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INTRODUCTION TO THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

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Title: INTRODUCTION TO THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY


1
TOPIC 1
  • INTRODUCTION TO THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

2
TOPIC 1INTRODUCTION TO THE HOSPITALITY
INDUSTRY
  • According to the Oxford Dictionary, hospitality
    means the reception and entertainment of guests,
    visitors or strangers with liberality and good
    will.
  • The word hospitality is derived from hospice
    (nursing home), a medieval house of rest for
    travelers and pilgrims.
  • Hospitality then includes hotels and restaurants.

3
  • Hospitality may be defined as meeting the needs
    of guests in a variety of establishments.
  • The hospitality Industry offers employment to
    people of differing personalities, background and
    skills through a wide diversity of type of
    outlets serving food and beverages.

4
Following are the FB that offered services to
the guests need.
  • Café usually offer teas, coffees, soft drink,
  • snack and often light meals.(eg.coffee bean,
    starbuck)
  • Cafeterias usually attached to institution such
    as museums or educational establishment sometimes
    recreational place. Usually offer light
    refreshment.
  • Food halls/ Food courts in the shopping mall,
    offer are light food to heavy food such as
    pastries, noodle, rice and drinks.

5
  • Public House the meals available range from
    simple bar snacks or sometimes informal
    restaurant style offering three course meal.
  • Casual dining restaurant (BISTROS) service
    provided usually casual dining and table service.
  • Ethnic restaurant offering culture experience
    offered to guests as well as the food.

6
  • Functions (receptions/banquet/conventions) the
    number of guests and the style of function can
    vary enormously so function demand extreme
    flexibility from both food management and service
    staff.
  • Fine dining restaurant offering comfortable or
    impressive ambience for the fine cuisine. Staff
    must be highly skilled.

7
  • 1.TRAVEL AND TOURISM SECTOR
  • Travel Agencies
  • Travel Wholesalers/Retailer
  • Transportation
  • Business, meeting convention
  • Recreation sport
  • Entertainment
  • Trade culture fairs, etc

8
  • 2. LODGING SECTOR
  • Hotels
  • Motels/budget hotels
  • Motor homes
  • Resorts/chalet
  • Condotels
  • Travel lodges
  • Residential suite
  • Rest houses,etc

9
  • 3. FOODSERVICE SECTOR
  • Hotel FB
  • Commercial foodservice
  • Institutional foodservices, etc
  • 4. ALLIED INDUSTRY
  • Educational and training institutions
  • Supermarkets
  • Vending machines

10
FOODSERVICE INDUSTRY
  • Defined as the art of supplying food and
    beverage services away from home or to the home
    but prepared elsewhere.
  • The National Restaurant Association (USA) divides
    the foodservice industry into two categories
  • 1. Commercial
  • 2. Noncommercial

11
  • However since 1993,Restaurants and Institutions
    (USA) no longer divided the industry into these
    categories because menu item and facility
    ambience choices between categories are almost
    nonexistent overseas.
  • In Malaysia, there are still obvious differences
    between the two categories of foodservice.
  • The term commercial and noncommercial are still
    used to indicate the degree of choice a customer
    has in selecting where to eat.

12
TYPES OF FOODSERVICE OPERATION
  • The foodservice industry can be classified into 2
    major groups
  • COMMERCIAL FOODSERVICES
  • INSTITUTIONAL FOODSERVICE

13
1. COMMERCIAL FOODSERVICES
  • A. EATING PLACES
  • Full-Service Restaurants
  • Limited Service (fast-food) Restaurants
  • Commercial Cafeterias
  • Social Caterers
  • Specialty Restaurants-ice cream, yogurt stands
  • Ethnic Restaurants
  • Food Courts

14
B. FOOD CONTRACTORS
  • Manufacturing and Industrial Plants
  • Commercial and Office Buildings
  • Hospitals
  • Colleges Universities/Primary Secondary
    Schools
  • In-transit Foodservice (airlines/railways)
  • Recreation and Sports Center

15
C. LODGING PLACES
  • Hotel Food and Beverage Outlets
  • Motel Restaurants
  • Retail-Host Restaurant
  • Recreation and Sport
  • Mobile Caterers
  • Vending and Nonstore Retailers

16
2. INSTITUTIONAL FOODSERVICE
  • A. EMPLOYEE FOODSERVICE
  • Staff canteens/cafeterias
  • B. GOVERNMENT NURSERIES, ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY
    BOARDING SCHOOLS
  • Subsidized foods for infants, toddlers, children,
    students in residential halls, boarding schools,
    hostels.

17
C. COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
  • Government/semi-government higher institutions
  • Student dining halls
  • In-house foodservices
  • Academic and non-academic staff cafeterias
  • INDUSTRIAL FOODSERVICE
  • In-house subsidized mass foodservice for employees

18
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS
  • District hospitals/healthcare centers
  • City/general hospitals
  • Staffs/nurses/doctors canteen
  • REHABILITATION CENTERS
  • Pusat Serenti/ Pusat Pemulihan Dadah
  • Prison Foodservice
  • Boys/Girls rehabilitation centers

19
GOVERNMENT NURSING HOMES AND HOMES FOR AGED,
BLIND,ORPHANS AND HOMES FOR THE RETARDED
  • Rumah anak-anak yatim
  • Rumah orang-orang tua
  • Rumah orang-orang cacat
  • Taman Bahagia, Pusat Penyakit Kusta- Sg.Buluh,
    Pusat TB.

20
CLUBS, SPORTING AND RECREATIONAL CAMPS
  • COMMUNITY CENTERS
  • MILITARY/ UNIFORMED FOODSERVICE
  • Officers and Open Mess
  • Airforce
  • Army Navy
  • Police
  • Fire Brigades

21
COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS
  • Three (3) basic commercial food service
    operations are
  • Independents
  • Chain Restaurants
  • Franchises

22
INDEPENDENTS
  • Owned by an owner or owners who have one or more
    properties that have no chain relationship.
  • Menus may not be identical among properties.
  • Food purchase specifications may differ,
    operating procedures are varied, etc.

