Songs 15)
  • Ethiopians described as dark-skinned (Jeremiah
    1323)

98
Origin of the Races
  • What the Bible doesnt say
  • When and how did the races begin?
  • No biblical data Not important enough to
    mention?
  • Mark of Cain?
  • Hams penalty?
  • Part of the scattering at the Tower of Babel?

99
Origin of the Races
  • Race facts
  • Single biological species - Homo sapiens sapiens.
  • Race described on the basis of skin color, hair
    form, facial morphology, body proportions, and
    other, less obvious traits not based upon
    genetics

100
Origin of the Races
  • Scientific classification
  • African (groups indigenous to Africa)
  • Caucasian (European populations)
  • Greater Asian (Mongols, Polynesians,
    Micronesians)
  • Amerindian (North South American Indians,
    Eskimos)
  • Australoid (Australia, Papua)

101
Biological Basis for Race
  • No specific race genes
  • Skin color melanin (phenomelanin and eumelanin)
  • Melanin expression controlled by the enzyme
    tyrosinase
  • All people have enough tyrosinase to be very
    black in skin color
  • Regulation of the tyrosinase determines skin color

102
Origin of the Races
  • Protein polymorphisms
  • 84 of all variation is found within each racial
    group
  • 10 of variation is found among racial groups
  • More genetic variation within races than between
    them

103
Skin Color Distribution Vs. Blood Type
Relative Skin Color
104
Racial Diversity Among Chimpanzees Compared to
Humans
105
Scientific Theories on the Origin of Human Races
  • Dark skin protects against ultraviolet radiation
    and cancer
  • Light skin allows enhanced formation of vitamin
    D3
  • Exception Inuit (Eskimos)
  • Selective breeding

106
Origin of Races Conclusions
  • The origin of the races was not thought to be
    important enough to put in the Bible
  • Biological changes required to produce human
    races are well within those possible through
    microevolutionary processes

107
Modern Humans Comparison of Models
108
Summary
  • Modern humans originated recently from a small
    population at a single geographic location
  • Modern culture and religious expression appeared
    suddenly and dramatically
  • Modern humans are not descended from Neandertal,
    H. erectus or any other identifiable bipedal
    hominid

109
Conclusions
  • Naturalistic explanations fail to explain the
    origin of modern man
  • Supernatural creation is a superior model for
    understanding mans origin
  • The races of man likely originated from selective
    breeding and not a supernatural act, although
    they may have been the indirect result of the
    scattering at the tower of Babel
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