23
CHAIN RESTAURANTS
  • Part of a multi-unit organization
  • Often share the same menu
  • Purchase supplies and equipment cooperatively.
  • Follow operating procedures that have been
    standardized for every restaurant in the chain
  • May be owned by a parent company, a franchise
    company or by a private owner or owners
  • Some chains are operated by a management company.

24
ADVANTAGES
  • Large chains can readily acquire cash, credit and
    long-term leases on land and buildings
  • Ability to experiment with different menus,
    themes, designs and operating procedures
  • Can afford staff specialists who are experts in
    finance, construction, operations and recipe
    development
  • Able to generate internal financial information
    that can be used as a basis of comparison among
    properties

25
DISADVANTAGES
  • Difficult to keep up with changing markets and
    economic conditions.
  • Involve a large amount of paperwork, rules and
    procedures that can slow them down.
  • Top management may lose motivation to keep up and
    what is best for the company might not always
    receive the highest priority.

26
FRANCHISES
  • A special category of chain operations
  • The franchisee (the owner of the franchise
    property) pay fees to
  • Use the name
  • Building design
  • Business methods of the franchiser (the franchise
    company)
  • The franchisee must agree to maintain the
    franchisors business and quality standards.

27
  • To initial franchise fees, the franchisee may be
    required to pay
  • Royalty fees assessed on the basis of a specified
    percentage of sales or other factors
  • Advertising costs, sign rental fees and other
    costs such as stationary and food products.

28
ADVANTAGES
  • Start-up assistance
  • Company-sponsored training programs for
    management staff and training resource materials
    for employees
  • National contributions toward local advertising
    campaigns

29
  • Higher sales because
  • more extensive advertising.
  • greater name recognition of the franchise chain.
  • the consistency of product and services among
    chain properties (guest know what to expect).
  • Lower food costs due to volume purchasing by the
    chain
  • Tested operating procedures which specify how
    things should be done.

30
DISADVANTAGES
  • The contract is generally very restrictive
  • The franchisee has little choice about
  • The style of operation
  • The product served
  • Services offered
  • Methods of operation
  • The menu might be set along with the décor,
    required furnishings and production equipment.

31
  • Since the franchise agreement is drawn up by the
    franchiser, the document generally favors the
    franchiser
  • The agreement may leave little to negotiate
  • This causes problems if there are disagreements
    between the two parties.

32
INSTITUTIONAL OPERATIONS
  • Traditionally, a large percentage of
    institutional food service operations have
    focused on nutrition and other non-economic
    factors.
  • Today, as pressures for cost containment
    accompany reduced income, there is a need to
    manage institutional food service operations as
    professional businesses.
  • Sometimes this is done by the institutions
    themselves.
  • Other institutions choose management companies to
    help them minimize costs.

33
MANAGEMENT COMPANIES
  • ADVANTAGES
  • Large nationwide management companies have
    greater resources to solves specific problems.
  • Can save money for institutions through effective
    negotiations with suppliers.
  • Can often operate institutional food service
    programs at a lower cost than the institutions
    can.
  • Institution administrators, trained in areas
    other than food service operations, can delegate
    food service responsibilities to professional
    food service managers.

34
DISADVANTAGES
  • Too much control in matters that affect the
    public image of the institution, long range
    operating plans and other important issues.
  • Some people may dislike having a profit-making
    business involved in the operation of a health
    care, educational or other institutional food
    service program
  • There may be concerns that a management company
    will decrease food and beverage quality.

35
  • The institutional operation may depend too much
    on the management company. What happens if the
    management company discontinues the contract? How
    long will it take discontinues the contract? How
    long will it take to implement a self-oriented
    program or find another management company?
  • Although management companies are usually hired
    to reduce operating costs, higher operating costs
    are also possible when management companies are
    used.

36
COMPARISONS BETWEEN COMMERCIAL INSTITUTIONAL
FOODSERVICE
37
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38
ORGANIZATION OF FOOD AND BEVERAGE OPERATION
  • PEOPLE IN FOOD SERVICE
  • Can be grouped into three (3) general categories
  • Managers
  • Production personnel
  • Service personnel

39
MANAGERS
  • There are three (3) levels of managers
  • Top managers
  • Middle managers
  • Supervisor
  • TOP MANAGER
  • Concerned with long-term plans and goals
  • Focus more than other managers on the business
    environment.
  • Watch for environmental opportunities and threats
    such as changes in strategy by competitors, a
    sluggish economy and so on.

40
MIDDLE MANAGERS
  • Are in the middle of the chain of command
  • Key positions through which communication flows
    up and down the organization.
  • Concerned with shorter-term goals and less
    concerned with large environmental issues
  • Supervise lower-level middle managers or
    supervisors.

41
PRODUCTION PERSONNEL
  • Concerned primarily with food production
  • Usually have little contact with the guests.
  • Typical production personnel include
  • Chefs
  • Cooks
  • Assistant cooks
  • Pantry-service assistants
  • Stewards
  • Storeroom
  • Receiving employees
  • Bakers

42
SERVICE PERSONNEL
  • Have a great deal of contact with guest
  • Perform a wide variety of functions and
    activities.
  • Service personnel include
  • Dining room managers
  • Host/Captains/Maitre ds
  • Food servers
  • Buspersons
  • Bartenders
  • Beverage servers
  • Cashiers/Checkers
  • Other service personnel

43
DINING ROOM MANAGER
  • At large properties, the dining room manager
    directly supervises an assistant (host)
  • Helps his or her assistant greet and supervise
    other service employees.
  • HOSTS/CAPTAINS/MAITRE DS
  • Directly supervise service employees.
  • Check all phases of dining room preparation.
  • Complete mise en place (to put everything in
    place)
  • Discuss menu specials
  • Expected regular guests
  • Anticipated total number of guests with servers
    and other service employees
  • May greet and help seat guests, present menus and
    take guest orders.

44
FOOD SERVERS
  • Serve food and beverages to guests.
  • Skills food servers need depend on the operation.
  • Guest service at table service restaurant is
    different from guest service at coffee shop.
  • BUSPERSONS
  • Setting up tables with proper appointments.
  • Removing dirty dishes, linens and so on from
    tables.
  • Also perform mise en place before the meal period
    begins and clean up afterwards.

45
BARTENDERS
  • Prepare mixed drinks and other alcoholic
    beverages
  • Serve them directly to guests or to their servers
  • BEVERAGE SERVERS
  • Provide food and beverage items to guests in
    lounge areas.
  • CASHIERS/CHECKERS
  • May take reservations
  • Total the price of food and beverages on guest
    checks and collect guest payments.

46
OTHER SERVICE PERSONNEL
  • EXPEDITER
  • During busy periods to help production and
    service personnel communicate
  • This person often a manager
  • Controls the process of turning in order and
    picking up food items
  • Can monitor production times
  • Resolve disputes about when an order came in
  • Coordinate the interaction among cooks and
    servers.

47
FOOD CHECKER
  • May assist in the transfer of food from
    production employees to food servers.
  • Help to control product quality and costs by
    examining each tray before it goes into the
    dining area.
  • Checking food for appearance and portion size.

48
TYPICAL STAFF STRUCTURE IN LARGE RESTAURANT
RESTAURANT MANAGER
HEAD WAITER/ SUPERVISOR
CAPTAIN/STATION HEAD WAITER
WINE WAITER
CAPTAIN
STATION WAITER
LOUNGE WAITER/ WAITER/WAITRESS
JUNIOR STATION WAITER
FOOL WAITER
ASSISTANT WAITER
APPRENTICE/ RUNNER
49
THE ROLE OF THE WAITER
  • As a waiter you must have a good knowledge of the
    product served, what they consist of and how they
    are presented.
  • Among the basic duties of a waiter are
  • Preparation and maintenance of the work area.
  • Maintaining good customer and staff relation.
  • Making recommendation and assisting guests making
    selection.
  • Order taking and recording.
  • Service and clearing of food and beverage.

50
CAREERS IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE
51
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52
TOPIC 2
  • FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE

53
TOPIC 2 FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE
  • Food and Beverage service has traditionally been
    seen as delivery system. The food service process
    actually consists of two processes, which are
    being managed albeit at the same time. There are
  • The operational sequence Delivery
  • The customer process Managing the customer
    experience

54
1. The operational sequence consists of seven
stages
  • Preparation for service
  • Taking orders
  • The service of food and drink
  • Billing
  • Clearing
  • Dishwashing
  • Clearing following service

55
1. Preparation for service
  • Taking order
  • Table setting
  • Mise en place
  • 2. Taking order
  • Duplicate
  • order taken and copied to supply point.
  • second copy retained for service.
  • Triplicate
  • copied to supply point, cashier for billing and
    retained for service.

56
3. The services of food and drink
  • technical skill and product knowledge should
    well developed.
  • 4. Billing
  • Bill as check- cash
  • Prepaid- customer has credit issued by third
    party.
  • No charge- customer not paying.
  • Credit card

57
5. Clearing
  • Semi self clear- customers place the soiled ware
    on strategic place trolley within the dining
    for removal by operators.
  • Self clear- on a conveyor or conveyorized tray,
    collecting system for mechanical transportation
    to the dish wash area.
  • Self-clear and strip- into conveyorized dishwash
    baskets for direct entry of the basket through
    dishwash.

58
6. Dishwashing
  • 7. Clearing following sequence
  • collecting linen, check quantities, equipment,
    empty coffee pot and milk jug and so on.

59
2. The Customer process Managing the customer
experience
  • Four basic processes can be identified based on
    what the customer has to be involved in.
  • Service at a laid cover
  • Part service at a laid cover and part self
    service
  • Self service
  • Service at a single point (ordering, receipt of
    order and payment)
  • All these processes, the customer comes to where
    the food and beverage service is offered and the
    service is provided in area primarily designed
    for the purpose.

60
  • E. Specialized service or service in situ
  • Process where the customer receives the service
    in another location and where the area is not
    primarily designed for the purpose.

61
GROUP A TABLE SERVICE
  • Service to customer at a laid cover
  • 1. Waiter
  • English service
  • Family service
  • American service
  • French service
  • Russian service
  • Gueridon service
  • 2. Bar counter- service to customer seated at bar
    counter

62
English service
  • Quantities of foods are placed in bowls or on
    platters to be passed around the table.
  • The food is brought to the table by servers and
    guests then pass the food around the table,
    helping themselves to the amounts they desire.
  • Some operations use family service when featuring
    family-oriented themes.

63
Family service
  • Serving dishes are placed on the dining table,
    allowing the guests to select and serve
    themselves.
  • Enables the guests to select only what they
    require.
  • Often offered in addition to plate service for
    example main item may be plate-served and the
    guests left to help themselves to vegetables or
    salad.

64
  • c) American service
  • Food is prepared and dishes onto individual plate
    in the kitchen, carried into the dining room and
    serve to guests.
  • d) Russian
  • Food is cooked in the kitchen, cut, placed onto a
    serving dish and beautifully garnished.
  • The dish then is presented to the guests and
    served individually by lifting the food onto
    guests plate with serving spoon and fork.

65
  • e) French service
  • Many food items are partly or completely prepared
    at tableside, which the preparation of the food
    is completed on a gueridon table beside the
    guests seats.
  • f) Gueridon service
  • Gueridon means a trolley (or side table) used
    for the service or preparation of foods in the
    dining environments.

66
  • GROUP B
  • Combination of table service and self-service
  • GROUP C SELF-SERVICE
  • Self-service of customers
  • 4. Cafeteria

67
GROUP D SINGLE POINT SERVICE
  • Service of customers at a single
    point-consumed on premises or taken away.
  • 5. Take away
  • Customer orders and is served from single point
    at counter, customer consumes off the premises.
  • Drive-thru form of take away where customer
    drives vehicles past order, payment and
    collection points.
  • Fast food customer receives a complete meal,
    offering limited range menu, fast service with
    take away facility.

68
  • 6. Vending provision of food service and
    beverage service by means of automatic
    retailing.
  • 7. Kiosks outstation to provide service for
    peak demand or in specific location.
  • 8. Food court series of autonomous counters
    where customer may either order and eat or buy
    from a number of counters or eat in separate
    eating area or take away.
  • 9. Bar describe selling point and consumption
    area in licensed premises.

69
GROUP E SPECIALIZED
  • Service to customer in area not primarily
    designed for service.
  • Tray whole or part of meal on tray to customer
    in situ. (Hospitals, aircraft).
  • Trolley service of food and beverage from
    trolley away from dining areas (aircraft or on
    train)
  • Home delivery food delivered to customers home
    or place of work.

70
  • Lounge variety of food and beverage in lounge
    area.
  • Room variety of food and beverage in guest
    apartments or meeting room.
  • Drive-in customers park motor vehicle and are
    served at the vehicles.

71
Customer process
  • The effects of variation in the five customer
    service characteristic and the resource
    utilization can be considered as follows.
  • Service Types
  • Availability- whether the food that they order
    available or not.
  • Level of service method of service, speed of
    service, accept credit card or not.
  • Reliability serve the customer properly or not.
  • Flexibility of the service.

72
SIMPLE CATEGORIZATION OF THE FOOD AND BEVERAGE
SERVICE PROCESS
73
TOPIC 3
  • THE MENU

74
TOPIC 3THE MENU
  • The menu dictates
  • How your operation will be organized and managed.
  • The extent to which it will meets goals.
  • How the building itself (interior) should be
    designed and constructed.

75
For guests
  • The menu is much more than just a list of
    available foods.
  • Communicates the operations image by helping to
    set a mood and build interest and excitement.
  • For production employees
  • Dictates what foods must be prepared.
  • The tasks of service employees are also
    influenced by what items are offered on the menu.

76
  • For managers
  • Menu is the chief in-house marketing and sales
    tool.
  • Tells them what food and beverages must be
    purchased.
  • Types of equipment they have to have.
  • The number of workers they must hire
  • The skill level of those workers.

77
MENU SCHEDULES
  • A) Fixed menu
  • Single menu is used daily.
  • Work best at restaurants and other food service
    establishment.
  • Where there are enough items listed on the menu
    to offer.

78
  • B) Cycle menu
  • One that changes every day for a certain period
    of days, then the cycle is repeated.
  • Provide variety for guests who eat at an
    operation frequently or even daily (Institutional
    operations such as schools and hospitals).
  • Cycles range from a week to four weeks.
  • If cycle is too short, the menus repeat too often
    and guests may become dissatisfied.
  • If cycle is too long, production and labor costs
    involved in purchasing, storing and preparing the
    greater variety of foods may be excessive.

79
TYPES OF MENUS
  • Menus can also be categorized by type.
  • Three basic types of menus are
  • Breakfast
  • Lunch
  • Dinner
  • There are also a large number of specialty menus
    designed to appeal to a specific guest group or
    meet a specific marketing need.
  • The types of menus will depend on the
  • Number of meals it serves
  • The type of operation it is

80
Breakfast
  • Breakfast menu items are simple, fast and
    inexpensive.
  • To keep prices down and make quick service
    possible, the most breakfast menus are relatively
    limited, offering only the essential breakfast
    menu items.

81
Lunch
  • Guests are usually in a hurry.
  • Therefore, lunch menus also easy and quick to
    make.
  • Sandwiches, soups and salads are important in
    many lunch menus.
  • Most lunch menus offer specials everyday and
    printed on a separate piece of paper and clipped
    onto the lunch menu.
  • Usually lighter than dinner because most guests
    do not want to feel filled up and sleepy during
    the afternoon.

82
Dinner
  • The menu items offered at dinner are heavier and
    more elaborate than those offered at breakfast or
    lunch
  • Guest are willing to pay more for dinner.
  • They also expect
  • A greater selection of menu items
  • Place a greater premium on service, atmosphere
    and décor.

83
Specialty
  • From poolside menus to menus for afternoon teas.
  • Example
  • Childrens
  • Senior citizens
  • Alcoholic beverage
  • Dessert
  • Room service
  • Take out
  • Banquet
  • Ethnic

84
MENU PLANNING
  • When the menu has been properly planned
  • Work will flow more smoothly
  • Guests will be served more effectively
  • Profits will be greater
  • Menu planning consists selecting new menu
    items for an existing menu.

85
How does a menu planner go about making these
selection?
  • Know your guests
  • What kind of guests?
  • Are they willing to pay for a meal?
  • What do your guests want to eat and drink?
  • When menu items are selected, the
    preferences of guests must be considered.

86
GUEST PREFERENCES
  • By interviewing guests
  • Reading surveys
  • Comment cards
  • Trade journals
  • Studying production and sales records

87
  • Knowing your operation
  • Type of operation helps determine what
    kinds of menu items are appropriate.
  • Five(5) components of your operation have a
    direct impact on what kinds of menu items can be
    offered
  • Theme or cuisine
  • Equipment
  • Personnel
  • Quality standards
  • Budget

88
MENU PRICING STYLES
  • Three basic categories of menu are
  • Table dhote
  • A la carte
  • Combination table dhote/ a la carte

89
TABLE DHOTE
  • Pronounced as tobble dote
  • Offers a complete meal for one price
  • Sometimes called prix fixe (pree feeks)
  • Prix fixe is French for fixed price.
  • Example Set menu

90
A LA CARTE
  • Offer choices in each course
  • Item is individually priced and charged
  • Item are cooked to order
  • The prices of the menu items they select are
    added together to determine the cost of the meal.

91
  • COMBINATION
  • Many operations have menus that are a combination
    of the table dhote and a la carte pricing styles
  • Example Chinese and other ethnic-food restaurants

92
SELECTING MENU ITEMS
  • Can be categorized as
  • Appetizers
  • Salads
  • Entrees
  • Starch item (potatoes,rice,pasta)
  • Vegetables
  • Desserts
  • Beverages

93
  • APPETIZERS
  • Include fruit or tomato juice, cheese, fruit and
    seafood items such as shrimp cocktail
  • To enliven the appetite before dinner
  • Generally small in size and spicy or pleasantly
    biting or tart.

94
SOUPS
  • Sometimes a soup du jour is listed (du jour
    means of the day)
  • Soup offered are determined by type of operation
  • Seafood restaurant usually offer soups like
  • Clam chowder
  • Shrimp
  • Lobster bisque
  • Italian restaurants often have minestrone soup
  • ENTREES
  • What kinds of entrees to offer beef, pork, fish,
    entrée salads, etc.
  • Must consider methods of preparation

95
STARCH / VEGETABLES
  • Sometime is part of the entrée-sirloin tips in
    gravy served over rice.
  • Sometime is separate-a baked potato or side dish
    of pasta.
  • In many restaurant, vegetables is served with
    entrée but can also be offered as side dishes.

96
SALADS
  • The first decision a planner must make about
    salads is whether they will be strictly side
    dishes or offered as entrees
  • Salad entrees chicken salad, shrimp salad or
    chefs salad.
  • Side-dish salads tossed salad, coleslaw, potato
    salad, fruit salad and cottage cheese salad.
  • DESSERTS
  • Typically high-profit items.
  • Low-calorie can be offered for the
    health-conscious.

97
BEVERAGES
  • Non alcoholic beverages are often listed at the
    end of the menu
  • If an operation offers alcoholic beverages, how
    many beverages will be included.
  • Based on guest preferences, the restaurants
    image, beverage inventory cost, space and other
    factors.

98
COMMON MENU-DESIGN MISTAKES
  • Menu is too small
  • Type is too small
  • No descriptive copy
  • Every item treated the same
  • Some of the operations food and beverages are
    not listed
  • Clip-on problems
  • Basic information about the property and its
    policies are not included
  • Blank pages

99
EVALUATING MENUS
  • To determine how well menu items are selling
  • Production records
  • Sales history records

100
MENU BALANCE
  • Once all the menu items have been selected for
    the menu, the menu should be reviewed for
    business, aesthetic and nutritional balance.
  • Business balance the balance between food costs,
    menu prices, the popularity of items and other
    financial and marketing considerations.
  • Aesthetic balance the degree to which meals have
    been constructed with an eye to the colors,
    textures, and flavors of foods.
  • Nutritional balance more important for
    institutional food service operations than for
    commercial properties.

101
MENU DESIGN
  • A well-designed menu complements
  • A restaurants overall theme
  • Blends in with the interior décor
  • Communicates with guests
  • Helps sell the operation and its menu items
  • Menu design depends on the type of operation.

102
COPY
  • After selected the menu items, copy must be
    written.
  • The appropriateness of menu copy depends on
  • The operation
  • Its guests
  • The meal period

103
  • Copy of childrens menus should be entertaining.
  • Copy on lunch menus should be brief and to the
    point.
  • Copy on dinner menus can be more descriptive.
  • Menu copy can be divided into 3 elements
  • Headings
  • Descriptive copy for menu items
  • Supplemental merchandising copy

104
HEADING
  • Major heads, subheads and names of menu items.
  • Major heads Appetizers, Soups, Entrees, etc.
  • Subheads under the main heading ENTRÉE could be
    Steak, Seafood and Todays Special.
  • Keep menu items names simple so that guests are
    not confused.
  • Rules of grammar should be followed for the
    language that is used,

105
DESCRIPTIVE COPY
  • Informs guests about menu items and helps
    increase sales.
  • Descriptive copy included
  • Menu items main ingredient
  • Important secondary ingredients
  • Method of preparation
  • The description should not be a recipe.
  • Most entrées are high-profit items and they
    usually get the most copy.
  • Specialties of the house deserve extra copy,
    since they help define an operations character
    and appeal.

106
SUPPLEMENTAL MERCHANDISING COPY
  • Copy on the menu that is devoted to subjects
    other than the menu items.
  • Includes basic information of
  • Address
  • Telephone number
  • Days and hours of operation
  • Meals served
  • Reservations and payment policies, etc.
  • Can be also entertaining a history of the
    restaurant, a statement about managements
    commitment to guest service or even poetry.

107
LAYOUT
  • The menu must be organized into a layout-a rough
    sketch of how the finished menu will look.
  • Layout includes
  • Listing menu items in the right sequence
  • Placing the menu items names and descriptive
    copy on the page
  • Determining the menus format
  • Choosing the right typeface and the right paper
  • Integrating artwork into the menu.

108
SEQUENCE
  • A meal has beginning, middle and an end.
  • Appetizers and soups listed first, entrees next
    and desserts last
  • Those items that are most popular or are most
    profitable are typically listed first so guest
    can find them easily.

109
PLACEMENT
  • Draw a rough sketch of the menu with boxes or
    series of horizontal lines to represent the
    approximate space the descriptive copy for each
    menu items will take up.
  • Should be careful not to make the menu too
    crowded.
  • FORMAT
  • Refers to menus size, shape and general makeup.

110
TYPEFACE
  • Refers to the style of the menus printed
    letters.
  • Never set menu copy in type that is smaller than
    12-point.
  • In general, type should be dark color printed on
    light-colored paper for easy reading.
  • Should be reflect the operations personality.

111
ARTWORK
  • Includes drawings, photographs, decorative
    patterns and borders.
  • Used to attract interest, highlight menu copy or
    reinforce the operations image
  • Should fit in with the interior design or overall
    decorative scheme of the restaurant.
  • PAPER
  • Differs in strength, opacity (the amount of
    transparency) and ink receptivity
  • The right paper for the menu depends in part on
    how often the menu will be used.

112
COVER
  • A well-designed cover communicates the images,
    style, cuisine, even the price range of the
    operation
  • The name of the restaurant is all the copy the
    cover needs.
  • Colors on the cover should either blend in or
    contrast pleasantly with the color scheme of the
    restaurant.
  • Colors must be chosen with care because colors
    produce many conscious and subconscious effects.

113
TOPIC 4
  • THE MEAL EXPERIENCE

114
TOPIC 4 THE MEAL EXPERIENCE
  • The meal experience may defined as a series of
    events- both tangible and intangible.
  • The main part of the experience begins when
    customers enter a restaurant and ends when they
    leave.
  • Those tangible FOOD AND DRINK
  • Those intangible SERVICE,ATMOSPHERE,
  • MOOD, ETC.

115
GENERAL FACTORS AFFECTING A CUSTOMERS CHOICE OF
MEAL EXPERIENCE
  • SOCIAL A social occasion
  • BUSINESS The more important and valued the
    business, the more expensive and up-market will
    be the restaurant.
  • CONVENIENCE and TIME Convenient because of its
    location or because of its speed of service.
  • ATMOSPHERE and SERVICE The atmosphere,
    cleanliness and hygiene of certain types of
    catering facilities and the social skills of the
    service staff.
  • PRICE The price level of an operation.
  • THE MENU May appear interesting or adventurous
    or have been recommended, enabling customers to
    enjoy a different type of meal from that cooked
    at home.

116
EATING OUT
  • Valuable data for all caterers
  • An analysis of who eats out and frequency that
    they do.
  • The actual reason given by customers for eating
    out.
  • Types of catering establishments that the public
    choose to eat out.

117
BASIC INFORMATION SHOULD PROVIDE
  • Sufficient data to aid decision-making.
  • Accurate and up-to-date consumers profiles, so
    that able to meet the requirements of the
    consumer.
  • Competitive analysis, so that an organization can
    in part measure its own performance
  • Research should always be ongoing and not just of
    an occasional nature.

118
FOOD AND DRINK
  • The type of food and drink that people choose to
    consume away from home depends on a number of
    factors which are of particular concern to
    customers. They include
  • The choice of food and drink available whether
    the menu is limited or extensive, the operation
    revolves around one particular product or varied
    choice.
  • The quality of the product offered fresh or
    convenience foods.
  • The quantity of the product offered portion
    sizes.

119
  • The consistent standards of the product.
  • The range of tastes, textures, aromas and colors
    offered by a food dish or drink.
  • The food and drink are served at correct
    temperatures.
  • The presentation of the food and drink enhances
    the product offered.
  • The price and perceived value for money
  • The quality of the total meal experience matches
    or even enhances the expectations of the guests.

120
VARIETY IN MENU CHOICE
  • The menu choice offered by a restaurant is
    dependent on
  • The price the customer is willing to pay.
  • The amount of time available for meal experience.
  • The level of the market in which the restaurant
    is situated and consequently.
  • The types of customer likely to frequent that
    type of operation.

121
The choice of menu from the caterers point of
view
  • The production and service facilities available.
  • The skills of the staff.
  • Availability of commodities.
  • Potential profitability of the menu.

122
LEVEL OF SERVICE
  • The higher the cost of the meal to the customer,
    the more service the customer expects to receive.
  • The actual service of the food and beverages to
    the customer may be described as the direct
    service.
  • Part of the restaurants total service is also
    composed of indirect services for example
    provision of cloakroom facilities, availability
    of a telephone for customer use and so on.

123
PRICE AND VALUE FOR MONEY
  • Customers will frequent a restaurant not only
    because of its food and service but also because
    they feel the price they are paying represents
    value for money.
  • ATMOSPHERE AND MOOD
  • Often described as an intangible feel inside a
    restaurant.
  • Include the décor and interior design of the
    restaurant
  • The table and seating arrangements

124
  • The service accompaniments
  • The dress and attitude of the staff
  • The tempo of service
  • The age, the dress and sex of the other customers
  • The sound levels in the restaurant
  • The temperature of the restaurant, bars and
    cloakrooms
  • Overall cleanliness of the environment
  • The professionalism of the staff.

125
INTERIOR DESIGN
  • The first impression of the restaurant is very
    important.
  • Composed of many different aspects
  • The size and shape of the room
  • The furniture and fittings
  • The color scheme
  • Lighting
  • Air conditioning and so on
  • The color scheme should blend and balance and be
    enhanced by lighting arrangement, table and
    chairs.

126
EXPECTATION AND IDENTIFICATION
  • Arriving at a restaurant for a meal bring a
    series of expectations regarding that restaurant
  • The type of service they will receive
  • The price they will pay
  • The expected atmosphere and mood of the
    restaurant and so on.
  • A customer has different needs and expectations
    on different meal occasions and similarly at
    different times of the day.

127
LOCATION AND ACCESSIBILITY
  • Services which are not appropriately located may
    not be performed at all.
  • Customers arriving by car will expect adequate
    car parking facilities.
  • If customers have to travel by public transport,
    the operation should be well served by buses,
    trains or taxis.

128
FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE EMPLOYEES
  • Staff employed by restaurant operation should
    complement the meal experience of the customers.
  • They are able to do this in variety of ways
  • Their social skills.
  • Their age and sex.
  • Their uniform.
  • The tempo of their service and so on.

129
  • The production of the right product. The meal
    experience begins with basic marketing questions
    of who are our customers and what do they want.
  • Caterers are able to determine their position in
    their market and offer the right product at the
    right price for the identified market segments.

130
TRENDS IN EATING OUT
  • General trends in eating out include the
    following
  • An increase in interest in healthy eating by the
    general public.
  • An increase in awareness of hygiene and
    cleanliness.
  • An increase in the demand for vegetarian foods,
    particularly by young people.
  • A decline in the general demand for red meats
    with an increase in demand for white meats, fish
    and pasta.

131
  • A growing demand for organically produced fresh
    foods with a resistance to foods containing
    artificial additives, flavourings and colourings.
  • An increase in demand for spicy type foods.
  • An increase in the demand for no smoking zones in
    restaurants.

132
TOPIC 5
  • STYLE / TYPES OF SERVICE

133
TOPIC 5 STYLE / TYPES OF SERVICE
  • Introduction
  • There are many different approaches to serving
    food. For example
  • TABLE SERVICE
  • BUFFET SERVICE
  • CAFETERIA SERVICE
  • OTHER TYPES OF SERVICE
  • An operation should use a service style or a
    combination of service styles that best satisfies
    its guests wants and needs.

134
TABLE SERVICE
  • Traditional table service provides service for
    guests who are seated at tables.
  • There are four(4) common styles of table service
  • AMERICAN SERVICE
  • ENGLISH SERVICE
  • FRENCH SERVICE
  • RUSSIAN SERVICE

135
AMERICAN SERVICE
  • Simplified version of Russian service.
  • Food is prepared and dished on to individual
    plate in the kitchen, carried into the dining
    room and served to guests.
  • More popular because it is quicker and guests
    receive the food while its still hot and
    beautifully presented.
  • The food is presented on the right side of the
    guests and plates are cleared on the left side of
    the guests
  • Can be simple and casual or complex and elegant.

136
ENGLISH SERVICE
  • Much like service at home.
  • Quantities of foods are placed in bowls or on
    platters to be passed around the table.
  • The food is brought to the table by servers who
    present the food to the guests.
  • The guests then pass the food around the table,
    helping themselves to the amount they desire.
  • This types of service is often used in homes
    during holidays such as Thanksgiving and
    Christmas.

137
FRENCH SERVICE
  • Many food items are partly or completely prepared
    at tableside.
  • The food is attractively arranged on platter and
    presented to guests after which the preparation
    of the food is completed on a gueridon table
    beside the guests seats.
  • Gueridon means a trolley (or side table) used
    for the service or preparation of foods in the
    dining environments.
  • This is the most expensive and impressive form of
    service and it requires experienced employees.

138
  • Employs three servers working together to serve
    the meal and may include a captain to seat guests
    and wine steward to serve wine.
  • Chef de Rang ( Station server)
  • In charge of service for approximately four
    tables
  • Greet guests, describe and take menu orders
  • Supervises service and completes the preparation
    of some dishes on the gueridon and carves, slices
    or de-bones dishes for guest.

139
  • Demi Chef de Rang ( Assistant Station server)
  • Assists the Chef de Rang, takes beverage orders
    and serves food.
  • Commis de Rang ( Food server in training)
  • Assist the Demi de Rang with serving water, bread
    and butter, serving and cleaning of plates,
    taking orders to the kitchen and bringing the
    food to the restaurant.
  • Advantages guests receive a great deal of
  • attention and the
    service is
  • extremely elegant.
  • Disadvantages -fewer guests may be served,
  • -more space is
    necessary for service.
  • -many highly
    professional servers are
  • required.
  • -service is
    time-consuming.

140
RUSSIAN SERVICE
  • Food is cooked in the kitchen, cut, placed onto a
    serving dish and beautifully garnished.
  • To serve, the server places a heated plate before
    each guest from the right side, going around the
    table clockwise.
  • The dish then is presented to the guests and
    served individually by lifting the food onto
    guests plate with serving spoon and fork.

141
  • Advantages
  • Only one server is needed and that this service
    is as elegant as French service, faster and less
    expensive.
  • Disadvantages
  • Large investment in silverware and the number of
    platters needed.
  • The last guest served at the table must be served
    from the less well displayed food remaining.

142
BUFFET SERVICE
  • Guests select their meal from an attractive
    arrangement of food on long tables.
  • The guest either helps themselves or is served by
    services staff behind the buffet tables.
  • Plates, flatware and other necessary items are
    conveniently located.
  • Sometimes used for banquets in combination with
    limited table service usually for beverages.

143
CAFETERIA SERVICE
  • Guests advance through serving lines, selecting
    their food items as they go and pay for their
    meals at the end of the counter.
  • The most expensive or hardest-to-serve food items
    are usually portioned by service staff.
  • However, cafeteria service is similar to buffet
    service, guest help themselves to items on
    display.

144
OTHER TYPES OF SERVICE
  • Fast-food service, deli service, counter service,
    banquet service and tray service are among the
    others.
  • Fast-food service
  • Offer seating as well as drive-through and
    take-out services
  • Service is limited to taking the guests orders
    and giving the food to the guests on trays or in
    carry-out sacks or cartons.
  • Deli service
  • Take-out service may offer limited seating at
    tables or at counter.

145
  • Counter service
  • Often found in bars, lounges, snack shops and
    coffee shops.
  • Banquet service
  • Can accommodate any size group ranging from a
    dozen to an unlimited number of guests.
  • The menu, number of guests and time of service
    are predetermined and well organized in advance.
  • The menu can be limited and served quickly or may
    consist of several courses, elaborately presented
    and served.
  • Water and coffee are replenished periodically.

146
  • Tray service
  • Associated with institutional food service.
  • Meal are plated, put on trays, kept hot or cold
    in special transport carts ad moved from
    preparation/plating areas to service areas as
    needed.

147
PROVIDING AN ENJOYABLE EXPERIENCE FOR GUESTS
  • Standard Operating Procedure
  • Each operation should set its own policies and
    standard operating procedures.
  • They detail exactly what must be done and how it
    should be done
  • Managers cannot rely on employees common sense
    to do the right thing at the right time.
  • Performance standards that are measurable and
    observable should be tied to each operating
    procedure.
  • Performance standards help managers and employees
    determine whether procedures are being performed
    correctly.

148
Guest Service Training
  • The old saying the guest is always right still
    applies and that is the attitude that servers
    should convey.
  • What is needed to improve service in many
    operations is not expensive equipment or an
    elaborate atmosphere but a genuine concern for
    guests and the use of consistent service
    procedures.
  • Training service staff to properly welcome and
    serve guests is one of the chief responsibilities
    of dining room or food and beverage managers.

149
  • Training service staff to properly welcome and
    serve guests is one of the chief responsibilities
    of dining room or food and beverage managers.
  • Service staff must be polite, properly groomed
    and have a genuine interest in helping guests
    enjoy the dining experience.

150
Teamwork
  • Teamwork between service and production employees
    is a must.
  • Builds morale and esprit de corps- a spirit of
    cooperation that guests recognize and appreciate
    and one that makes everyones job easier and more
    enjoyable.

151
A SERVICE SEQUENCE
  • In the service sequence that follows, all serving
    activities are performed by servers.
  • The sequence begins after guests have been
    seated
  • Greet and seat the guests.
  • Open the napkins.
  • Offer iced water.
  • Take order for aperitifs.
  • Serves the bread and butter.
  • Offer the menu and suggests specials and inform
    the guests of variations to the menu.

152
  • Allow time for the guests to make their choices.
  • Take the food order up to and including the main
    course.
  • Offer the wine list.
  • Transfer the food order to the kitchen and
    cashier dockets and place the order with the
    kitchen.
  • Take the wine order.
  • Serve the wine.
  • Correct the covers, up to and including the main
    course.
  • Serve the first course.

153
  • Clear the first course.
  • Top up wines and open fresh bottles as ordered.
  • Serve additional starter courses.
  • Clear the course preceding the main course.
  • Call away the main course.
  • Serve the salad.
  • Serve the main course.
  • Enquire (after the guests have had the
    opportunity to taste the food) whether the meals
    are satisfactory.
  • Clear the main course.

154
  • Clear the side plates, salad plates and butter
    dishes.
  • Check and if necessary, change ashtrays. (If
    ashtrays are being use, they should be changed
    regularly throughout the meal, especially just
    before food is served.)
  • Offer hot or cold towels.
  • Offer the wine list for the selection of dessert
    wines (or if the guests prefer it, continue to
    serve the wine selected earlier)
  • Offer the menu for dessert, suggesting specials
    and inform the guests of variations to the menu.
  • Take dessert or cheese order.

155
  • Transfer the dessert order to the kitchen and
    cashier dockets and place the order with the
    kitchen.
  • Correct the covers.
  • Serve the dessert wines or other beverages
    selected.
  • Serve the dessert or cheese course.
  • Take the order for coffee/tea. ( the coffee/ tea
    may be served with the dessert/cheese if
    requested by the guest or as a separate service).
  • Transfer the coffee/tea order to the cashier
    docket.

156
  • Take the after-dinner drinks order.
  • Correct the cover.
  • Serve the after-dinner drinks.
  • Serve the coffee/tea.
  • Serve the petit fours.
  • Prepare the bill.
  • Offer additional coffee/tea.
  • Present the bill when it is requested.
  • Accept payment and tender change.
  • Offer additional coffee/tea.
  • See the guests out of the restaurant.

157
TOPIC 6
  • BEVERAGE EQUIPMENT AND SERVICE KNOWLEDGE

158
TOPIC 6 BEVERAGE EQUIPMENT AND
SERVICE KNOWLEDGE
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Beverages are as important as the food in the
    dining experience.
  • They should therefore be given as careful
    attention as the food when they are being
    prepared and served.
  • Beverage Equipment Identification
  • The service of beverages requires a wide range of
    equipment.
  • The types of equipment used will vary depending
    on
  • The tasks to be performed.
  • The type of establishment.

159
GLASSWARE
  • When selecting glassware, management will take
    various factors into account such as
  • Size
  • Shape
  • Ease of handling and washing
  • Durability
  • Price
  • Appropriate to the style of the establishment and
    its menu.

160
Service Equipment
  • Many specialist devices and types of equipment
    have produced over the years to
  • help the waiter with the extraction of corks.
  • the carrying of drink.
  • cooling of beverages.
  • The waiters friend is the recognized device
    used by waiters to extract corks.

161
Preparation and Maintenance of Equipment
  • The exact procedures to be adopted for the
    service of beverages will depend on the
  • Type of establishment
  • The styles of service offered
  • The availability of service station areas.
  • Pre-service duties will include
  • Cleaning and polishing glassware
  • Service station mise-en-place
  • Preparation of ice buckets
  • Handling and placing of equipment.

162
Cleaning and polishing glassware
  • Even when glassware are hygienically washed and
    sterilized by the high temperature of washing
    cycle in commercial dishwasher, it is still
    necessary to polish all glassware by hand before
    it is placed on the table or used to serve
    drinks.
  • A lint-free polishing cloth should be used to
    polish glasses and make sure they are spotlessly
    clear.

163
Service station mise-en-place
  • Efficient service requires careful prior
    preparation of the service equipment.
  • In some establishments this is done on a special
    piece of furniture in the dining room known as
    the drink waiters station.
  • Supplies and equipment required for beverage
    service are
  • - Glassware - Ashtrays
  • - Drink trays - Service
    clothes
  • - Wine lists - Docket books
  • - Table-napkins - Wine coolers
  • - Straws - Ice buckets
  • - Toothpicks
  • - Matches

164
Wine coolers and ice buckets
  • Ice buckets are used to keep wine and sparkling
    wines cool in more formal and usually more
    expensive restaurants.
  • Simple insulated wine coolers sometimes placed on
    the table are used in less formal establishments.
  • Ice buckets, when required for use should be half
    filled with
  • Mixture of crushed ice (two-thirds)
  • Cold water (one-third)
  • The water allows the bottle to sink into the ice
    instead of balancing on top of it.
  • The bucket may be placed in a tripod stand.

165
Beverage Lists
  • Divide the various different types of beverage
    into separate lists.
  • This will helps guests to find and select the
    beverages they require more speedily.
  • Possible lists may include
  • Cocktail list
  • Drink list (includes aperitifs, beers, spirits
    and non-alcoholic drinks)
  • Wine list
  • After-dinner drinks list (liqueurs, ports,
    brandies)
  • Liqueur coffee list

166
The wine list
  • Wine lists are usually divided into wines of
    different types, for example
  • White table wines
  • Red table wines
  • Champagne and sparkling wines
  • Dessert wines

167
Handling and Placement of Equipment
  • All glassware should be handled by the stem or
    base of the glass.
  • When glasses are being moved in the presence of
    guests, they should always be carried on a
    beverage tray.
  • Before the guests arrival, when the tables are
    being laid, several glasses may be held upside
    down in one hand with their stems between ones
    fingers.

168
Placing of glasses
  • If a single glass is being laid at a dining
    table, it should be placed 2.5cm above the main
    knife.
  • If more than one glass is placed on the table,
    the glasses are positioned in a line at an angle
    of 45 in the order in which they will be required.

169
Food and Beverage Coordination
  • The food waiter and the wine waiter must
    communicate if they are to provide a
    co-coordinated sequential service.
  • The sequence of service requires both food and
    beverages to be served at the appropriate times
    throughout the meal without interfering with each
    other.

170
Key points in food and beverage service
coordination
  • Before the menu is presented, guests are offered
    an aperitif (pre-dinner drink) to stimulate the
    appetite.
  • Because the wines are selected to complement the
    food chosen, the wine list is usually presented
    after the food order has been taken.

171
  • The wine selected to accompany each course is
    served just prior to the food in that course. It
    is usual to serve
  • White wines before red
  • Dry wines before sweet
  • Young wines before old
  • What wines are chosen and in what order is up to
    the guest, the right wine is what t
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